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February (issue #403) Circuit Cellar

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4: Programmable IO Programming: For the Raspberry Pi Pico, By Miguel Sánchez

RESOURCES
Raspberry Pi | www.raspberrypi.com

REFERENCES
[1] GitHub repository of Raspberry Pi Pico MicroPython examples: https://github.com/raspberrypi/pico-micropython-examples/tree/master/pio
[2] Tutoduino—“Introduction to the PIO of the RP2040”: https://tutoduino.fr/en/pio-rp2040-en/
[3] Raspberry Pi Pico Datasheet: https://datasheets.raspberrypi.com/rp2040/rp2040-datasheet.pdf
[4] Sigrok’s Pulseview Tutorial: https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/using-the-usb-logic-analyzer-with-sigrok-pulseview/all

Code and Supporting Files


12: (Not Very) Complex Math: In Analog Electronics, By Alex Pozhitkov, PhD

REFERENCES
[1] Definitions of resonance: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/serres.html
[2] Wikipedia. Inductance. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductance#Mutual_

Code and Supporting Files


16: Machine Learning: Using an RP2040 and the Edge Impulse Platform, By Taylor Stephens and Adam Fofana

RESOURCES
Edge Impulse | edgeimpulse.com
Raspberry Pi | www.raspberrypi.com

REFERENCES
[1] Edge Impulse Documentation https://docs.edgeimpulse.com/docs/
[2] Gian Marco Iodice. TinyML Cookbook: Combine Artificial Intelligence and Ultra-Low-Power Embedded Devices to Make the World Smarter. https://www.perlego.com/book/3448797/tinyml-cookbook-pdf
[3] Complete project code on GitHub: https://github.com/TMSTweaks/Machine-Learning-On-Raspberry-Pi-Pico-with-Edge-Impulse/tree/main
[4] Edge Impulse allows the machine learning processing to be done on a local machine, instead of the Cloud https://docs.edgeimpulse.com/docs/run-inference/cpp-library/running-your-impulse-locally
[5] Demonstration video of our machine learning project: Machine Learning Voice Controller on RP2040 https://www.youtube.com/

Code and Supporting Files


22: Why Use an RTOS?, By Bill Lamie and Yuxin Zhou, AND

REFERENCES
[1] Definitions of resonance: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/serres.html
[2] Wikipedia. Inductance. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductance#Mutual_

RESOURCES
PX5 | www.px5rtos.com


26: How to Choose Between Bare Metal, RTOS, and GPOS, By Jacob Beningo


28: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: RTOS: Putting the REAL in Realtime, By Michael Lynes

RESOURCES
openSUSE | www.opensuse.org

REFERENCES
[1] Dr. Paul Ekman – Professor Emeritus – University of California, Berkely: https://www.paulekman.com/
[2] Charles Darwin: The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Expression_of_the_Emotions_in_Man_and_Animals
[3] Unmasking the Face: Ekman and Friesen 1975 – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232553185_Unmasking_the_Face_A_Guide_to_Recognizing_Emotions_From_Facial_Clues
[4] Facial Action Coding System – F.A.C.S: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facial_Action_Coding_System
[5] Lie to Me: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1235099/
[6] Worldsemi – WS2812B-V5: https://www.peace-corp.co.jp/data/WS2812B-V5_V1.0_EN.pdf
[7] RetroComputing: IMSAI 8080 – https://retrocomputing.stackexchange.com/questions/12214/why-did-1970s-front-panels-prefer-momentary-toggle-switches-to-push-buttons
[8] Gary Arlen Kildall – Digital Research Inc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Kildall#:~:text=Gary%20Arlen%20Kildall%20(%2F%CB%88k,subsequently%20founded%20Digital%20Research%2C%20Inc.
[9] Wikipedia – RTOS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_operating_system
[10] Wind River Systems: https://www.windriver.com/solutions/learning/rtos#:~:text=A%20real%2Dtime%20operating%20system%20(RTOS)%20is%20an%20operating,this%20is%20not%20necessarily%20so.
[11] FreeRTOS: https://www.freertos.org/about-RTOS.html
[12]       SUSE – LinuX: https://www.suse.com/c/what-is-a-real-time-operating-system/
[13] Azure Microsoft: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/products/rtos

