A certain portable stereo unit runs for about 12 h on a set of LR20 (D-size alkaline) batteries. If you want to extend the stereo’s run-time, is it better to simply use multiple sets of batteries sequentially, or to connect them all in series-parallel to create one big battery pack?
In general, batteries provide greater capacity at lower average currents. This is partly due to the battery’s internal chemistry, but largely due to the simple fact that less power is wasted in the internal resistance of the battery.
Here are two graphs taken from two different datasheets that illustrate this.
If the stereo is running for 12 h on a set of batteries, based on eyeballing these graphs, it’s probably getting about 8 A-h of capacity out of one set, so it’s drawing about 660 mA on average. Putting three sets of batteries in parallel would drop the current in each set to about 220 mA, and it will get something closer to 12 A-h from each set.
In other words, if you use, say, three sets of batteries sequentially, you’ll get 36 h of playing time (24 A-h total), but if you use them in parallel together, you’ll get something closer to 54 h of playing time (36 A-h total).