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November (issue #400) Circuit Cellar

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As individual articles are made available on the website they will be linked on the TOC page-here

4: Building a Holographic Persistence-of-Vision Display: Paint Light Into Ethereal Floating Images Using a Raspberry Pi Pico, By Michael Crum, Joseph Horwitz, and Rabail Makhdoom

[1] Adam Dunkels, “Protothreads.”:
[2] Code and design files for the project at GitHub:

Raspberry Pi |

Code and Supporting Files

12: Backend Web Development for MCU Clients: Part 2: Querying a Database in PHP, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

[1] Raul Alvarez-Torrico. “Backend Web Development for MCU Clients. Part 1: Handling HTTP Requests in PHP.” Circuit Cellar 399, September, 2023.

[2] SQL Tutorial.

[3] phpMyAdmin: Bringing MySQL to the Web.

ESP8266 NodeMCU CP2102 ESP-12E Development Board:

Adafruit BME688 – Temperature, Humidity, Pressure and Gas Sensor – STEMMA QT:

SQL Tutorial:

Unix Time Converter:

Installing ESP8266 Board in Arduino IDE:

What is HTTP? Protocol Overview for Beginners:

Arduino |
Espressif |

Code and Supporting Files

22: RPiano: A Playable MIDI Synthesizer: On a Raspberry Pi Microcontroller, By Samiksha Hiranandani

[1] “Protothreads—Lightweight, Stackless Threads in C,”

[2] B. Land, “ECE4760 PIC32 sound,”

[3] “Mido-MIDI Objects for Python—Mido 1.2.10 documentation,”

[4] RPiano demonstration video:

A. Radović, “csnake: C code generation helper package.,” PyPI. (accessed May 17, 2023).

H. Adams, “ECE 4760 Course Webpage,”

B. Land, “RP2040 DSP,” (accessed May 17, 2023).

Microchip Technology |
Raspberry Pi |
Texas Instruments |

Code and Supporting Files

30: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: Embedded Displays, By Michael Lynes

[1] Michael Lynes, “Technology Feature: Digital Signage.” Circuit Cellar 396, July 2023, pp. 24-29.

[2] LED Display Physics:

[3] “Mastering the manufacture of microLED displays,”

[4] Predictable Designs—Intro to Embedded Electronic Displays:


[6] MIKROE TFT displays:

[7] Crystalfontz resistive touchscreens:×480-5in-resistive-touchscreen?kw=&origin=pla&gclid=CjwKCAjw38SoBhB6EiwA8EQVLqe4gN5Wcv7t21yCd9nYW2lDv6M3lTKXAYaJzVz0m22J-e31C-6SlRoCADgQAvD_BwE

[8] STMicro Disco (Discovery) Kit:

[9] STM’s TouchGFX framework:

[10] AVNET Embedded:

Qt: How to choose the Best Embedded Display:

Correct order of monitor display timing:

38: DATASHEET: DC-DC Converters: From the Hyper-Small to the Far Out, By Sam Wallace

Analog Devices MAX18000:
Bel Power Solutions 700DNG40-24-8:
Flex Power Modules BMR314:
OmniOn Power DLynx III MLX040:
Renesas RAA211630:
Silanna Semiconductor SZPL3002A:
STMicroelectronics L6983I:
Texas Instruments TPS61299:

42: PICKING UP MIXED SIGNALS: Before Transistors: How Did They Do It Back Then?, By Brian Millier

[1] Brian Millier, “Simulating a Hammond Tonewheel Organ—Part 1: Mimicking a Mechanical Marvel.” Circuit Cellar 328, November 2017

52: EMBEDDED SYSTEM ESSENTIALS: How CHERI Helps Secure Your C/C++ Code:  On an FPGA, By Colin O’Flynn

[1] Colin O’Flynn, “Attacking USB Gear with EMFI: Pitching a Glitch.” Circuit Cellar 346, May 2019, pp. 44-51.

[2] “MIN()imum Failure: EMFI Attacks against USB Stacks” by Colin O’Flynn:

[3] “iAPX432: Gordon Moore, Risk and Intel’s Super-CISC failure”:

[4] CHERIoT-RTOS Repository:

An Introduction to CHERI:

lowRISC |

Code and Supporting Files

56: FROM THE BENCH: Cellular, The Forgotten Wi-Fi: Part 3: Using NoteCard, an Embedded Communications Module, By Jeff Bachiochi

[1] Jeff Bachiochi, ”From The Bench: Local Isolation: Using the Sun’s Energy.” Circuit Cellar 398, September 2023, pp. 52-62.

[2] Jeff Bachiochi, ”From the Bench: Local Isolation Using the Sun’s Energy: Part 2: Modbus Client,” Circuit Cellar 399, October 2023, pp. 50-61.

