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February (issue #403) Circuit Cellar

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4: Programmable IO Programming: For the Raspberry Pi Pico, By Miguel Sánchez

Raspberry Pi |

[1] GitHub repository of Raspberry Pi Pico MicroPython examples:
[2] Tutoduino—“Introduction to the PIO of the RP2040”:
[3] Raspberry Pi Pico Datasheet:
[4] Sigrok’s Pulseview Tutorial:

Code and Supporting Files

12: (Not Very) Complex Math: In Analog Electronics, By Alex Pozhitkov, PhD

[1] Definitions of resonance:
[2] Wikipedia. Inductance.

Code and Supporting Files

16: Machine Learning: Using an RP2040 and the Edge Impulse Platform, By Taylor Stephens and Adam Fofana

Edge Impulse |
Raspberry Pi |

[1] Edge Impulse Documentation
[2] Gian Marco Iodice. TinyML Cookbook: Combine Artificial Intelligence and Ultra-Low-Power Embedded Devices to Make the World Smarter.
[3] Complete project code on GitHub:
[4] Edge Impulse allows the machine learning processing to be done on a local machine, instead of the Cloud
[5] Demonstration video of our machine learning project: Machine Learning Voice Controller on RP2040

Code and Supporting Files

22: Why Use an RTOS?, By Bill Lamie and Yuxin Zhou, AND

[1] Definitions of resonance:
[2] Wikipedia. Inductance.

PX5 |

26: How to Choose Between Bare Metal, RTOS, and GPOS, By Jacob Beningo

28: TECHNOLOGY FEATURE: RTOS: Putting the REAL in Realtime, By Michael Lynes

openSUSE |

[1] Dr. Paul Ekman – Professor Emeritus – University of California, Berkely:
[2] Charles Darwin: The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals:
[3] Unmasking the Face: Ekman and Friesen 1975 –
[4] Facial Action Coding System – F.A.C.S:
[5] Lie to Me:
[6] Worldsemi – WS2812B-V5:
[7] RetroComputing: IMSAI 8080 –
[8] Gary Arlen Kildall – Digital Research Inc:,subsequently%20founded%20Digital%20Research%2C%20Inc.
[9] Wikipedia – RTOS:
[10] Wind River Systems:,this%20is%20not%20necessarily%20so.
[11] FreeRTOS:
[12]       SUSE – LinuX:
[13] Azure Microsoft:

Most Popular RTOS:

34: DATASHEET: System-on-Modules: For When Ease-of-Design Is Key, By Sam Wallace

Datasheet URLs:
Boundary Devices Tungsten700 SMARC:
Digi ConnectCore93:
iWave Systems iW-RainboW-G46M:
Netburner MOD5234:
Portwell i.Core MX8M Plus:
Variscite VAR-SOM-AM62 V1.x:
Xilinx Kria K26:

38: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Eliciting Software Requirements for Embedded Systems: Part 2: An Agile Approach, By Bob Japenga

MicroTools Inc |

[1] Sixteen Amazing Agile Statistics 2023: What Companies Use Agile Methodology:
[2] The Agile Manifesto:
[3] Wikipedia article on “Agile Software Development:”
[4] I strongly recommend that you subscribe to the Embedded Muse (hardware and software tips about building embedded systems):
[5] For more about PTCRB, see the agency in charge of this testing:
[6] A “must read” for all software engineers: Frederick Brooks, Jr. 1995. The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering. Addison-Wesley Professional.
[7] Bob Japenga, “Eliciting Software Requirements for Embedded Systems: Part 1: Conventional Methods.” Circuit Cellar 401, December 2023.
[8] Check out what you can do with Flutter—an open source framework by Google for building natively compiled, multi-platform applications from a single codebase:
[9] React Native—a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. Learn one tool chain and run anywhere (Web, Android and iOS):

42: START TO FINISH: Combating Electrical Noise: Keeping Your Circuits Quiet, By Stuart Ball

[1] Analog Devices AN-671:

Code and Supporting Files

50: FROM THE BENCH: Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), By Jeff Bachiochi

[1] PCBShopper:
[2] RX274X excellon file format reference:

figure 4 –
figure 1 –
figure 5 –
figure 6 –
1             – Gerber format reference –
2             – Excellon format reference –

63: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of Mobile Connectivity: How is Connectivity on the Move Possible?, By Tristan Wood

[1] “The Future is Hybrid Connectivity,” Livewire whitepaper:

Livewire Digital |

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February (issue #403) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 4 min