Article Materials and Resources

November (issue #400) Circuit Cellar

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive


This issue is available in PDF format from our webshop.
As individual articles are made available on the website they will be linked on the TOC page-here


4: Building a Holographic Persistence-of-Vision Display: Paint Light Into Ethereal Floating Images Using a Raspberry Pi Pico, By Michael Crum, Joseph Horwitz, and Rabail Makhdoom

REFERENCES
[1] Adam Dunkels, “Protothreads.”: https://dunkels.com/adam/pt/
[2] Code and design files for the project at GitHub: https://github.com/usedhondacivic/ECE-4760-POV-Display

RESOURCES
Raspberry Pi | www.raspberrypi.com

Code and Supporting Files


12: Backend Web Development for MCU Clients: Part 2: Querying a Database in PHP, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

REFERENCES
[1] Raul Alvarez-Torrico. “Backend Web Development for MCU Clients. Part 1: Handling HTTP Requests in PHP.” Circuit Cellar 399, September, 2023.

[2] SQL Tutorial. https://www.sqltutorial.org/

[3] phpMyAdmin: Bringing MySQL to the Web. https://www.phpmyadmin.net/

SOURCES
ESP8266 NodeMCU CP2102 ESP-12E Development Board: https://www.amazon.com/HiLetgo-Internet-Development-Wireless-Micropython/dp/B010O1G1ES

Adafruit BME688 – Temperature, Humidity, Pressure and Gas Sensor – STEMMA QT: https://www.adafruit.com/product/5046

SQL Tutorial: https://www.sqltutorial.org/

Unix Time Converter: https://www.unixtimestamp.com/

Installing ESP8266 Board in Arduino IDE: https://randomnerdtutorials.com/how-to-install-esp8266-board-arduino-ide/

What is HTTP? Protocol Overview for Beginners: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/what-is-http/

RESOURCES
Arduino | www.arduino.cc
Espressif | www.espressif.com

Code and Supporting Files


22: RPiano: A Playable MIDI Synthesizer: On a Raspberry Pi Microcontroller, By Samiksha Hiranandani

REFERENCES
[1] “Protothreads—Lightweight, Stackless Threads in C,” dunkels.com: http://dunkels.com/adam/pt/

[2] B. Land, “ECE4760 PIC32 sound,” people.ece.cornell.edu: https://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/PIC32/index_sound_synth.html

[3] “Mido-MIDI Objects for Python—Mido 1.2.10 documentation,” mido.readthedocs.io: https://mido.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

[4] RPiano demonstration video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0CkNf_g0mQ

SOURCES
A. Radović, “csnake: C code generation helper package.,” PyPI. https://pypi.org/project/csnake/ (accessed May 17, 2023).

H. Adams, “ECE 4760 Course Webpage,” https://ece4760.github.io

B. Land, “RP2040 DSP,” https://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/RP2040/C_SDK_DSP/index_vga_dsp.html (accessed May 17, 2023).

RESOURCES
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Raspberry Pi | www.raspberrypi.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

Code and Supporting Files


30: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: Embedded Displays, By Michael Lynes

REFERENCES
[1] Michael Lynes, “Technology Feature: Digital Signage.” Circuit Cellar 396, July 2023, pp. 24-29.

[2] LED Display Physics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode_physics

[3] “Mastering the manufacture of microLED displays,” physicsworld.com: https://physicsworld.com/a/mastering-the-manufacture-of-microled-displays/

[4] Predictable Designs—Intro to Embedded Electronic Displays: https://predictabledesigns.com/introduction-embedded-electronic-displays/

[5] MIKROE: https://www.mikroe.com/about

[6] MIKROE TFT displays: https://www.mikroe.com/search?search_query=2178+tft

[7] Crystalfontz resistive touchscreens: https://www.crystalfontz.com/product/cfaf800480e1050sr-800×480-5in-resistive-touchscreen?kw=&origin=pla&gclid=CjwKCAjw38SoBhB6EiwA8EQVLqe4gN5Wcv7t21yCd9nYW2lDv6M3lTKXAYaJzVz0m22J-e31C-6SlRoCADgQAvD_BwE

