Article Materials and Resources

August (issue #373) Circuit Cellar

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p.6: Water Alarm Evolves to Full Home Security: Multi-Sensor Safety, By Devlin Gualtieri

Reference:

[1] Comidox 433Mhz HC-12 SI4463 Wireless Serial Port Module at https://www.amazon.com/Comidox-433Mhz-Wireless-Replace-Bluetooth/dp/B07KD4GR18/

PIC 16F688 Data Sheet from Microchip Technology
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/41203d.pdf
PIC Basic is available from ME Labs (https://melabs.com

Raspberry Pi OS Download Page https://www.raspberrypi.org/software/operating-systems

RioRand LCD Module for Arduino 20 x 4, White on Blue
 http://www.riorand.com/electronics/active-components/riorandtm-lcd-module-for-arduino-20-x-4-white-on-blue.html Source for purchase: https://www.amazon.com/RioRand-Module-Arduino-White-Blue/dp/B00GZ6GK7A

ME Labs | www.melabs.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Raspberry Pi Foundation | www.raspberrypi.org
RioRand | www.riorand.com

p.16: Build a Motor Dynamometer: Using a PIC32 MCU, By Erika Yu, Aasta Gandhi and Kowin Shi

E. Dlala, “Advanced Design of Electric Motors”, Ansys Blog, 2013.

A. Cartwright, “Tutorial: How to use the ACS758 Hall effect current sensor module with Arduino! (to measure current)”, YouTube, 2016.

Analog Devices, “Nonvolatile Memory, 1024-Position Digital Potentiometer”, 2017.

Allegro Microsystems, LLC, “Thermally Enhanced, Fully Integrated, Hall-Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor IC with 100 micro-ohms Current Conductor”, 2017.

“The Strain Gauge”, Sensorland.

Sharp, “GP1A57HRJ00F”, 2005.  {Jeff—does this make sense to you?}

Adafruit, “USB to TTL Serial Cable – Debug/Console Cable for Raspberry Pi”, 2016.

National Instruments, “Strain Gauge Measurement – A Tutorial”, 1995.

A. Harrington, C. Kroninger, “Characterization of Small DC Brushed and Brushless Motors”, Defense Technical Information Center, 2013. 

B. Land, “Cornell University ECE 4760 Designing with Microcontrollers Fall 2017”, Cornell University, 2017.

YouTube video for the Motor Dynamometer project:

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Allegro Microsystems | www.allegromicro.com
Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
SparkFun Electronics | www.sparkfun.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.24: Build Your Own IoT Platform: Part 3: Adding Advanced Features, By Dhairya Parikh

References:

[1] “Build Your Own IoT Platform: Part 2” Circuit Cellar 372, July 2021
[2] GitHub Repo: https://github.com/Dhairya1007/IoT-Platform-Article-3
[3] Postman Tutorial Video: https://youtu.be/cR_FqveTewo
[4] Application Password setup (for Gmail): https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/185833?hl=en

Node-RED | www.nodered.org
phpMyAdmin | www.phpmyadmin.net
Postman | www.postman.com
Twilio | www.twilio.com

p.32: Drone-Based Greenhouse Gas DAQ System: Using Teensy 4.1 Module, By Peter Shmerko and Dr. Chris Morton

References:
[1] Circuit Cellar article code and files webpage
[2] Winsen MQ-137 Ammonia Gas Sensor manual
https://cdn.sparkfun.com/assets/7/0/2/f/8/MQ137__Ver1.4__-_Manual.pdf

TABLES: SCROLL DOWN TO THE BOTTOM OF PAGE FOR AN APPENDIX CONTAINING THE TABLES FOR THIS ARTICLE

CO2Meter.com | www.co2meter.com
DF Robot | www.dfrobot.com
Euro-Gas Management Services | www.euro-gasman.com
Gas Sensing Solutions | www.gassensing.co.uk
Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
MikroElektronika (Mikroe) | www.mikroe.com
National Control Devices (NCD) | www.ncd.io
PJRC | www.pjrc.com
Pololu | www.pololu.com
Senseair | www.senseair.com
Sensirion | www.sensirion.com
Sparkfun Electronics | www.sparkfun.com
SPEC Sensors | www.spec-sensors.com
Winsen | www.winsen-sensor.com
X2 Robotics | www.x2robotics.ca

p.40: Smart Building Designs Spur Demand for IoT Solutions: Futurized Facilities, By Jeff Child

