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October (issue #399) Circuit Cellar

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4: Backend Web Development for MCU Clients: Part 1: Handling HTTP Requests in PHP, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

REFERENCES
[1] What is full stack development?: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/what-is-full-stack-development/
[2] Laragon Documentation: https://laragon.org/docs/
[3] Set Up a LAMP Web Server on a Raspberry Pi in 2023: https://raspberrytips.com/web-server-setup-on-raspberry-pi/
[4] Gas Sensor BME688: https://www.bosch-sensortec.com/products/environmental-sensors/gas-sensors/bme688/
[5] Installing ESP8266 Board in Arduino IDE: https://randomnerdtutorials.com/how-to-install-esp8266-board-arduino-ide/
[6] What is HTTP? Protocol Overview for Beginners: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/what-is-http/
[7] What is Unix time?: https://kb.narrative.io/what-is-unix-time

SOURCES
ESP8266 NodeMCU CP2102 ESP-12E Development Board: https://www.amazon.com/HiLetgo-Internet-Development-Wireless-Micropython/dp/B010O1G1ES
Adafruit BME688 – Temperature, Humidity, Pressure and Gas Sensor – STEMMA QT: https://www.adafruit.com/product/5046

RESOURCES
Arduino | www.arduino.cc
Espressif Systems | www.espressif.com
Raspberry Pi | www.raspberrypi.org

Code and Supporting Files


12: zram in Embedded Linux: How to Maximize RAM in a Linux Environment, By Pedro Bertoleti

REFERENCES
[1] Gecko & Fly—12 Free RAMDisk vs SSD: https://www.geckoandfly.com/21507/ramdisk-virtual-disk-memory/
[2] Linux kernel compilation for Raspberry Pi: https://www.raspberrypi.com/documentation/computers/linux_kernel.html
[3] Raspberry Pi imager software: https://www.raspberrypi.com/software/
[4] Open-source zram Raspberry Pi project on Github: https://github.com/foundObjects/zram-swap

SOURCES
Website: https://www.raspberrypi.com/documentation/computers/linux_kernel.html
Website: https://pimylifeup.com/raspberry-pi-zram/
Website: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/zram
Website: https://cateee.net/lkddb/web-lkddb/zram.html
Website: https://cateee.net/lkddb/web-lkddb/zram_LZ4_COMPRESS.html
Website: https://github.com/foundObjects/zram-swap
Website: https://www.raspberrypi.com/software/
Website: https://www.geckoandfly.com/21507/ramdisk-virtual-disk-memory/


16: Evaluating EDATEC’s Line of Industrial Modules: Based On the Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4, By Brian Millier

REFERENCES
[1] EDATEC CM4 Industrial User Manual: https://www.edatec.cn/uploads/soft/230407/CM4INDdatasheet-en.pdf
[2] Raspberry Pi CM4 Technical Reference Manual: https://datasheets.raspberrypi.com/cm4/cm4-datasheet.pdf

RESOURCES
DEGSON | www.degson.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

Code and Supporting Files


26: Build a Solar-Powered Bobblehead: Using an Electromagnet to Drive the Bobble, By Dev Gualtieri

REFERENCES
[1] “Simple inductance formulas for radio coils” in Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 16, Number 10, October, 1908, pp. 1398-1400.

RESOURCES
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

Code and Supporting Files


30: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: Tiny Embedded Boards, By Michael Lynes

REFERENCES
[1] Wikipedia article on Moore’s Law: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law
[2] “Moore’s law is not just for computers”, Nature: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature.2013.12548
[3] Wikipedia article on TI’s Regency TR-1 First Transistor Radio: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regency_TR-1
[4] Wikipedia article on Julius Edgar Lilienfeld: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Edgar_Lilienfeld
[5] Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain: https://ipwatchdog.com/2017/04/03/transistor-shockley-bardeen-brattain-modern-electronics/id=79427/#:~:text=The%20first%20patent%20covering%20what,Apparatus%20for%20Controlling%20Electric%20Currents
[6] Lantronix XPico: https://www.lantronix.com/products/xpico/
[7] XPico Developer Kit Guide: https://cdn.lantronix.com/wp-content/uploads/pdf/xPico-DevKit_QS.pdf
[8] NVIDIA Jetson: https://www.NVIDIA.com/en-us/autonomous-machines/embedded-systems/
[9] JetBot Video: https://youtu.be/byGZt5ZYup0
[10] Community Platform: https://developer.NVIDIA.com/embedded/community/jetson-projects
[11] Toshiba BLE: SASP https://www.global.toshiba/ww/news/corporate/2021/01/pr1401.html
[12] Nordic Semiconductor PMIC: https://www.nordicsemi.com/Products/nPM6001
[13] ESP32 Pico: https://docs.espressif.com/projects/esp-idf/en/latest/esp32/hw-reference/esp32/get-started-pico-kit.html#get-started-pico-kit-v4-board-front
[14] MIKROE Embedded: https://www.mikroe.com/easyavr-pro-v8#main-buy-field
[15] Arduino NANO: https://store-usa.arduino.cc/products/arduino-nano?selectedStore=us
[16] RasberryPi PICO: https://www.raspberrypi.com/products/raspberry-pi-pico/
[17] Adafruit Feather: https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-feather/overview
[18] RS DesignSpark Online—Smalled Embedded Modules: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/smallest-embedded-modules-to-work-in-2023

