Article Materials and Resources

August (issue #373) Circuit Cellar

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p.6: Water Alarm Evolves to Full Home Security: Multi-Sensor Safety, By Devlin Gualtieri

Reference:

[1] Comidox 433Mhz HC-12 SI4463 Wireless Serial Port Module at https://www.amazon.com/Comidox-433Mhz-Wireless-Replace-Bluetooth/dp/B07KD4GR18/

PIC 16F688 Data Sheet from Microchip Technology
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/41203d.pdf
PIC Basic is available from ME Labs (https://melabs.com

Raspberry Pi OS Download Page https://www.raspberrypi.org/software/operating-systems

RioRand LCD Module for Arduino 20 x 4, White on Blue
 http://www.riorand.com/electronics/active-components/riorandtm-lcd-module-for-arduino-20-x-4-white-on-blue.html Source for purchase: https://www.amazon.com/RioRand-Module-Arduino-White-Blue/dp/B00GZ6GK7A

ME Labs | www.melabs.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Raspberry Pi Foundation | www.raspberrypi.org
RioRand | www.riorand.com

p.16: Build a Motor Dynamometer: Using a PIC32 MCU, By Erika Yu, Aasta Gandhi and Kowin Shi

E. Dlala, “Advanced Design of Electric Motors”, Ansys Blog, 2013.

A. Cartwright, “Tutorial: How to use the ACS758 Hall effect current sensor module with Arduino! (to measure current)”, YouTube, 2016.

Analog Devices, “Nonvolatile Memory, 1024-Position Digital Potentiometer”, 2017.

Allegro Microsystems, LLC, “Thermally Enhanced, Fully Integrated, Hall-Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor IC with 100 micro-ohms Current Conductor”, 2017.

“The Strain Gauge”, Sensorland.

Sharp, “GP1A57HRJ00F”, 2005.  {Jeff—does this make sense to you?}

Adafruit, “USB to TTL Serial Cable – Debug/Console Cable for Raspberry Pi”, 2016.

National Instruments, “Strain Gauge Measurement – A Tutorial”, 1995.

A. Harrington, C. Kroninger, “Characterization of Small DC Brushed and Brushless Motors”, Defense Technical Information Center, 2013. 

B. Land, “Cornell University ECE 4760 Designing with Microcontrollers Fall 2017”, Cornell University, 2017.

YouTube video for the Motor Dynamometer project:

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Allegro Microsystems | www.allegromicro.com
Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
SparkFun Electronics | www.sparkfun.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.24: Build Your Own IoT Platform: Part 3: Adding Advanced Features, By Dhairya Parikh

References:

[1] “Build Your Own IoT Platform: Part 2” Circuit Cellar 372, July 2021
[2] GitHub Repo: https://github.com/Dhairya1007/IoT-Platform-Article-3
[3] Postman Tutorial Video: https://youtu.be/cR_FqveTewo
[4] Application Password setup (for Gmail): https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/185833?hl=en

Node-RED | www.nodered.org
phpMyAdmin | www.phpmyadmin.net
Postman | www.postman.com
Twilio | www.twilio.com

p.32: Drone-Based Greenhouse Gas DAQ System: Using Teensy 4.1 Module, By Peter Shmerko and Dr. Chris Morton

References:
[1] Circuit Cellar article code and files webpage
[2] Winsen MQ-137 Ammonia Gas Sensor manual
https://cdn.sparkfun.com/assets/7/0/2/f/8/MQ137__Ver1.4__-_Manual.pdf

TABLES: SCROLL DOWN TO THE BOTTOM OF PAGE FOR AN APPENDIX CONTAINING THE TABLES FOR THIS ARTICLE

CO2Meter.com | www.co2meter.com
DF Robot | www.dfrobot.com
Euro-Gas Management Services | www.euro-gasman.com
Gas Sensing Solutions | www.gassensing.co.uk
Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
MikroElektronika (Mikroe) | www.mikroe.com
National Control Devices (NCD) | www.ncd.io
PJRC | www.pjrc.com
Pololu | www.pololu.com
Senseair | www.senseair.com
Sensirion | www.sensirion.com
Sparkfun Electronics | www.sparkfun.com
SPEC Sensors | www.spec-sensors.com
Winsen | www.winsen-sensor.com
X2 Robotics | www.x2robotics.ca

p.40: Smart Building Designs Spur Demand for IoT Solutions: Futurized Facilities, By Jeff Child

