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June (issue #395) Circuit Cellar

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As individual articles are made available on the website they will be linked on the TOC page-here

4: Prototype AI Apps with SenseCAP K1100: Part 1: Model Training and Deployment, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

[1] SenseCraft:
[2] Train and Deploy Your Own AI Model Into Grove – Vision AI,
[3] Evaluating Deep Learning Models: The Confusion Matrix, Accuracy, Precision, and Recall,
[4] Best Fitness:
[5] Evaluating Object Detection Models Using Mean Average Precision (mAP):
[6] Ultralytics Yolo Version 5 Tips for Best Training Results,
[7] How to decrease false positives:

SenseCAP K1100 Kit:
Himax HX6537-A processor:
Roboflow Universe:

Code and Supporting Files

13: Helping Students Find Uncongested Study Spaces: Using a Raspberry Pi 4, a PiTFT Display, and Data, By Minjung Kwon & Esther In

[1] Magic Selfie Mirror Project
[2] Demonstration video of the Campus Congestion project
[3] GitHub repository with project code

Code and Supporting Files

20: Measuring the Frequency Response of a DC Motor: Using Linear and Non-Linear Techniques, By Shlomo Engelberg, Aviel Maor, and Jakob (Kobi) Weizman

[1] S. Engelberg, ADuC841 Microcontroller Design Manual: From Microcontroller Theory to Design Projects. Vernon, Connecticut, Circuit Cellar, Inc., 2011.
[2] Last Minute Engineers, “Interface L298N DC Motor Driver Module with Arduino.” Last retrieved 2 February 2023.
[3] Monolithic Power Systems, “MA702 Angle Sensor.” Last retrieved 2 February 2023.
[4] SparkFun, “SparkFun Logic Level Converter—Bi-Directional. Last retrieved 2 February 2023.
[5] S. Engelberg, A Mathematical Introduction to Control Theory, 2nd ed., Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 4, London, Imperial College Press, 2015.

26: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: AI and Robotics, By Michael Lynes

[1] DALL-E:
[2] ChatGPT:
[3] Craiyon:
[4] The Three Laws of Robotics:
[5] Tesla’s AI & Robotics page:
[6] SPOT from Boston Dynamics:
[7] Husqvarna Automower:
[8] NVIDIA robotics:
[9] Bluefin from General Dynamics:
[10] IBM AI and Watson Assistant:
[11] SpellBook:
[12] AI Hobbyist: MiniGPT-4 –
[13] AI Risks:
[14] AutoGPT – Pushing the boundaries:

Artificial Intelligence:
Google BARD – Emergent Properties:
Google BARD: World Domination
Boston Dynamics: Dancing bots

AutoGPT |
Boston Dynamics |
General Dynamics |
Husqvarna |
iRobot |
OpenAI |
Rally Legal |
Tesla |

32: DATASHEET: AC-DC Power Supplies: Powering the Next Generation of Embedded Design, By Sam Wallace

Datasheet URLs:
Aimtec AMESP500U-277JZ:
Astrodyne TDI MCA-10:
Cincon CBM70S:
Mean Well LRS-150:
Murata Power Solutions BAC1:
RECOM RACM30-K/277:!s277.html?0
TDK Lambda CUS250M:
XP Power ASB160:

36: START TO FINISH: Solar Energy—Getting Started, By Stuart Ball

[1] Chart of solar power received by region and season in the U. S.:
[2] Rolling resistance:
[3] Drag coefficient, Wikipedia:

Power to move a car, Colorado State U:

41: THE MAGIC SMOKE FACTORY: RGB LED Animation: With a Rainbow Wave Pattern as an Example, By Joseph Corleto

[1] Corleto, Joseph: Addressable RGB LEDs. A Fast and Easy Way to Create Flexible RGB LED Lighting. Circuit Cellar, Issue 386, September 2022, p. 6-11.
[2] Rainbow wave pattern example, YouTube short:
[3] Sensitivity of human eye, Pixelsham:

Espressif Systems |

Code and Supporting Files

46: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Debugging Embedded Real-Time Systems: Flawed Assumptions in Finding Bugs, By Bob Japenga

[1] “Estimating Your Embedded Systems Project (Part 3)” (Circuit Cellar 297, April 2015)

Psychology of Computer Programming by Gerald M. Weinberg – a wonderful treatise on how the way we think affects the way we program.

Thinking, fast and slow by Daniel Kahneman – a great book containing many of the surprising biases that affect our daily life.

Eeyore witticisms A great place to see if there is an Eeyore in the mirror.

Embedded Muse 464 Check out the details of the ASIC RAM test. Also, subscribe if you haven’t.