[8] STMicro Disco (Discovery) Kit: https://www.st.com/en/evaluation-tools/stm32h747i-disco.html

[9] STM’s TouchGFX framework: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBXavOhvt9k

[10] AVNET Embedded: https://embedded.avnet.com/touch-solutions/

SOURCES
Qt: How to choose the Best Embedded Display: https://www.qt.io/embedded-development-talk/how-to-choose-the-best-display-for-your-embedded-device

Correct order of monitor display timing: https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/614207/correct-order-of-monitor-display-timing


38: DATASHEET: DC-DC Converters: From the Hyper-Small to the Far Out, By Sam Wallace

Analog Devices MAX18000: https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/max18000.pdf
Bel Power Solutions 700DNG40-24-8: https://www.belfuse.com/resources/datasheets/powersolutions/ds-BPS-700DNG40-24-series.pdf
Flex Power Modules BMR314: https://flexpowermodules.com/resources/fpm-flyer-dc-dc-converters-for-ai-applications
OmniOn Power DLynx III MLX040: https://www.omnionpower.com/assets/pdfs/windchill/data-sheet/mlx040_ds.pdf
RECOM RxxC05TExxS: https://g.recomcdn.com/media/Datasheet/pdf/.fiSlC8jY/.tce0d3579c4367bc096e6/Datasheet-514/RxxC05TExxS.pdf
Renesas RAA211630: https://www.renesas.com/us/en/document/dst/raa211630-datasheet
Silanna Semiconductor SZPL3002A: https://powerdensity.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/SZPL3002A-Product-Brief-Prelim.pdf
STMicroelectronics L6983I: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l6983i.pdf
Texas Instruments TPS61299: https://www.ti.com/document-viewer/tps61299/datasheet


42: PICKING UP MIXED SIGNALS: Before Transistors: How Did They Do It Back Then?, By Brian Millier

REFERENCES
[1] Brian Millier, “Simulating a Hammond Tonewheel Organ—Part 1: Mimicking a Mechanical Marvel.” Circuit Cellar 328, November 2017


52: EMBEDDED SYSTEM ESSENTIALS: How CHERI Helps Secure Your C/C++ Code:  On an FPGA, By Colin O’Flynn

REFERENCES
[1] Colin O’Flynn, “Attacking USB Gear with EMFI: Pitching a Glitch.” Circuit Cellar 346, May 2019, pp. 44-51.

[2] “MIN()imum Failure: EMFI Attacks against USB Stacks” by Colin O’Flynn: https://www.usenix.org/system/files/woot19-paper_oflynn_0.pdf

[3] “iAPX432: Gordon Moore, Risk and Intel’s Super-CISC failure”: https://thechipletter.substack.com/p/iapx432-gordon-moore-risk-and-intels

[4] CHERIoT-RTOS Repository: https://github.com/microsoft/cheriot-rtos

SOURCES
An Introduction to CHERI: https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/techreports/UCAM-CL-TR-941.pdf

RESOURCES
lowRISC | lowrisc.org

Code and Supporting Files


56: FROM THE BENCH: Cellular, The Forgotten Wi-Fi: Part 3: Using NoteCard, an Embedded Communications Module, By Jeff Bachiochi

REFERENCES
[1] Jeff Bachiochi, ”From The Bench: Local Isolation: Using the Sun’s Energy.” Circuit Cellar 398, September 2023, pp. 52-62.

[2] Jeff Bachiochi, ”From the Bench: Local Isolation Using the Sun’s Energy: Part 2: Modbus Client,” Circuit Cellar 399, October 2023, pp. 50-61.

[3] Blues, Inc. helps you create reliable and innovative connectivity solutions via cellular and Wi-Fi IoT-driven data systems
https://www.blues.io.