Connectivity Standards Alliance | www.csa-iot.org
IEI Integration | www.ieiworld.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com
Nordic Semiconductor | www.nordicsemi.com
Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com
Semtech | www.semtech.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com
Thread Group | www.threadgroup.org
U-blox | www.U-blox.com

p.48: Embedded AI Designs Embrace FPGAs and GPUs: High-Performance at the Edge, By Jeff Child

Achronix | www.achronix.com
Flex Logix Technologies | www.flex-logix.com
Intel | www.intel.com
Lattice Semiconductor | www.latticesemi.com
Microchip Technologies | www.micochip.com
Nvidia | www.nvidia.com
Quicklogic | www.quicklogic.com
Xilinx | www.xilinx.com

p.53: DATASHEET: Application-Specific MCUs: Target Market Mindset, By Jeff Child

Infineon Technologies  www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated  www.maximintegrated.com
Microchip Technology  www.microchip.com
NXP Semiconductors  www.nxp.com
Renesas Electronics  www.renasas.com
ST Microelectronics   www.st.com
Texas Instruments  www.ti.com

Infineon Technologies       https://www.cypress.com/file/501801/download

Maxim Integrated       https://datasheets.maximintegrated.com/en/ds/MAX78000.pdf

Microchip Technology       https://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/PIC18F27-47-57Q84-Data-Sheet-40002213D.pdf

NXP Semiconductors       https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/fact-sheet/S32K3FS.pdf

Renesas Electronics       https://www.renesas.com/us/en/document/dst/ra2l1-group-datasheet

STMicroelectronics        https://www.st.com/en/automotive-microcontrollers/sr6g7c3.html#documentation

p.56: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: FreeRTOS (Part 5): FreeRTOS+POSIX, By Bob Japenga

References:

[1] https://www.amazon.com/Real-Men-Dont-Eat-Quiche/dp/8285001210/ref=tmm_hrd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1619652227&sr=8-1
[2] https://www.freertos.org/FreeRTOS-Plus/FreeRTOS_Plus_POSIX/index.html
[3] https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/functions/contents.html
[4] http://get.posixcertified.ieee.org/register.html
[5] POSIX functions spreadsheet in an even more detailed list is provided in an Excel spread sheet, available for download from Circuit Cellar’s article code and files webpage
[6] “FreeRTOS Part 4 – Inter-Process Communications” (Circuit Cellar 371, June 2021)

FreeRTOS | www.freertos.org

Table 1 – FreeRTOS+POSIX Header Files

File Description
errno.h This header file undefines the standard FreeRTOS error numbers and uses POSIX specific numbers.
fcntl.h Defines the File Control Options defines the values assigned to various file control parameters.
mqueue.h This defines the functions and data types related to Message Queues
pthread.h This defines the functions and data types related to Process Threads
sched.h This defines the functions and data types related to Scheduling
semaphore.h This defines the functions and data types related to Semaphores
signal.h This defines the functions and data types related to Signals
sys/types.h This defines the data types available in the system
time.h This defines the functions and data types related to time management
unistd.h This defines the symbolic constants and types
utils.h This defines some glue utility functions that are not POSIX compliant

p.60: THE DARKER SIDE: Three-Phase Electric Power: Build Your Own Source, By Robert Lacoste

References:
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_currents
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics_of_three-phase_electric_power
[3] “Direct Digital Synthesis 101,” Circuit Cellar 217, August 2008
[4] AD9959
https://www.analog.com/en/products/ad9959.html#product-overview
[5] GPX1000.4 power amplifier
https://www.crunchaudio.de/english/gpx1000.4-amplifier.html

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-phase_electric_power

https://www.ecmag.com/section/your-business/wye-does-it-matter

https://www.electronicshub.org/comparison-star-delta-connections

http://www.chauvin-arnoux.com/sites/default/files/documents/d00vai84_representations_of_a_three-phase_signal_gb.pdf

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Crunch | www.crunchaudio.de
Keysight Technologies | www.keysight.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.66: FROM THE BENCH: Putting 1-Wire Protocol into Action: Power and Control Share a Link, By Jeff Bachiochi

References:
[1] Application Note 187 – 1-Wire Search Algorithm
https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/design/technical-documents/app-notes/1/187.html
[2] Application Note 27 – Understanding and Using Cyclic Redundancy Checks with Maxim 1-Wire and iButton Products
https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/design/technical-documents/app-notes/2/27.html

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Espressif Systems | www.espressif.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com

p.79: The Future of Smart Buildings: Sustainable, Smart Buildings: Planet, People and Profits, By Byron BeMiller