50: FROM THE BENCH: Artificial Dawn and Dusk: Don’t Scare the Chickens!, By Jeff Bachiochi

Analog Devices |
Arduino |
DFRobot |
Espressif System |
Toshiba |

[1] Circuit Cellar Article Code and Files Webpage.
[2] DS3231 Real-time Clock datasheet
[3] Katie Ockert, “Decreasing daylight and its effect on laying hens.” Michigan State University Extension. October 01, 2019.

Code and Supporting Files

63: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of Successful PCB Manufacturing: Common PCB Design Mistakes, By Don Kaufman

Correction Notice: The print edition contains unit errors
Page 63; column 2 paragraph 2:
Drilled hole location too close to the copper feature: If the hole is closer than .010″ mils (.25mm) to a trace or another hole in a multilayer board, it must be fixed.
Page 64; column 2 paragraph 1:
Incorrect trace and space vs. copper weight: As a general rule, the thicker the copper, the more spacing is required between the copper features on the board. For example, 2oz of copper needs a minimum trace of .008″ mils (.2mm) and .008″ mils of space—but the customer or designer may specify .005″ mils (.11mm) for each, which isn’t enough.

Cirexx International |


Solving Level-Translation and Logic Problems: Using Discrete Components, By Wolfgang Matthes

[1]  Matthes, Wolfgang: Voltage-Level Translation in MCU Projects. Solutions for Digital Controllers.  Circuit Cellar, Issue 375, October 2021, p. 26-35.

[2]  International Standard IEC 61131-2 Preview Edition 4.0. International Electrotechnical Commission, 2017.

[3]  Directive 2014/35/EU, Electrical safety: low-voltage electrical equipment / IEC 60950:1991-09.

Application notes, manuals, datasheets :
In the past—we speak of decades ago—datasheets, application notes, and so on were distributed in print. So, each such source could be referenced like an article in a journal or a textbook. A considerable number of highly specialized manufacturers were around. They have put a lot of effort into their publications. Their databooks were valuable sources, occupying several feet on the bookshelves of seasoned engineers. Nowadays, takeovers are more the rule than the exception. For example, International Rectifier, once the leading developer and manufacturer of power MOSFETs, belongs to Infineon now, Micrel to Microchip, Maxim to Analog Devices, and so on.  Devices like diodes, Zeners, transistors, and small modules to tinker with, are merely commodities and accessories. They are documented, above all, in Internet catalogs, where links lead to datasheets and detailed descriptions. So, the most convenient way to get the desired data, hints, and descriptions is to invoke the homepage of the appropriate manufacturer and use its internal search engine. As the daily practice shows, searching across the web for a particular component or the technical term in question may more often than not lead to the desired datasheets, application notes, or articles.

Application notes:
[4]  IEC 61131-2 compatible inputs and outputs at the SC1x3 Controller. Application Note AN_SC1X3_IO_V1.PDF. Beck IPC GmbH, n. d.
[5]  Understanding a Digital Transistor Datasheet. Application Note AND9129/D. ON Semiconductor, 2013.
[6]  Barkhordarian, Vrej: Power MOSFET Basics. International Rectifier/Infineon, n. d.
[7] Application Note 74. LM139/LM239/LM339 A Quad of Independently Functioning Comparators. Application Report SNOA654A. Texas Instruments, Incorporated, 2004–2013.
[8]  Guide to Adding Extra Hysteresis to Comparators. Application Note 3616. Maxim Integrated Products,  2005.
[9]  Technical Explanations – Technische Erläuterungen. Diotec Semiconductor AG, n. d.

Modules to tinker with in the 24-V field wiring:
What we mention here are only some examples taken from several Internet catalogs.

[10] Interfaces with diodes;jsessionid=9EA47B153FD12C0D3DECD55CCA9F829B?groupId=(%22group5448258828845%22)&page=Group
[11] Diode module RSD 12 LP/LP
[12] Component module with diode
[13] Function modules: Diode modules and lamp testing modules
[14] Diode blocks / Lamp test modules
[15] I/O Systems
[16] Logic modules;jsessionid=BF7524585F1363C2E224EFCC2B2DF2B6?groupId=(%22group256156892148%22)&page=Group
[17] DK NAND 35 24VDC
[18] Interface electronic
[19] Electronics in the cabinet
[20] EMG 12-TR/INV – Switching amplifier

PLCs are blessed with a plethora of documentation and literature, as a casual look at the manufacturer’s websites will show. Here, however, it’s particularly about examples of typical digital inputs and outputs.

