Embedded File System Adds RAID5 Support

SEGGER Microcontroller has added a RAID5 option to its emFile embedded file system to maximize data integrity and reliability. RAID5 delivers a high level of data integrity by providing an additional layer of fail-safety on top of the CRC and/or error correction used by the underlying driver or storage medium. With RAID5, the storage device is divided into several partitions, one of which holds parity information allowing data recovery in case of a partition fail. It can be used on any storage medium and the parity information can be stored on the same storage device (in a separate partition) or on a separate device.
The add-on has a tiny memory footprint, typically using about 1 KB of RAM and 3 KB of flash memory. RAID5 is available as an additional option and as an alternative to RAID1. RAID1 has been in the market for many years, and proven its value over and over, but does use 50% of the raw storage capacity for data security. The amount of storage used by RAID5 is configurable, typically using 5% or less. Being part of the emFile storage layer, the new add-on can also be used for USB Mass storage as well as other applications.

SEGGER Microcontroller | www.segger.com

Enclustra FPGA Modules Power Electric Racing Car

Formula Student is the largest engineering competition in the world. The Zurich/Switzerland based AMZ student team managed to put itself top of the world rankings, also thanks to the innovative, FPGA module-based approach for the electric drivetrain. Four custom inverters are built around the Xilinx Zynq 7015 based Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module to reach the fastest lap times.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC (hidden under the heat sink) is the heart of the inverter (green PCB).

by Andreas Horat, CTO – AMZ electric
ETH Formula Student Project

Formula Student – the largest engineering competition in the world (see box) – has 18 events a year, with more than 600 student teams participating. In the twelve-year history, the AMZ (Akademischer Motorsportverein Zürich) racing team, consisting of students from the ETH Zürich and the university of applied science Lucerne, has managed to put itself at the top of the world rankings thanks to continuous improvement of concepts and the introduction of new innovations, like the use of an FPGA module for controlling the electric drive motors. The tenth anniversary two years ago was crowned with the successful world record for the fastest acceleration for an electric car from 0 to 100 km/h in 1.513 seconds. In order to remain competitive, the individual vehicle components must be coordinated and integrated into one reliable and performant system. With most of the components developed and built custom their selves, AMZ can do just that.

The way to the top
The aim of the 2018 vehicle “eiger” – all cars are named after Swiss mountains – was to reach the maximum possible number of points in the competition. This is achieved by driving the fastest lap. By lap time simulation, energy calculations and analysis of the log data of past seasons it was decided to follow a concept with a fully custom four wheel drivetrain, a Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) monocoque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and windtunnel validated aeropackage and hydraulic suspension.

FPGA module based inverter
For the first time in the AMZ history the team developed all components of the drivetrain completely in-house. The last missing part was the Inverter. In 2017 the team started the development of a completely custom inverter, based on a FPGA module from Enclustra. The inverter converts the DC voltage from the Lithium battery into three-phase current to run the permanent magnet synchronous motors.

Four self-developed inverters control one motor each. A self-developed direct torque control (DTC) modulator is running on a Xilinx Zynq 7015 FPGA-System-on-Chip based Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module. VHDL implementation makes it possible to estimate the current state of the motor and calculate the new switching positions every 10 nanoseconds – not possible with a microcontroller or DSP based system.

The electric race car “eiger” has a four wheel drivetrain that is controlled by an FPGA on the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module.

Custom 1200 Volt SiC MOSFET modules with an on resistance of only 10 milliohm with self developed intelligent gate-drivers, water cooled through a 3D printed cooling plate, reduce conduction and switching losses with increased switching speed down to 39 ns rise time. Additional two 47 nanofarad DC-link capacitors on the module decrease power loop inductance. A hybrid dc link with 6 microfarad Ceralink ceramic capacitors and 240 microfarad film capacitors are used to reduce mass and lower dc link voltage ripple. Two PCBs are designed with 1 millimeter copper inlets for tractive system connections to minimize board area. To control the motor, the three phase currents, the dc link voltage and current as well as two phase to phase voltages are measured with up to 1 million samples per second. To determine the current position of the motor a resolver is used. Gigabit ethernet and CAN connectivity ensures fast and safe communication in the car and on the test bench. The entire inverter software is developed in-house to ensure highest customizability.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module
For the processing unit a system on chip (SoC) was chosen. Bare SoCs are in most cases packaged in a ball grid array (BGA), that is difficult to solder and require a PCB with many layers to route the signals to the chip. The SoC requires also a lot of periphery such as memory, clock, interfaces and a sophisticated power supply. The Mercury ZX5 SoC module from Enclustra provides exactly all that functionality on one single small PCB. The module contains 1 gigabyte of DDR3L SDRAM, 512 megabyte of NAND Flash, an ethernet PHY and a power supply for all required voltages. The module even can power circuits on the base board, minimizing the need for power converters.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 is a complete system on module based on the Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC.