Connectivity Standards Alliance | www.csa-iot.org
IEI Integration | www.ieiworld.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com
Nordic Semiconductor | www.nordicsemi.com
Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com
Semtech | www.semtech.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com
Thread Group | www.threadgroup.org
U-blox | www.U-blox.com

p.48: Embedded AI Designs Embrace FPGAs and GPUs: High-Performance at the Edge, By Jeff Child

Achronix | www.achronix.com
Flex Logix Technologies | www.flex-logix.com
Intel | www.intel.com
Lattice Semiconductor | www.latticesemi.com
Microchip Technologies | www.micochip.com
Nvidia | www.nvidia.com
Quicklogic | www.quicklogic.com
Xilinx | www.xilinx.com

p.53: DATASHEET: Application-Specific MCUs: Target Market Mindset, By Jeff Child

Infineon Technologies  www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated  www.maximintegrated.com
Microchip Technology  www.microchip.com
NXP Semiconductors  www.nxp.com
Renesas Electronics  www.renasas.com
ST Microelectronics   www.st.com
Texas Instruments  www.ti.com

Infineon Technologies       https://www.cypress.com/file/501801/download

Maxim Integrated       https://datasheets.maximintegrated.com/en/ds/MAX78000.pdf

Microchip Technology       https://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/PIC18F27-47-57Q84-Data-Sheet-40002213D.pdf

NXP Semiconductors       https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/fact-sheet/S32K3FS.pdf

Renesas Electronics       https://www.renesas.com/us/en/document/dst/ra2l1-group-datasheet

STMicroelectronics        https://www.st.com/en/automotive-microcontrollers/sr6g7c3.html#documentation

p.56: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: FreeRTOS (Part 5): FreeRTOS+POSIX, By Bob Japenga

References:

[1] https://www.amazon.com/Real-Men-Dont-Eat-Quiche/dp/8285001210/ref=tmm_hrd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1619652227&sr=8-1
[2] https://www.freertos.org/FreeRTOS-Plus/FreeRTOS_Plus_POSIX/index.html
[3] https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/functions/contents.html
[4] http://get.posixcertified.ieee.org/register.html
[5] POSIX functions spreadsheet in an even more detailed list is provided in an Excel spread sheet, available for download from Circuit Cellar’s article code and files webpage
[6] “FreeRTOS Part 4 – Inter-Process Communications” (Circuit Cellar 371, June 2021)

FreeRTOS | www.freertos.org

Table 1 – FreeRTOS+POSIX Header Files

FileDescription
errno.hThis header file undefines the standard FreeRTOS error numbers and uses POSIX specific numbers.
fcntl.hDefines the File Control Options defines the values assigned to various file control parameters.
mqueue.hThis defines the functions and data types related to Message Queues
pthread.hThis defines the functions and data types related to Process Threads
sched.hThis defines the functions and data types related to Scheduling
semaphore.hThis defines the functions and data types related to Semaphores
signal.hThis defines the functions and data types related to Signals
sys/types.hThis defines the data types available in the system
time.hThis defines the functions and data types related to time management
unistd.hThis defines the symbolic constants and types
utils.hThis defines some glue utility functions that are not POSIX compliant

p.60: THE DARKER SIDE: Three-Phase Electric Power: Build Your Own Source, By Robert Lacoste

References:
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_currents
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics_of_three-phase_electric_power
[3] “Direct Digital Synthesis 101,” Circuit Cellar 217, August 2008
[4] AD9959
https://www.analog.com/en/products/ad9959.html#product-overview
[5] GPX1000.4 power amplifier
https://www.crunchaudio.de/english/gpx1000.4-amplifier.html

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-phase_electric_power

https://www.ecmag.com/section/your-business/wye-does-it-matter

https://www.electronicshub.org/comparison-star-delta-connections

http://www.chauvin-arnoux.com/sites/default/files/documents/d00vai84_representations_of_a_three-phase_signal_gb.pdf

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Crunch | www.crunchaudio.de
Keysight Technologies | www.keysight.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.66: FROM THE BENCH: Putting 1-Wire Protocol into Action: Power and Control Share a Link, By Jeff Bachiochi

References:
[1] Application Note 187 – 1-Wire Search Algorithm
https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/design/technical-documents/app-notes/1/187.html
[2] Application Note 27 – Understanding and Using Cyclic Redundancy Checks with Maxim 1-Wire and iButton Products
https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/design/technical-documents/app-notes/2/27.html