[3] Blues, Inc. helps you create reliable and innovative connectivity solutions via cellular and Wi-Fi IoT-driven data systems

[4] A hosted service for securely routing Notecard data to your cloud application of choice. Manage fleets of devices and update host and Notecard firmware over-the-air.

[5] The note-arduino library is available on Blues’ GitHub page

[6] Blues Inc. Quickstart page for NoteCard and NoteCarrier-F

[7] Node-RED is a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click.

Adafruit |
Arduino |
Renergy, Inc. |

Code and Supporting Files

71: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of RF Surveillance: Advancements in Drone RF Surveillance: Harnessing High Bandwidth and Wide Tuning Range Software-Defined Radios (SDRs), By Brandon Malatest

Per Vices |

BONUS DIGITAL EDITION FEATURE ADDITION: Designing Combinational Circuitry: Employing Tiny Logic, By Wolfgang Matthes

Guides and manuals:
[1]          Logic Guide 2017. SDYU001AB. Texas Instruments, 2017.

[2]          Little Logic Guide 2018. SYCT29G. Texas Instruments, 2018.

[3]          Nexperia Selection Guide_2023. Nexperia B.V., 2023.

[4]          Logic Application Handbook. Product Features and Application Insights. Design Engineer’s Guide. Nexperia B.V., 2021.

[5]          Logic Selection Guide. Fairchild Semiconductor International, 2003.

[6]          AVC Advanced Very-Low-Voltage CMOS Logic Data Book. SCED008C. Texas Instruments, 2003.

Flyers, leaflets, product briefs, selection guides:
[7]          Our extensive package range provides maximum flexibility. Nexperia B.V., n. d.

[8]          Save more space with combination logic. Nexperia B.V., n. d.

[9]          Single configurable logic. Nexperia B.V., n. d.

[10]        Mini Logic – MicroPak portfolio. Nexperia B.V., 2018.

[11]        Mini Logic – PicoGate portfolio. Nexperia B.V., 2019.

[12]        NXP’s Mini Logic portfolio. NXP. B.V., 2015.

[13]        Advanced ultra-low power CMOS logic for battey-powered systems. Nexperia B.V., 2019.

[14]        Automotive-qualified logic in space-saving microPak packages. Nexperia B.V., 2019.

[15]        TinyLogic. Fairchild’s Offering. Fairchild Semiconductor, 2007.

Application notes:
[16]        Maier, Emrys: It’s all in the family: a brief guide to logic family selection. TI E2E design support forum, September 10, 2015.

[17]        Logic data sheet parameters. Application note AN11733. Nexperia B.V., 2019.

[18]        Lin, Samuel: How to Select Little Logic. Application Report SCYA049A.  Texas Instruments, 2016.

[19]        Maxwell, Chris; Nana, Tomido: Application of the Texas Instruments AUC Sub-1-V Little Logic Devices. Application Report SCEA027A. Texas Instruments, 2002.

[20]        Cockrill, Chris; Cohee, Shawn; Nana, Tomido: Texas Instruments  Little Logic Application Report. Application Report SCEA029.  Texas Instruments, 2002.

[21]        Understanding Schmitt Triggers. Application Brief SCEA046a. Texas Instruments, 2022.

[22]        Benefits and Issues on Migration of 5-V and 3.3-V Logic to Lower-Voltage Supplies. Application Note SDAA011A. Texas Instruments, 1999.

[23]        Portability and Ultra Low Power TinyLogic. Application Note AN-5055. Fairchild semicoductor/onSemi, 2004.

[24]        Zlotnick, Fred; Diaz, Jess: Unique and Novel Uses for ON Semiconductor’s New One-Gate Family. AND8018/D. ON Semiconductor, 2000.

Data sheets (1): buffers, inverters, and gates
Data sheets can be easily found by visiting the manufacturer’s websites (see below in the Sources section) and making good use of the search functions.

Data sheets (2): configurable gates
Here we mention the most widespread devices and refer to different logic families to show examples of voltage ranges, packages, and so on.

[25]        TinyLogic ULP-A Universal Configurable Logic Gates NC7SV57, NC7SV58. Data Sheet. Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2019.

[26]        74AUP1G57 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.

[27]        74LVC1G58 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.

[28]        74LVC1G97 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.

[29]        74AUP1G98 Low-power configurable multiple function gate. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2022.

[30]        74LVC1G99. Ultra-configurable multiple function gate; 3-state. Product data sheet. Nexperia B.V., 2019.

Data sheets (3): special devices
[31]        SN74LVC1G0832  Single 3-Input Positive AND-OR Gate. Data sheet SCES606D. Texas Instruments, 2013.

[32]        SN74LVC1G3208 Single 3-Input Positive OR-AND Gate. Data sheet SCES605B. Texas Instruments, 2013.

[33]        Small Signal Schottky Diodes. Seelctor Guide, Vishay Intertechnology,Inc.; n. d.

