Test Your EQ (Engineering Quotient)

# EQ #73

When designing a pair of band-splitting filters (for, say, an audio crossover), why is it important to match frequencies of the –3-dB points of the low-pass and high-pass responses?

The cutoff frequencies of the two filters should be the same so that the overall frequency response when the filter outputs are recombined is flat and has no phase shift. For example, if you feed the cutoff frequency into both filters and then combine the results again, the output will be the same level as the input (0-dB overall gain). As long as the “order” of the two filters is the same (they have the same roll-off slope), the gain will be flat across the entire transition band of frequencies.

What’s really going on is this: A filter’s –3-dB point is where the output has half the power of the input signal, which means that the output voltage is 1/sqrt(2) times the input voltage. The –3-dB point is also where the output signal is phase shifted by 45°. It lags by 45° in the low-pass filter and leads by 45° in the high-pass filter. This means that the outputs of the two filters have a total phase shift of 90° relative to each other.

When you add two sinewaves that have the same amplitude and a 90° phase shift, you don’t get double the voltage. You get sqrt{2} times the voltage. You also get a waveform that has a phase midway between the two signals being added.

So, the final amplitude is sqrt{2}/sqrt{2} times the original input voltage, and the final phase is midway between 45° and –45°, or 0°.

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## EQ #73

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 1 min