[4] A hosted service for securely routing Notecard data to your cloud application of choice. Manage fleets of devices and update host and Notecard firmware over-the-air.
https://blues.io/products/notehub/

[5] The note-arduino library is available on Blues’ GitHub page
https://github.com/blues/note-arduino

[6] Blues Inc. Quickstart page for NoteCard and NoteCarrier-F
https://dev.blues.io/quickstart/notecard-quickstart/notecard-and-notecarrier-f/

[7] Node-RED is a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click.
https://nodered.org/

RESOURCES
Adafruit | adafruit.com
Arduino | www.arduino.cc
Renergy, Inc. | renergy.com

Code and Supporting Files


71: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of RF Surveillance: Advancements in Drone RF Surveillance: Harnessing High Bandwidth and Wide Tuning Range Software-Defined Radios (SDRs), By Brandon Malatest

RESOURCES
Per Vices | www.pervices.com


BONUS DIGITAL EDITION FEATURE ADDITION: Designing Combinational Circuitry: Employing Tiny Logic, By Wolfgang Matthes

REFERENCES
Guides and manuals:
[1]          Logic Guide 2017. SDYU001AB. Texas Instruments, 2017.
https://www.ti.com/lit/sg/sdyu001ab/sdyu001ab.pdf?ts=1689165284559

[2]          Little Logic Guide 2018. SYCT29G. Texas Instruments, 2018.
https://www.ti.com/lit/sg/scyt129g/scyt129g.pdf

[3]          Nexperia Selection Guide_2023. Nexperia B.V., 2023.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/selection-guide/Nexperia_Selection_guide_2023.pdf

[4]          Logic Application Handbook. Product Features and Application Insights. Design Engineer’s Guide. Nexperia B.V., 2021.
https://assets.nexperia.cn/documents/brochure/Nexperia_LOGIC_Handbook_201029.pdf

[5]          Logic Selection Guide. Fairchild Semiconductor International, 2003.
https://www.mouser.com/catalog/supplier/library/pdf/fairchildlogic.pdf

[6]          AVC Advanced Very-Low-Voltage CMOS Logic Data Book. SCED008C. Texas Instruments, 2003. https://www.ti.com/jp/lit/ug/sced008c/sced008c.pdf

Flyers, leaflets, product briefs, selection guides:
[7]          Our extensive package range provides maximum flexibility. Nexperia B.V., n. d.
https://assets.nexperia.cn/documents/leaflet/Nexperia_package_poster.pdf

[8]          Save more space with combination logic. Nexperia B.V., n. d.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/leaflet/Nexperia_document_Logic_CombinationLogic_infocard_201710.pdf

[9]          Single configurable logic. Nexperia B.V., n. d.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/leaflet/Nexperia_document_leaflet_Logic_SingleConfigurableLogic_201812.pdf

[10]        Mini Logic – MicroPak portfolio. Nexperia B.V., 2018.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/brochure/Nexperia_document_guide_MiniLogic_MicroPak_201808.pdf

[11]        Mini Logic – PicoGate portfolio. Nexperia B.V., 2019.
https://assets.nexperia.cn/documents/brochure/Nexperia_document_guide_MiniLogic_PicoGate_201901.pdf

[12]        NXP’s Mini Logic portfolio. NXP. B.V., 2015.
https://www.nxp.com/files-static/nxp/white_paper/Mini-Logic-whitepaper.pdf

[13]        Advanced ultra-low power CMOS logic for battey-powered systems. Nexperia B.V., 2019.
https://www.paltek.co.jp/dcms_media/other/Nexperia_document_leaflet_Logic_AUP_technology_portfolio_201904.pdf

[14]        Automotive-qualified logic in space-saving microPak packages. Nexperia B.V., 2019.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/leaflet/Nexperia_document_leaflet_Logic_Automotive_MicroPak_solutions_201904.pdf