References:
[1] Smart Building market Size, Share, Trends, Growth Opportunities and Forecast, 2019 – 2026, Acumen Research and Consulting
[2] The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A Resource for Assessing Exposure to Environmental Pollutants, by Neil E. Klepeis et al., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
[3] Figure 2 source: www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18922-7
LoRa Alliance | www.lora-alliance.org




APPENDIX — TABLES FOR SHMERKO ARTICLE

TABLE 1A:

Manufacturer or Brand Sensor ID Gas Price (Can $) Sensor Type Weight (g) Dim.(L × W × H mm) Link 
CozIR GC-0012 CO2 $142.70 NDIR 20 N/A https://www.co2meter.com/products/cozir-ambient-10000-ppm-co2-sensor?variant=840094613524
SenseAir SE-0018 K30 CO2 $111.28 NDIR N/A 51 × 57 × 14 https://www.co2meter.com/products/k-30-co2-sensor-module
SenseAir SE-0119 S8 CO2 $111.28 NDIR 8 32.7 × 19.7 × 8 https://www.co2meter.com/products/s8-miniature-co2-sensor-1
SenseAir SE-0038 LP8 CO2 $155.79 NDIR 8 32.7 × 19.7 × 8 https://www.co2meter.com/products/lp8-miniature-co2-sensor
CozIR GC-0027 CO2 $142.70 NDIR 5 31 × 19.5 × 8 https://www.co2meter.com/products/cozir-lp-ambient-air-co2-sensor?variant=40754444884
SprintIR GC-0028 CO2 $325.98 NDIR 16 25 × 40 × 31 https://www.co2meter.com/products/sprintir6s-5-co2-smart-sensor
SenseAir SE-11 CO2 $82.46 NDIR 4.9 33 × 19.8 × 11.9 https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/senseair-north-america-inc/006-0-0002/10416535
Sensirion SCD30 CO2 $81.78 NDIR 3.4 35 × 23 × 7.00 https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/sensirion-ag/SCD30/8445334
Figaro FG-010 CO2 $155.79 NDIR 3 32 × 17 × 7.4 https://www.co2meter.com/collections/0-1-co2/products/figaro-5000ppm-co2-sensor
NCD MQ-4 CH4 $39.32 MOS N/A N/A https://store.ncd.io/product/mq-4-methane-natural-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i2c-mini-module/
NCD MQ-7 CO $39.32 MOS N/A N/A https://store.ncd.io/product/mq-7-carbon-monoxide-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i2c-mini-module/
DF Robot SEN0321 O3 $70.56 EC 22 37 × 27 https://www.mouser.ca/ProductDetail/DFRobot/SEN0321?qs=GedFDFLaBXFKYEA7aR%2FFOA%3D%3D
NCD MQ131 O3 $56.29 MOS N/A N/A https://store.ncd.io/product/mq131-ozone-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i%c2%b2c-mini-module/
Euro Gasman 4 Series MS All N/A EC N/A 23 × 22 × 24.5 https://euro-gasman.com/product/4-8v-digital-i2cbus-transmitter/
SpecSensors DGS-CO 968-034 CO 113.59 EC 20 44.5 × 20.8 × 8.9 https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-034/6676880
SpecSensors DGS-O3968-042 O3 113.59 EC 20 44.5 × 20.8 × 8.9 https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-042/7689227
SpecSensors DGS-NO2968-043 NO2 113.59 EC 20 44.5 × 20.8 × 8.9 https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-043/7689228
Winsen MQ-7 CO $7.99 MOS 10 30 × 20 × 20 https://x2robotics.ca/mq-7-carbon-monoxide-gas-sensor?search=MQ
Winsen MQ-4 CH4 $5.99 MOS 10 30 × 20 × 20 https://x2robotics.ca/mq-4-methane-gas-sensor?search=MQ
Winsen MQ-8 H2 $5.99 MOS 10 30 × 20 × 20 https://x2robotics.ca/mq-8-hydrogen-gas-sensor?search=MQ
Mikroe MIKROE-3196 CO $68.99 EC 20 57.2 × 25×4 × 10 https://www.mikroe.com/co-2-click
Mikroe MIKROE-4151 NH3 $68.99 MOS 20 57.15 × 25.4 × 10 https://www.mikroe.com/ammonia-click
Mikroe MIKROE-2767 O3 $48.85 MOS 20 57.2 × 25×4 × 10 https://www.mikroe.com/ozone-2-click
Mikroe MIKROE-3098 NO2 $68.99 MOS 20 57.2 × 25×4 × 10 https://www.mikroe.com/no2-click
Abbreviations:
MOS = Semiconductor
CAT = Catalytic
EC = Electrochemical
NDIR = Infrared

