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December (issue #389) Circuit Cellar

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6: The Amazing Electret: Near-Permanent Charge Without a Voltage Supply, By George R. Steber

[1] C. L. Stong, “How to make electrets.” Scientific American, Vol. 219, No. 1 (July 1968), pp. 122-132.
[2] G.M. Sessler, Electrets, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1987.
[3] Bill W. Lee and David E. Orr, “The Triboelectric Series.”
[4] Jose A Giacometti, “Corona charging of polymers.” Brazilian Journal of Physics, Vol. 29, No. 2, June, 1999
[5] H. Mellouki, “Tribo and corona charging and charge decay on polymers plates.”
The 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering – Boumerdes (ICEE-B)
October 29-31, 2017, Boumerdes, Algeria
[6] Yu-Chi Chen, “A thin light flexible electromechanically actuated electret-based loudspeaker for automotive applications.” IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 11, November 2012.
[7] F.-R. Fan, Z.-Q. Tian, and Z. Lin Wang, “Flexible triboelectric generator,” Nano Energy, Vol. 1, No. 2, March, 2012, pp. 328-334.
[8] Simiao Niu and Zhong Lin Wang, “Theoretical systems of triboelectric nanogenerators.” Nano Energy, Vol. 14, May, 2015.
[9] Junwen Zhong, QizeZhong, FengruFan, YanZhang, Sihong Wang, BinHu, Zhong Lin Wang, “Finger typing driven triboelectric nanogenerator and its use for instantaneously lighting up LEDs.” Nano Energy, Vol. 2, No. 4, July, 2013.
[10] Atsushi Kawaguchi, Haruki Uchiyama, Masahiro Matsunaga and Yutaka Ohno. “Simple and highly efficient intermittent operation circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator toward wearable electronic applications.” Appl. Phys. Express Vol. 14, No. 5, April, 2021.
[11] William Harmon, David Bamboje, Hengyu Guo, Zhong Wang. “Self driven power management system for triboelectric nanogenerators.” Nano Energy, Vol. 71, 2020.

14: Remote Updating of Microcontroller Firmware: Using an ESP32 MCU and Apache HTTP Server, By Pedro Bertoleti

[1] Espressif software development kit
[2] ESP32 documentation
[3] Arduino-ESP32 official support by Espressif
[4] GitHub repository for the example project

Arduino IDE:

Code and Supporting Files

22: Software-Defined Radios: Their Use in Testing & Measurement Applications, By Brendon McHugh and Kaue Morcelles

Cyan software-defined radio.

[1] Sreethivya, M., Dhanya, M. G., Nimisha, C., Gandhiraj, R., and Soman, K. P. (2014). “Radiation pattern of Yagi-UDA antenna using USRP on GNU radio platform.” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 03(19), 69–71.
[2] Marinho, D., Arruela, R., Varum, T., and Matos, J. N. (2020). “Software-defined radio beamforming system for 5G/radar applications.” Applied Sciences, 10(20), 7187.
[3] Polese, M., Bonati, L., D’Oro, S., Basagni, S., and Melodia, T. (2021). “ColO-RAN: Developing machine learning-based xApps for open RAN closed-loop control on programmable experimental platforms.” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. (Submitted for publication.)

28: GUI-O: A “Virtual” Front Panel: For ESP32 Projects, By Brian Millier

GUI-O Android app and Live Designer utility software:
GUI-0 Developer Manual

39: Automated Test Suite: The Selection, By Michael Lynes

[1] FDA 21 CFR Part 11:
[2] FDA 21 CFR Part 58:

46: DATASHEET: Tiny Embedded Boards: A Range of Powerful, Ultra-Compact Options, By Sam Wallace

DFRobot Beetle RP2040 Datasheet:
Digi Internation Xbee 3 Datasheet:
F&S Elektronik Systeme PicoCore MX8MM Datasheet:
GHI Electronics SITCore Flea SBC Datasheet:
InnoComm SB35 Datasheet available for download at:
Raspberry Pi Zero 2 Datasheet:
Seeed Studio XIAO ESP32C3 Datasheet:
SolidRun LX2-Lite Datasheet:
Variscite DART-6UL Datasheet:

50: THE MAGIC SMOKE FACTORY: Smartphone App with ESP32, By Joseph Corleto

[1] Thunkable’s project video:
[2] Thunkable Live app on Google Play:

Code and Supporting Files

58: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Debugging Embedded Real-Time Systems: Tools Needed to Debug On the Go, By Bob Japenga


62: START TO FINISH: Introduction to Impedance: What is It, and How it Applies to Embedded Systems, By Stuart Ball

[1] Wikipedia article about time-domain reflectometers:
[2] Altium article on differential pair impedance:
[3] Sierra Circuits article on microstrips and striplines:

Aavid |
Linear Technology (Acquired by Analog Devices) |
STMicroelectronics |
Texas Instruments |

68: From the Bench: Just How Fast Was I Driving, Officer? Build a Solar-Powered Radar Detector, By Jeff Bachiochi

[1] Jeff Bachiochi, “Rainbow LEDs.” Circuit Cellar 388, November, 2022.
[2] Application of C-band Doppler Weather Radar (CDR) for Detecting Volcanic Ash Dispersion of Sinabung Eruption – Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from:
[5] Shadow box: –×10-studio-decor/10229048.html
[6] Solar panel: –

arduino |
infenion |

Code and Supporting Files

79: TECH THE FUTURE: The Future of Data Centers: It’s Time to Rethink Data Center Architecture, By Vito Savino


ABB Power Conversion |

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December (issue #389) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 4 min