[15]        TinyLogic. Fairchild’s Offering. Fairchild Semiconductor, 2007.
https://pdf.directindustry.com/pdf/fairchild-semiconductor/tinylogic-product-overview/33535-441097.html

https://web.pa.msu.edu/hep/atlas/l1calo/hub/hardware/components/other_ic_and_semiconductors/Not_Cuurently_Used_In_Hub_Design/fairchild_selector_guide_TinyLogic.pdf

Application notes:
[16]        Maier, Emrys: It’s all in the family: a brief guide to logic family selection. TI E2E design support forum, September 10, 2015.
https://e2e.ti.com/blogs_/b/analogwire/posts/it-s-all-in-the-family-a-brief-guide-to-logic-family-selection

[17]        Logic data sheet parameters. Application note AN11733. Nexperia B.V., 2019.
https://assets.nexperia.cn/documents/application-note/AN11733.pdf

[18]        Lin, Samuel: How to Select Little Logic. Application Report SCYA049A.  Texas Instruments, 2016.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scya049a/scya049a.pdf

[19]        Maxwell, Chris; Nana, Tomido: Application of the Texas Instruments AUC Sub-1-V Little Logic Devices. Application Report SCEA027A. Texas Instruments, 2002.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scea027a/scea027a.pdf

[20]        Cockrill, Chris; Cohee, Shawn; Nana, Tomido: Texas Instruments  Little Logic Application Report. Application Report SCEA029.  Texas Instruments, 2002.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scea029/scea029.pdf

[21]        Understanding Schmitt Triggers. Application Brief SCEA046a. Texas Instruments, 2022.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scea046a/scea046a.pdf

[22]        Benefits and Issues on Migration of 5-V and 3.3-V Logic to Lower-Voltage Supplies. Application Note SDAA011A. Texas Instruments, 1999.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/sdaa011a/sdaa011a.pdf

[23]        Portability and Ultra Low Power TinyLogic. Application Note AN-5055. Fairchild semicoductor/onSemi, 2004.
https://www.onsemi.com/download/application-notes/pdf/an-5055cn.pdf

[24]        Zlotnick, Fred; Diaz, Jess: Unique and Novel Uses for ON Semiconductor’s New One-Gate Family. AND8018/D. ON Semiconductor, 2000.
https://www.onsemi.com/pub/Collateral/AND8018-D.PDF

Data sheets (1): buffers, inverters, and gates
Data sheets can be easily found by visiting the manufacturer’s websites (see below in the Sources section) and making good use of the search functions.

Data sheets (2): configurable gates
Here we mention the most widespread devices and refer to different logic families to show examples of voltage ranges, packages, and so on.

[25]        TinyLogic ULP-A Universal Configurable Logic Gates NC7SV57, NC7SV58. Data Sheet. Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2019.
https://www.onsemi.com/pdf/datasheet/nc7sv58-d.pdf

[26]        74AUP1G57 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/data-sheet/74AUP1G57.pdf

[27]        74LVC1G58 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/data-sheet/74LVC1G58.pdf

[28]        74LVC1G97 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/data-sheet/74LVC1G97.pdf

[29]        74AUP1G98 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/data-sheet/74AUP1G98.pdf

[30]        74LVC1G99. Ultra-configurable multiple function gate; 3-state. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2019.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/data-sheet/74LVC1G99.pdf

Data sheets (3): special devices
[31]        SN74LVC1G0832  Single 3-Input Positive AND-OR Gate. Data sheet SCES606D. Texas Instruments, 2013.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/sces606d/sces606d.pdf

[32]        SN74LVC1G3208 Single 3-Input Positive OR-AND Gate. Data sheet SCES605B. Texas Instruments, 2013.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/sces605b/sces605b.pdf

[33]        Small Signal Schottky Diodes. Seelctor Guide, Vishay Intertechnology,Inc.; n. d.
https://www.vishay.com/docs/49470/sg_small.pdf