TABLE 1B

Manufacturer or Brand Sensor ID Measurement Accuracy (ppm) Measurement Range (ppm) Measurement Rate (sec/
measurement )
CozIR GC-0012 ± 50 ppm ± 3% 0 – 10000 0.5
SenseAir SE-0018 K30 ± 30 ppm ± 3 % 0 – 10000 2
SenseAir SE-0119 S8 ± 70ppm ± 3% 0 – 10000 2
SenseAir SE-0038 LP8 ± 50ppm ± 3% 0 – 10000 >15
CozIR GC-0027 ± 50ppm ± 3% 0 – 5000 <30
SprintIR GC-0028 ± 70ppm ± 5% 0 – 50000 2
SenseAir SE-11 ± 30ppm ± 3% 400 – 10000 2
Sensirion SCD30 ± 30ppm ± 3% 400 – 10000 2
Figaro FG-010 ± 50ppm ± 3% 300 – 5000 2
NCD MQ-4 N/A 200 – 10000 N/A
NCD MQ-7 N/A 20 – 2000 N/A
DF Robot SEN0321 N/A 0 – 10 <90
NCD MQ131 N/A 10 – 1000 N/A
Euro Gasman 4 Series MS N/A N/A N/A
SpecSensors DGS-CO 968-034 ± 15% 0 – 1000 5
SpecSensors DGS-O3968-042 ± 15% 0 – 5 1
SpecSensors DGS-NO2968-043 ± 15% 0 – 5 1
Winsen MQ-7 ± ~30% 10 – 1000 1
Winsen MQ-4 ± ~30% 300 – 10000 1
Winsen MQ-8 ± ~30% 100 – 1000 1
Mikroe MIKROE-3196 ± 15% 0 – 1000 5
Mikroe MIKROE-4151 ± ~30% 5 – 200 1
Mikroe MIKROE-2767 ± ~30% 10 – 1000 1
Mikroe MIKROE-3098 ± 15% 0 – 20 1

TABLE 1C

Manufacturer or Brand Sensor ID Voltage Input (VDC) Peak Current (mA) Operating Temp. (°C) Comm. Protocol
CozIR GC-0012 3.3 – 5.5 33 0 – 50 UART
SenseAir SE-0018 K30 5.5 – 14 150 0 – 50 UART/I2C
SenseAir SE-0119 S8 4.5 – 5.25 300 0 – 50 UART/Modbus
SenseAir SE-0038 LP8 2.9 – 5.5 125 0 – 50 UART
CozIR GC-0027 3.25 – 5.5 33 0 – 50 UART
SprintIR GC-0028 3.25 – 5.5 33 0 – 50 UART
SenseAir SE-11 3.05 – 5.5 125 0 – 50 UART/I2C
Sensirion SCD30 3.3 – 5.5 75 0 – 50 UART/I2C
Figaro FG-010 4.75 – 5.25 60 0 – 50 UART/I2C/PWM
NCD MQ-4 5 N/A -10 – 50 I2C
NCD MQ-7 5 N/A -20 – 50 I2C
DF Robot SEN0321 3.3 – 5 N/A -20 – 50 I2C
NCD MQ131 5 N/A N/A I2C
Euro Gasman 4 Series MS 3.3 – 5 N/A N/A I2C
SpecSensors DGS-CO 968-034 2.6 – 3.6 4 -30 – 50 UART
SpecSensors DGS-O3968-042 3.0 – 3.6 4.3 -30 – 50 UART
SpecSensors DGS-NO2968-043 3.0 – 3.6 4.3 -30 – 50 UART
Winsen MQ-7 5 250 -20 – 50 Analog
Winsen MQ-4 5 250 -20 – 50 Analog
Winsen MQ-8 5 250 -20 – 50 Analog
Mikroe MIKROE-3196 3.3 – 5 ~50 -30 – 50 Analog/I2C
Mikroe MIKROE-4151 3.3 – 5 250 -30 – 50 Analog/SPI
Mikroe MIKROE-2767 3.3 – 5 250 -20 – 50 Analog/SPI
Mikroe MIKROE-3098 3.3 – 5 ~50 -30 – 50 Analog/I2C

TABLE 2:

Manufacturer Sensor Type / Link Protocol Price (Canadian $)
Sparkfun Accelerometer I2C $13.14
Sparkfun Temperature I2C $5.61
Sparkfun Alt/Pressure I2C $19.74
Sparkfun Humidity I2C $13.14
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August (issue #373) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 7 min