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Espressif Systems | www.espressif.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com

p.79: The Future of Smart Buildings: Sustainable, Smart Buildings: Planet, People and Profits, By Byron BeMiller

References:
[1] Smart Building market Size, Share, Trends, Growth Opportunities and Forecast, 2019 – 2026, Acumen Research and Consulting
[2] The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A Resource for Assessing Exposure to Environmental Pollutants, by Neil E. Klepeis et al., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
[3] Figure 2 source: www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18922-7
LoRa Alliance | www.lora-alliance.org




APPENDIX — TABLES FOR SHMERKO ARTICLE

TABLE 1A:

Manufacturer or BrandSensor IDGasPrice (Can $)Sensor TypeWeight (g)Dim.(L × W × H mm)Link 
CozIRGC-0012CO2$142.70NDIR20N/Ahttps://www.co2meter.com/products/cozir-ambient-10000-ppm-co2-sensor?variant=840094613524
SenseAirSE-0018 K30CO2$111.28NDIRN/A51 × 57 × 14https://www.co2meter.com/products/k-30-co2-sensor-module
SenseAirSE-0119 S8CO2$111.28NDIR832.7 × 19.7 × 8https://www.co2meter.com/products/s8-miniature-co2-sensor-1
SenseAirSE-0038 LP8CO2$155.79NDIR832.7 × 19.7 × 8https://www.co2meter.com/products/lp8-miniature-co2-sensor
CozIRGC-0027CO2$142.70NDIR531 × 19.5 × 8https://www.co2meter.com/products/cozir-lp-ambient-air-co2-sensor?variant=40754444884
SprintIRGC-0028CO2$325.98NDIR1625 × 40 × 31https://www.co2meter.com/products/sprintir6s-5-co2-smart-sensor
SenseAirSE-11CO2$82.46NDIR4.933 × 19.8 × 11.9https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/senseair-north-america-inc/006-0-0002/10416535
SensirionSCD30CO2$81.78NDIR3.435 × 23 × 7.00https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/sensirion-ag/SCD30/8445334
FigaroFG-010CO2$155.79NDIR332 × 17 × 7.4https://www.co2meter.com/collections/0-1-co2/products/figaro-5000ppm-co2-sensor
NCDMQ-4CH4$39.32MOSN/AN/Ahttps://store.ncd.io/product/mq-4-methane-natural-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i2c-mini-module/
NCDMQ-7CO$39.32MOSN/AN/Ahttps://store.ncd.io/product/mq-7-carbon-monoxide-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i2c-mini-module/
DF RobotSEN0321O3$70.56EC2237 × 27https://www.mouser.ca/ProductDetail/DFRobot/SEN0321?qs=GedFDFLaBXFKYEA7aR%2FFOA%3D%3D
NCDMQ131O3$56.29MOSN/AN/Ahttps://store.ncd.io/product/mq131-ozone-gas-sensor-adc121c-12-bit-adc-i%c2%b2c-mini-module/
Euro Gasman4 Series MSAllN/AECN/A23 × 22 × 24.5https://euro-gasman.com/product/4-8v-digital-i2cbus-transmitter/
SpecSensorsDGS-CO 968-034CO113.59EC2044.5 × 20.8 × 8.9https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-034/6676880
SpecSensorsDGS-O3968-042O3113.59EC2044.5 × 20.8 × 8.9https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-042/7689227
SpecSensorsDGS-NO2968-043NO2113.59EC2044.5 × 20.8 × 8.9https://www.digikey.ca/en/products/detail/spec-sensors-llc/968-043/7689228
WinsenMQ-7CO$7.99MOS1030 × 20 × 20https://x2robotics.ca/mq-7-carbon-monoxide-gas-sensor?search=MQ
WinsenMQ-4CH4$5.99MOS1030 × 20 × 20https://x2robotics.ca/mq-4-methane-gas-sensor?search=MQ
WinsenMQ-8H2$5.99MOS1030 × 20 × 20https://x2robotics.ca/mq-8-hydrogen-gas-sensor?search=MQ
MikroeMIKROE-3196CO$68.99EC2057.2 × 25×4 × 10https://www.mikroe.com/co-2-click
MikroeMIKROE-4151NH3$68.99MOS2057.15 × 25.4 × 10https://www.mikroe.com/ammonia-click
MikroeMIKROE-2767O3$48.85MOS2057.2 × 25×4 × 10https://www.mikroe.com/ozone-2-click
MikroeMIKROE-3098NO2$68.99MOS2057.2 × 25×4 × 10https://www.mikroe.com/no2-click
Abbreviations:
MOS = Semiconductor
CAT = Catalytic
EC = Electrochemical
NDIR = Infrared