[34]        BAT54, BAT54A, BAT54C, BAT54S Small Signal Schottky Diodes, Single and Dual.
Vishay Intertechnology,Inc.; 2023.
https://www.vishay.com/docs/85508/bat54.pdf

[35]        SN74F1056 8-Bit Schottky Barrier Diode Bus-Termination Array. Data sheet SDFS085A. Texas Instruments, 1997.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/sn74f1056.pdf

[36]        NX3L4051 Single low-ohmic 8-channel analog switch. Product data sheet. NXP Semiconductors, 2020.
https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/data-sheet/NX3L4051.pdf

Voltage level translation:
[37]        Matthes, Wolfgang: Solving Level-Translation an Logic Problems: Using Discrete Components. Bonus Digital Edition Feature Addition, Circuit Cellar, Issue 395, June 2023.

[38]        Lacoste, Robert: Voltage-Level Translation Techniques. Managing Mixed-Voltages. Circuit Cellar, Issue 365, December 2020, p. 68-74.

[39]        Voltage Level Translation Guide 2014. scb018h. Texas Instruments, 2014.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ml/scyb018h/scyb018h.pdf

[40]        Logic Translator Guide. Nexperia B.V., 2021.
https://assets.nexperia.com/documents/brochure/Nexperia_document_guide_Logic_translators.pdf

[41]        SN74AUP1T97 Single-Supply Voltage-level Translator with Nine Configurable Gate Logic Functions. Data Sheet SCES613J. Texas Instruments, 2020.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/sn74aup1g97.pdf

[42]        SN74AUP1T98 Single-Supply Voltage-level Translator with Nine Configurable Gate Logic Functions. Data Sheet SCES614I. Texas Instruments, 2013.
https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/sn74aup1t98.pdf

[43]        McCaughey, Mac; Maier, Emrys; Spurlin, Craig: Voltage Translation Between 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards. Application Report SCEA030B. Texas Instruments, 2015.

https://www.ti.com.cn/cn/lit/an/scea030b/scea030b.pdf

[44]        Dhond, Prasad: Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution. Application Report. Texas Instruments, 2004.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scea035a/scea035a.pdf

[45]        Cockrill, Chris; Land, Ryan; Maier, Emrys: LVxT Family of Single Supply Translating Logic Gates. Application Note SCEA047B.  Texas Instruments, 2022.
https://www.ti.com/lit/an/scea047b/scea047b.pd

How to use CPLDs to integrate glue logic and other gate-level logic functions:
[46]        Steele, Denny: Cut Power 100X Using CPLD Coprocessors in Portable Applications. Altera, 2007.

[47]        Six Ways to Replace a Microcontroller  with a CPLD. White Paper WP-01041. Altera, 2007.

[48]        Using Zero-Power CPLDs to Substantially Lower Power Consumption in Portable Applications.  White Paper WP-01042. Altera, 2007.

Implementing logic functions by microcontrollers:
[49]        The PACE Microprocessor. A Logic Designer’s Guide to Program Equivalents of TTL Functions. National Semicondcutor Corporation, 1976.
https://archive.org/details/bitsavers_nationalpaMar76_7788173
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/components/national/pace/4200127X_logDesTTLMar76.pdf

[50]        Frenzel, Lou: Replace Fixed-Function IC with Low-Cost Microcontrollers. Electronic Design, May 29, 2018. https://www.electronicdesign.com/technologies/analog/article/21806564/replace-fixedfunction-ics-with-lowcost-microcontrollers

[51]        Mitra, Sumit: PLD Replacement. Application Note AN511. Microchip Technology, Inc. 1997.
https://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/Appnotes/00511e.pdf

A previous version:
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/components/microchipTechnology/_dataBooks/1993_Microchip_Embedded_Control_Handbook.pdf (on pages 2-59 to 2-78).