[21] UniStream Uni-I/O Modules Technical Specifications. Unitronics, 2016.
[22] Uni-I/O Wide Modules Installation Guide. Unitronics, 2016.
[23] SNAP_Digital_Output_Modules Data Sheet. Opto 22, 2022.
[24] groov 5-60VDC_Output Modules Data Sheet. Opto 22, 2022.
[25] groov Digital Output Sourcing Modules Data_Sheet. Opto 22, 2022.
[26] groov 10-30V Digital Input Modules Data Sheet. Opto 22, 2022.
[27] NANO-PLC em4 Ethernet & bem4 Local Datasheet. Crouzet, 2021.
[28] Logic Controller Millenium Slim Datasheet. Crouzet, 2021.

[29] Logic controllers. Concentrated performance. Millenium 3 Smart & Essential. Crouzet, n. d.
[30] Programmable Logic Controller easyControl EC4-200 User Manual. Eaton, 2010.
[31] PR200 Programmable Relay User Guide. akYtec GmbH, 2021.
[32] akYtec 2023 Product Overview. akYtec GmbH, 2023.
[33] FC6A Series MicroSmart User’s Manual. IDEC Corporation, 2020.
[34] IDEC Instruction Sheet SmartAxis FT1A series. IDEC Corporation, 2017.
[35] Controller PFC200 Data Sheet. Wago, 2019.

Some Data Sheets:
[36] VN330SP-E Quad high-side smart power solid-state relay. Data sheet DocID11504. ST Microelectronics, 2020.

[37] ULN2801A, ULN2802A, ULN2803A, ULN2804A Eight Darlington Arrays Datasheet. ST Microelectronics, 2018.
[38] MIC2981/2982 High-Voltage High-Current Source Driver Array. Datasheet. Micrel/Microchip, 2005.
[39] BCR135 NPN Silicon Digital Transistor. Datasheet. Infineon, 2007. Infineon-BCR135SERIES-DS-v01_01-en.pdf
[40] MUN5235DW1, NSBC123JDXV6, NSBC123JDP6 Dual NPN Bias Resistor Transistors. Datasheet. ON Semiconductor, 2020.
[41] MUN2211, MMUN2211L, MUN5211, DTC114EE, DTC114EM3, NSBC114EF3 Digital Transistors (BRT). Datasheet. ON Semiconductor, 2018.
[42] IRML6346TRPbF HEXFET Power MOSFET. Datasheet. International Rectifier/Infineon, 2012.

[43] BAV70 Silicon Switching Diode. Datasheet. Infineon, 2007.
[44] 1N4001 thru 1N4007 A Amp Rectifier. Datasheet. Shanghai Shanglang Electronic Technology Co., Ltd, n. d.
[45] TZM-Series Small Signal Zener Diodes Datasheet. Vishay, 2019.
[46] MM1Z4689…MM1Z4717 SMD Planar Zener Diodes Datasheet. Diotec Semiconductor AG, n. d.

One of the uncountable number of books about the basics of electronics:
[47] Lunn, Colin: The Essence of Analog Electronics. Prentice Hall, 1997.
Herein, diodes and transistors are described and explained at a theoretical level appropriate to our design problems.

A (very) small selection of vintage literature:
Here, we restrict ourselves to examples of literature available to be downloaded freely. Because bits weigh nothing, the thickness of the books doesn’t matter.  For our purposes, we need only the fundamentals and the elementary circuits. (It goes without saying that it is more expedient to switch to contemporary ICs and tackle their peculiarities when the logic or translation problem cannot be solved by basic circuitry.)

[48] Millman, Jacob; Taub, Herbert: Pulse, Digital, and Switching Waveforms.  McGraw-Hill, 1965.
See especially chapter 9, pages 306 to 360.
[49] Millman, Jacob; Halkias, Christos C.: Analog and Digital Circuits and Systems. .  McGraw-Hill, 1972.
See especially chapter 6.    
[50] Bell, David A.: Solid State Pulse Circuits. Reston Publishing Company, 1976.
      See especially the chapters 3 to 5.
[51] J. E. Thornton: Design of a Computer. The Control Data 6600. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1970.
Occasionally, switching speed cannot be neglected. Those interested in fast but surprisingly straightforward transistor logic should look at pages 19 to 37.
[52] 700 Series Data Processing Systems Component Circuits. IBM, 1959.
[53] SLT Designer’s Handbook. IBM, 1968. 
[54] Brugnolotti, D. C.; SLT Designer’s Handbook (30-Nanosecond Family). IBM, 1965.
[55] SLT Circuit Design Handbook. IBM, n. d.
[56] LogicBlocks. Automated Logic Diagrams SLT, SLD, ASLT, MST. IBM, 1971.,SLD,ASLT,MST_TO_Oct71.pdf
IBM’s vintage handbooks are valuable sources of explanations and dimensioned circuits. It should pose no problem to get used to the ancient symbols.

The author’s project homepages:

PLCs and modules:,_brick_-a-_modular)


Free vintage literature:

A few more specific links:

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June (issue #395) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 12 min