TABLE 1B

Manufacturer or BrandSensor IDMeasurement Accuracy (ppm)Measurement Range (ppm)Measurement Rate (sec/
measurement )
CozIRGC-0012± 50 ppm ± 3%0 – 100000.5
SenseAirSE-0018 K30± 30 ppm ± 3 %0 – 100002
SenseAirSE-0119 S8± 70ppm ± 3%0 – 100002
SenseAirSE-0038 LP8± 50ppm ± 3%0 – 10000>15
CozIRGC-0027± 50ppm ± 3%0 – 5000<30
SprintIRGC-0028± 70ppm ± 5%0 – 500002
SenseAirSE-11± 30ppm ± 3%400 – 100002
SensirionSCD30± 30ppm ± 3%400 – 100002
FigaroFG-010± 50ppm ± 3%300 – 50002
NCDMQ-4N/A200 – 10000N/A
NCDMQ-7N/A20 – 2000N/A
DF RobotSEN0321N/A0 – 10<90
NCDMQ131N/A10 – 1000N/A
Euro Gasman4 Series MSN/AN/AN/A
SpecSensorsDGS-CO 968-034± 15%0 – 10005
SpecSensorsDGS-O3968-042± 15%0 – 51
SpecSensorsDGS-NO2968-043± 15%0 – 51
WinsenMQ-7± ~30%10 – 10001
WinsenMQ-4± ~30%300 – 100001
WinsenMQ-8± ~30%100 – 10001
MikroeMIKROE-3196± 15%0 – 10005
MikroeMIKROE-4151± ~30%5 – 2001
MikroeMIKROE-2767± ~30%10 – 10001
MikroeMIKROE-3098± 15%0 – 201

TABLE 1C

Manufacturer or BrandSensor IDVoltage Input (VDC)Peak Current (mA)Operating Temp. (°C)Comm. Protocol
CozIRGC-00123.3 – 5.5330 – 50UART
SenseAirSE-0018 K305.5 – 141500 – 50UART/I2C
SenseAirSE-0119 S84.5 – 5.253000 – 50UART/Modbus
SenseAirSE-0038 LP82.9 – 5.51250 – 50UART
CozIRGC-00273.25 – 5.5330 – 50UART
SprintIRGC-00283.25 – 5.5330 – 50UART
SenseAirSE-113.05 – 5.51250 – 50UART/I2C
SensirionSCD303.3 – 5.5750 – 50UART/I2C
FigaroFG-0104.75 – 5.25600 – 50UART/I2C/PWM
NCDMQ-45N/A-10 – 50I2C
NCDMQ-75N/A-20 – 50I2C
DF RobotSEN03213.3 – 5N/A-20 – 50I2C
NCDMQ1315N/AN/AI2C
Euro Gasman4 Series MS3.3 – 5N/AN/AI2C
SpecSensorsDGS-CO 968-0342.6 – 3.64-30 – 50UART
SpecSensorsDGS-O3968-0423.0 – 3.64.3-30 – 50UART
SpecSensorsDGS-NO2968-0433.0 – 3.64.3-30 – 50UART
WinsenMQ-75250-20 – 50Analog
WinsenMQ-45250-20 – 50Analog
WinsenMQ-85250-20 – 50Analog
MikroeMIKROE-31963.3 – 5~50-30 – 50Analog/I2C
MikroeMIKROE-41513.3 – 5250-30 – 50Analog/SPI
MikroeMIKROE-27673.3 – 5250-20 – 50Analog/SPI
MikroeMIKROE-30983.3 – 5~50-30 – 50Analog/I2C

TABLE 2:

ManufacturerSensor Type / LinkProtocolPrice (Canadian $)
SparkfunAccelerometerI2C$13.14
SparkfunTemperatureI2C$5.61
SparkfunAlt/PressureI2C$19.74
SparkfunHumidityI2C$13.14
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August (issue #373) Circuit Cellar

by Circuit Cellar Staff time to read: 7 min