Abundant computing power
The modulator and all the communication to the peripherals are implemented on the FPGA as it requires a very low latency and a high update rate. All safety critical functions are implemented on the FPGA, reaching a delay time of at most 1 microsecond for the over current protection and 2 microseconds for the over-voltage protection. A multilayer redundant safety system is implemented on the FPGA and the processor so that the processors and the FPGA monitor each other and shut down the inverter in case of any inconsistencies.

The higher-level controls such as velocity control and traction control are implemented on one core of the ARM Cortex-A9 processor. The second core is responsible for the communication with the vehicle control unit (VCU) or the controlling computer and for the data logging.

High bandwidth interfaces
The compiled firmware together with the bitstream for the FPGA is copied onto an SD card, that gets plugged into the inverter base board. At startup the bootloader then copies the firmware into the memory and loads the bitstream into the FPGA fabric.

The FPGA processes all current measurements with 1 million sampels per second (MSps), while the voltage measurements are processed with 500 kSps. These components are accessed through a SPI-based protocol. The motor position is measured through a resolver with a 33 kSps parallel interface. Besides being used directly by the modulator, the data is transferred to the processor through the integrated AXI PL-PS interconnect. With this technology, the processor can simply change the configuration data and read the values of the FPGA with memory access instructions.

In addition it is possible to access the DDR3 RAM of the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module directly from the FPGA fabric. Like this it is possible to transfer large amount of log data to the RAM without processor usage. This data is then stored to the SD card for offline analysis, before the inverter is turned off.

The temperatures of the semiconductors and the output filter are measured with the built-in XADC of the SoC and directly used on the processor. In the car, the inverter is connected to the VCU via the CAN interface directly to the processing system. To run the inverter on the test bench and to connect it to a computer, the ethernet interface is used.

Simplified power supply
The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 can be powered from a single power supply with a voltage between 5 and 15 volt. It contains the DC/DC converters for all the internally required voltages. The on the module generated voltages are also routed to module connector pins. O the inverter base board these 3.3 volt and 1.8 volt rails are used to power the analog and digital circuits. Due to this the effort for the external power supply is minimized.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 contains abundant I/Os and interfaces, memory and all needed power supplies.

Broad design-in support
To ease the integration of their modules, Enclustra provides all required hardware, software and support materials. Detailed documentation and reference designs make it easy to get started, in addition to the user manual, user schematics, a 3D-model, schematic symbol, PCB footprints and differential I/O length tables are available. Thanks to this the risk of wrong pin alignment is minimized.

The Enclustra Build Environment can be used to compile the Enclustra SoC modules with an integrated ARM processor very smoothly. The module and base board are selected by a graphical interface. After that, the Enclustra Build Environment downloads the appropriate Bitstream, First Stage Boot Loader (FSBL) and the required source code. Finally, U-Boot, Linux and the root file system based on BusyBox are compiled.
With the free Module Configuration Tool (MCT) the modules and base boards can be configured via USB – without any additional hardware. Using the on-board USB connectors on the Enclustra base boards, users can program the module’s FPGA and SPI flash, read the module EEPROM, and configure peripheral devices.a
All arising questions during the development of the AMZ inverter could be solved quickly with the help of Enclustras support.

The next evolution
The new inverter for the 2019 race car “mythen” is again built around the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module. The even smaller Mars ZX2 from Enclustra has also been evaluated, but this module was not able to fulfil the required number of I/O-Pins. With the new inverter a fiber-optic link between two Enclustra Mercury ZX5 modules is implement in the car. For this the Multi-Gigabit-Transceivers are used.

For “mythen” the drivetrain concept was changed from four inverters – one for each motor/wheel – to a two inverters concept. One inverter with one Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module is controlling two motors now. Thanks this new concept a lot of auxiliary circuits could be merged, the complexity reduced and also some valuable space saved. In addition it opens the possibility to implement more advanced control algorithms, which act on multiple motors.