SOURCES
Most Popular RTOS: https://www.lynx.com/embedded-systems-learning-center/most-popular-real-time-operating-systems-rtos


34: DATASHEET: System-on-Modules: For When Ease-of-Design Is Key, By Sam Wallace

Datasheet URLs:
Boundary Devices Tungsten700 SMARC: https://boundarydevices.com/download/153380/?tmstv=1704467900
Digi ConnectCore93: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/111/Digi_3_3_2023_digi_connectcore_93_datasheet-3106336.pdf
iWave Systems iW-RainboW-G46M: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/1038/i_MX_8XLite_OSM_SE_LGA_Module_Brochure_R1_0-3217725.pdf
MYiR RZ/G2L: https://www.renesas.com/us/en/document/prb/myir-rzg2l-high-performance-som?r=25433821
Netburner MOD5234: https://www.netburner.com/download/mod5234-datasheet/
Portwell i.Core MX8M Plus: https://www.portwell.com/pdf/embedded/i.Core%20MX8M%20Plus.pdf
RELOC Brick-ML: https://www.reloc.it/download/products/RM-BML/RM-BML-1_BrickML_Flyer_r03.pdf
Variscite VAR-SOM-AM62 V1.x: https://www.variscite.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/VAR-SOM-AM62_Datasheet.pdf
Xilinx Kria K26: https://www.xilinx.com/content/dam/xilinx/publications/product-briefs/xilinx-k26-product-brief.pdf


38: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Eliciting Software Requirements for Embedded Systems: Part 2: An Agile Approach, By Bob Japenga

RESOURCES
MicroTools Inc | microtoolsinc.com

REFERENCES
[1] Sixteen Amazing Agile Statistics 2023: What Companies Use Agile Methodology: https://www.zippia.com/advice/agile-statistics/
[2] The Agile Manifesto: https://agilemanifesto.org
[3] Wikipedia article on “Agile Software Development:” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development
[4] I strongly recommend that you subscribe to the Embedded Muse (hardware and software tips about building embedded systems): http://www.ganssle.com/tem-subunsub.html
[5] For more about PTCRB, see the agency in charge of this testing: https://www.ptcrb.com/
[6] A “must read” for all software engineers: Frederick Brooks, Jr. 1995. The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering. Addison-Wesley Professional. https://www.amazon.com/Mythical-Man-Month-Software-Engineering-Anniversary/dp/0201835959
[7] Bob Japenga, “Eliciting Software Requirements for Embedded Systems: Part 1: Conventional Methods.” Circuit Cellar 401, December 2023.
[8] Check out what you can do with Flutter—an open source framework by Google for building natively compiled, multi-platform applications from a single codebase: https://flutter.dev/
[9] React Native—a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. Learn one tool chain and run anywhere (Web, Android and iOS): https://reactnative.dev/


42: START TO FINISH: Combating Electrical Noise: Keeping Your Circuits Quiet, By Stuart Ball

REFERENCES
[1] Analog Devices AN-671:
https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/application-notes/AN-671.pdf

Code and Supporting Files


50: FROM THE BENCH: Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), By Jeff Bachiochi

REFERENCES
[1] PCBShopper: https://pcbshopper.com/
[2] RX274X excellon file format reference: http://artwork.com/gerber/drl2laser/excellon/index.htm

SOURCES
figure 4 – www.altium.com/documentation/altium-designer/understanding-printed-circuit-board-makeup?version=21
figure 1 – www.sunrise-metal.com/silk-screen-printing
figure 5 – www.pcbgogo.com/Blog/What_is_PCB_panelization_.html
figure 6 – www.climbers.net/sbc/kicad-pcb-panelization-javascript
1             – Gerber format reference – https://www.ucamco.com/en/gerber
2             – Excellon format reference – artwork.com/gerber/drl2laser/excellon/index.htm


63: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of Mobile Connectivity: How is Connectivity on the Move Possible?, By Tristan Wood

REFERENCES
[1] “The Future is Hybrid Connectivity,” Livewire whitepaper: https://www.livewire.co.uk/the-future-is-heterogeneous-connectivity/

RESOURCES
Livewire Digital | www.livewire.co.uk

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February (issue #403) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 4 min