A few examples of vintage literature concerning the basics of digital design:
[52]        Morris, Robert L.; Miller, John R. (ed.s): Designing with TTL Integrated Circuits. Texas Instruments/McGraw-Hill, 1971. http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ti/_Texas_Instruments_Electronics_Series/Morris_Designing_With_TTL_Integrated_Circuits_1971.pdf

[53]        What a Designer Should Know. Application Report EB192E. Texas Instruments, 1995.

[54]        Design Considerations for Logic Products. Application Book SDYAE01. Texas Instruments, 1998.

[55]        Implications of Slow or Floating CMOS Inputs. Application Report SCBA004C. Texas Instruments, 1998.

[56]        Overview of IEEE Standard 91-1984. Explanation of Logic Symbols. Application Report SDYZ001A. Texas Instruments, 1997.

[57]        Nolan, Stephen M.; Soltero, Jose M.; Rao, Shreyas: Understanding and Interpreting Standard-Logic Data Sheets. ApplicationReport SZZA036C. Texas Instruments, 2016. https://www.ti.com/lit/an/szza036c/szza036c.pdf

[58]        Haseloff, Eilhard: Live Insertion. Application Report SDYA012. Texas Instruments, 1996. https://www.ti.com/lit/an/sdya012/sdya012.pdf

[59]        Haseloff, Eilhard: Designing with Logic. Application Report SDYA009C. Texas Instruments, 1997. https://www.ti.com/lit/an/sdya009c/sdya009c.pdf

SOURCES
The author’s project homepages:
https://www.realcomputerprojects.dev
https://www.controllersandpcs.de/projects.htm

Standards:
https://www.jedec.org/

https://www.jedec.org/standards-documents
JECEC committees related to our topic:
JC-11: Mechanical standardization
JC-40: Digital Logic
JC-16: Interface Technology. The committee is als resposible for the voltage level specifications. The basic standard is JESD8.
JESD8C: 2.7 V to 3.6 V
JESD8-5: 2.3 V to 2.7 V
JESD8-7: 1.65 V to 1.95 V
JESD8-11: 0.9 V to 1.65 V
JESD8-12: 0.8 V to 1.3 V

Free vintage literature:
https://archive.org/details/folkscanomy_electronics
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/
http://www.bitsavers.org/components/
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/

Some links to manufacturers:
https://www.ti.com
https://www.nexperia.com
https://www.onsemi.com
https://www.nxp.com
https://www.toshiba.com
https://www.st.com

A few more specific links:
https://www.ti.com/logic-voltage-translation/overview.html
https://www.ti.com/logic-voltage-translation/logic-gates/products.html
https://www.nexperia.com/products/analog-logic-ics
https://www.onsemi.com/products/timing-logic-memory/standard-logic
https://www.nxp.com/products/peripherals-and-logic:PERIPHERALS-AND-LOGIC
https://www.st.com/en/automotive-logic-ics/gates.html
https://www.ti.com/logic-voltage-translation/specialty-logic-ics/bus-termination-arrays/products.html
https://www.nexperia.com/products/diodes/schottky-diodes-and-rectifiers/schottky-diodes-and-rectifiers-if-lt-1-a/
https://www.ti.com/logic-voltage-translation/specialty-logic-ics/bus-termination-arrays/products.html

RESOURCES
Nexperia | www.nexperia.com
NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com
Onsemi | www.onsemi.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com
Toshiba | www.toshiba.com

Keep up-to-date with our FREE Weekly Newsletter!

Don't miss out on upcoming issues of Circuit Cellar.


Note: We’ve made the Dec 2022 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Would you like to write for Circuit Cellar? We are always accepting articles/posts from the technical community. Get in touch with us and let's discuss your ideas.
Website | + posts

Circuit Cellar's editorial team comprises professional engineers, technical editors, and digital media specialists. You can reach the Editorial Department at editorial@circuitcellar.com, @circuitcellar, and facebook.com/circuitcellar

Supporting Companies

Upcoming Events


Copyright © KCK Media Corp.
All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2024 KCK Media Corp.

November (issue #400) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 11 min