[34]        BAT54, BAT54A, BAT54C, BAT54S Small Signal Schottky Diodes, Single and Dual.
Vishay Intertechnology,Inc.; 2023.

[35]        SN74F1056 8-Bit Schottky Barrier Diode Bus-Termination Array. Data sheet SDFS085A. Texas Instruments, 1997.

[36]        NX3L4051 Single low-ohmic 8-channel analog switch. Product data sheet. NXP Semiconductors, 2020.

Voltage level translation:
[37]        Matthes, Wolfgang: Solving Level-Translation an Logic Problems: Using Discrete Components. Bonus Digital Edition Feature Addition, Circuit Cellar, Issue 395, June 2023.

[38]        Lacoste, Robert: Voltage-Level Translation Techniques. Managing Mixed-Voltages. Circuit Cellar, Issue 365, December 2020, p. 68-74.

[39]        Voltage Level Translation Guide 2014. scb018h. Texas Instruments, 2014.

[40]        Logic Translator Guide. Nexperia B.V., 2021.

[41]        SN74AUP1T97 Single-Supply Voltage-level Translator with Nine Configurable Gate Logic Functions. Data Sheet SCES613J. Texas Instruments, 2020.

[42]        SN74AUP1T98 Single-Supply Voltage-level Translator with Nine Configurable Gate Logic Functions. Data Sheet SCES614I. Texas Instruments, 2013.

[43]        McCaughey, Mac; Maier, Emrys; Spurlin, Craig: Voltage Translation Between 3.3-V, 2.5-V, 1.8-V, and 1.5-V Logic Standards. Application Report SCEA030B. Texas Instruments, 2015.

[44]        Dhond, Prasad: Selecting the Right Level-Translation Solution. Application Report. Texas Instruments, 2004.

[45]        Cockrill, Chris; Land, Ryan; Maier, Emrys: LVxT Family of Single Supply Translating Logic Gates. Application Note SCEA047B.  Texas Instruments, 2022.

How to use CPLDs to integrate glue logic and other gate-level logic functions:
[46]        Steele, Denny: Cut Power 100X Using CPLD Coprocessors in Portable Applications. Altera, 2007.

[47]        Six Ways to Replace a Microcontroller  with a CPLD. White Paper WP-01041. Altera, 2007.

[48]        Using Zero-Power CPLDs to Substantially Lower Power Consumption in Portable Applications.  White Paper WP-01042. Altera, 2007.

Implementing logic functions by microcontrollers:
[49]        The PACE Microprocessor. A Logic Designer’s Guide to Program Equivalents of TTL Functions. National Semicondcutor Corporation, 1976.

[50]        Frenzel, Lou: Replace Fixed-Function IC with Low-Cost Microcontrollers. Electronic Design, May 29, 2018.

[51]        Mitra, Sumit: PLD Replacement. Application Note AN511. Microchip Technology, Inc. 1997.

A previous version: (on pages 2-59 to 2-78).

A few examples of vintage literature concerning the basics of digital design:
[52]        Morris, Robert L.; Miller, John R. (ed.s): Designing with TTL Integrated Circuits. Texas Instruments/McGraw-Hill, 1971.

[53]        What a Designer Should Know. Application Report EB192E. Texas Instruments, 1995.

[54]        Design Considerations for Logic Products. Application Book SDYAE01. Texas Instruments, 1998.

[55]        Implications of Slow or Floating CMOS Inputs. Application Report SCBA004C. Texas Instruments, 1998.

[56]        Overview of IEEE Standard 91-1984. Explanation of Logic Symbols. Application Report SDYZ001A. Texas Instruments, 1997.

[57]        Nolan, Stephen M.; Soltero, Jose M.; Rao, Shreyas: Understanding and Interpreting Standard-Logic Data Sheets. ApplicationReport SZZA036C. Texas Instruments, 2016.

[58]        Haseloff, Eilhard: Live Insertion. Application Report SDYA012. Texas Instruments, 1996.

[59]        Haseloff, Eilhard: Designing with Logic. Application Report SDYA009C. Texas Instruments, 1997.

The author’s project homepages:

JECEC committees related to our topic:
JC-11: Mechanical standardization
JC-40: Digital Logic
JC-16: Interface Technology. The committee is als resposible for the voltage level specifications. The basic standard is JESD8.
JESD8C: 2.7 V to 3.6 V
JESD8-5: 2.3 V to 2.7 V
JESD8-7: 1.65 V to 1.95 V
JESD8-11: 0.9 V to 1.65 V
JESD8-12: 0.8 V to 1.3 V

Free vintage literature:

Some links to manufacturers:

A few more specific links:

Nexperia |
NXP Semiconductors |
Onsemi |
STMicroelectronics |
Texas Instruments |
Toshiba |

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November (issue #400) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 11 min