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DIY 4-Legged Robot Based on Arduino Built From Scratch

Written by Stephen Vicinanza

Aadhuniklabs offered this DIY 4-legged robot based on Arduino built from scratch. It is pet-like and tracks humans and when it sees the face of one it wiggles its tail with pleasure.

It is controlled remotely through a PC with Wi-Fi for added fun.

There have been many developments in the world of robotics, and one of them is the ability to walk in legged robots. The advancements have been irrespective of the complexities involved in the construction of these robots, as well as the designs.

The advantages of a legged robot in terms of maneuverability and transverse ability, navigating varying terrains, and efficiency over a wheeled robot vehicle are far-reaching. They also now can climb over objects in their way.

At this time, the quadruped is the most efficient, stable, and mobile of all the legged robots. The 4-legged robot can be designed easily, controlled better, and maintained more efficiently than two or six legs.

This project demonstrates how to build a 4-legged Wi-Fi remote-controlled mobile robot. The robot has an auto face-tracking camera and is built from scratch. It is controlled completely from a PC using WI-FI and has a lot of features, including –

  • Walking, backward, forward, left, and right
  • Can turn left and right while walking
  • Manual pan of the camera and tilt control and a flash LED
  • Rotation from center, left, and right
  • The auto face-tracking camera if a face is detected
  • Wiggle its tail when a human face is detected by the camera

Here is the link to all the development and design instructions. Leg organization and gait axes

The leg axes are configured in a standard order

  • Front Left
  • Rear Left
  • Front Right
  • Rear Right

The legs are considered robotic arms and move along an x, y, and z-axis. When Axis 1 moves along the X-Axis it is a sideward movement, then Axes 2 and 3 move backward or forward, along the Y-Axis. Axis-4 is the end effector and touches the ground. The end effector can be moved along any Axis in its range and can be controlled by changing the angles of the servos mounted at each axis. – Gait Chart

The Gait is controlled by the left front leg’s position as a reference for all walking and rotation. There is a gait cycle that creates leg coordination, through points, designated A, B, C, and D. One leg front, the opposite rear leg move in the desired direction, Points – A, then B, with the opposite front and rear leg catching up through points C and D.

The camera has a pan and tilt capability, and on detection of a face will activate the servo in the tail to wag, moving back and forth.

The software also auto-tracks faces using two PID controllers and generates control signals that drive the pan and tilt servos of the cameras.

The hardware is an Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect, and a Raspberry Pi Pico W microcontroller boards are independent and used for the man control of the robot.

A 12V battery with at least a 2200mAH capacity along with a step-down converter to go from 12V to 6V DC. This powers the entire robot. |

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For the past 8 years, I have been writing about embedded technologies, added to my technical, academic, and medical editorial experience, with companies like Elsevier and Cambridge University Press. I tell people to read what I write, not try to pronounce my last name. I am always available for comments and suggestions you can reach me at and I promise I will take the time to reach back out to you. I live in the North East with my wonderful family.

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DIY 4-Legged Robot Based on Arduino Built From Scratch

by Stephen Vicinanza time to read: 2 min