SOURCES
Video: https://cdn-shop.adafruit.com/product-videos/1024×768/2995-07.mp4
Original Transistor Patent: https://www.freepatentsonline.com/1745175.pdf
Smallest Chip in the World: IBM 2-NM chip – https://time.com/collection/best-inventions-2022/6228819/ibm-two-nanometer-chip/#:~:text=The%20Smallest%20Chip%20Ever&text=IBM’s%202%2Dnanometer%20(nm,no%20bigger%20than%20your%20fingernail
IC Circuit Packaging: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_integrated_circuit_packaging_types


36: DATASHEET: MEMS Sensors: They Sense Just About Everything, By Sam Wallace

• Analog Devices ADXL354/ADXL355: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/adxl367.pdf
• BOSCH BH1380: https://www.bosch-sensortec.com/media/boschsensortec/downloads/product_flyer/bst-bhi380-fl000.pdf
• Invensense ICP-10125: https://invensense.tdk.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/DS-000329-ICP-10125-v1.1.pd
• MEMSIC MXD6235Q: https://www.memsic.com/Public/Uploads/uploadfile/files/20220119/MXD6235QRev.pdf
• Murata SCC400T Series: https://www.murata.com/-/media/webrenewal/products/sensor/pdf/datasheet/datasheet-scc400t-series-short.ashx?la=en-us&cvid=20220610055733000000
• Omron D6T Series: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/307/en_D6T_catalog-1633759.pdf
• Renesas ZMOD4410: https://www.renesas.com/us/en/document/dst/zmod4410-datasheet
• SiTime SiT95145: https://www.sitime.com/support/resource-library/datasheets/sit95145-datasheet
• STMicroelectronics LIS2DUX12: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/lis2dux12.pdf

40: START TO FINISH: When Technology Goes Wrong: How Bad It Can Get, and What You Can Do About It, By Stuart Ball

REFERENCES
[1] Wikipedia article about the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor disaster: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
[2] American Society of Quality FMEA overview: https://asq.org/quality-resources/fmea
[3] Wikipedia article about the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine (overexposure incidents): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therac-25
[4] Wikipedia article about the Hyatt Regency Hotel’s overhead walkway collapse: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyatt_Regency_walkway_collapse


46: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: How Thin-Slicing Can Help Us: The Search for “Fists” in Embedded Systems, By Bob Japenga

REFERENCES
[1] Japenga, Bob, “Debugging Embedded Real-Time Systems: Strategies to Determine if a Problem is in HW or SW.” Circuit Cellar 391, February 2023.

SOURCES
Cerebras Wafer Scale Engine 2 https://www.cerebras.net/
Gladwell, Malcolm Blink – The Power of Thinking without Thinking https://www.amazon.com/Blink-Power-Thinking-Without-ebook/dp/B000PAAH3K
Gottman, John; Check out the Gottman Institute for a host of resources https://www.gottman.com/
For The Mathematics of Marriage find it on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Marriage-Dynamic-Nonlinear-Bradford/dp/0262572303
Sharma, Chris; “How does the Human Brain Compare to a Computer?” https://www.crucial.com/blog/technology/how-does-the-human-brain-compare-to-a-computer published by Micron


50: FROM THE BENCH: Local Isolation Using the Sun’s Energy: Part 2: Modbus Client, By Jeff Bachiochi

REFERENCES
[1] Modbus specifications. http://www.modbus.com

[2] Bachiochi, Jeff: From the Bench: Local Isolation: Using the Sun’s Energy. Circuit Cellar, Issue 398, September 2023, p. 52-58.

[3] Bachiochi, Jeff: From The Bench: MQ Telemetry Transport (Part 1): Going Aloft with Mosquitto. Circuit Cellar, Issue 351, October 2019, p. 64-71.

[4] Bachiochi, Jeff: From The Bench: MQ Telemetry Transport (Part 2): Bringing It All Back Home. Circuit Cellar, Issue 352, November 2019, p. 61-69.

[5] – MQTT – www.mqtt.org

[6] – Node-RED – www.nodered.org

RESOURCES
Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Arduino | www.arduino.cc
Modbus | www.modbus.com
MQTT | www.mqtt.org
Node-RED | nodered.org
Renogy | www.renogy.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

Code and Supporting Files


62: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of EV Efficiency: Gate-Drive Strength in EVs: Why Real-Time Variable Gate-Drive Strength Enables SiC Traction Inverter Efficiency Improvements, By George Lakkas

REFERENCES
[1] UCC5880-Q1: https://www.ti.com/product/UCC5880-Q1
[2] TIDM-02014: https://www.ti.com/tool/TIDM-02014

SOURCES
White paper, “Traction Inverters – A Driving Force Behind Vehicle Electrification.”
https://www.ti.com/lit/wp/slyy217/slyy217.pdf?ts=1695188145587&ref_url=https%253A%252F%252Fnews.ti.com%252F

TI E2E design support forums technical article, “Improving Safety in EV Traction Inverter Systems.”
https://e2e.ti.com/blogs_/b/behind_the_wheel/posts/improving-safety-in-ev-traction-inverter-systems

Code and Supporting Files

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October (issue #399) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 5 min