The Formula Student competition
Formula Student is the world’s biggest competition for engineers, founded in 1981. The idea of the competition is to introduce future engineers during one year to the development, production, assembly, testing and competition of an electric or combustion race car. More than 600 teams from universities all over the world competing with their self-constructed race cars. The winner is not necessarily the team with the fastest car, but the one with the best package regarding construction, performance, financial planning and sales arguments.A separate class for electric vehicles was introduced in 2010 in order to prepare prospective young engineers for future technologies such as electric drivetrains and in order to advance the innovation process.www.formulastudent.com
www.formulastudent.de
ETH Formula Student Project: electric.amzracing.ch

 

Enclustra – Everything FPGA
Enclustra is an innovative and successful FPGA design house. The FPGA Design Center supports customer with development services over the complete spectrum of the FPGA based system development. From high-speed hardware and HDL firmware to embedded software, from specification and implementation to prototype production. The other part of Enclustra, the FPGA Solution Center, develops and sells highly integrated FPGA & SoC modules, based on Intel and Xilinx FPGAs & SoCs, as well as FPGA optimized IP-Cores. The specialization to the FPGA technology enables Enclustra to provide optimal solutions with minimal effort in many application areas.Enclustra GmbH
8045 Zurich
Tel. +41 (0) 43 343 39 43
mailto:[email protected]
www.enclustra.com

 

 

 

Space Qualified DC-DC Converters Leverage GaN Technology

VPT has released its SGRB Series of space qualified DC-DC converters. Using advanced GaN technology, the SGRB is capable of very high efficiency, up to 95%, as well as radiation tolerance. A fixed-frequency reduced voltage switching topology results in very low input and output noise, making it suitable for use in telecommunication systems.

VPT’s SGRB DC-DC Converter

Specifically designed for applications facing the harsh radiation environments of space, the SGRB Series has been characterized to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) of 100 krad(Si), including Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS), and Single Event Effects (SEE) performance to 85 MeV/mg/cm2. The SGRB Series features an integrated EMI filter, 100 V input and 28 V, 400 W output, and is rated for full power operation from -35°C to 85°C. VPT is reviewing specific customer requests for custom orders of the SGRB Series.

VPT | www.vptpower.com

 

 

Integration Trend Leads PCB Design Tool Evolution

Comprehensive Solutions

After decades of evolving their PCB design tool suites, the leading tool vendors have the basics of PCB design nailed down. In recent years, these companies have continued to enhance their tools suites while also addressing a myriad of issues related to not just the PCB design itself, but the whole process surrounding it.

By Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

PCB design tools continue to evolve, as tool vendors scramble to keep pace with faster, highly integrated electronics. Automated, rules-based chip placement is getting more sophisticated and tools are addressing the broader picture of the PCB design process.

Over the last 12 months, PCB tool vendors have packed a smorgasbord of new features and capabilities into their PCB design software packages. The offerings include improved 3D design, design-phase signal integrity checks, advances in multi-board design functions, new design-for-manufacturing (DFM) features and more. Tool vendors are also tightening the links between IC, packaging and PCB design domains.

Improving DRCs

Exemplifying all those trends, In March, Mentor released the latest version of its Xpedition Enterprise design tool suite. According to Mentor, the VX.2.5 release offers new and improved features and functionality with an emphasis on ease of use and team productivity. The release includes advancements in design complexity management, improved reliability, quality, team collaboration and IP management. This includes new design rule checks (DRCs) for system design and NX 3D model support in EDM.

In Xpedition VX.2.5 new system design rule checks were created to review system integrity. Rule checks include cross-probing from integrity results to the specific item of interest can be enabled, verification that reference designators are unique in a single board and ensuring that the board connectors have been placed inside a board outline (Figure 1). Cable declarations are locked and names forwarded to the cable designer insuring that the required information is ready for “correct by construction” cable design.

Figure 1
In Xpedition, VX.2.5 new system design rule checks were created to review system integrity. Rule checks include cross-probing from integrity results to the specific item of interest.

Using the generic schematic symbol pin order for connectors doesn’t always achieve the desired results, says Mentor. In VX.2.5, users can now use the library symbol pin order column to easily edit pin numbers and the order. Pin orders can now be easily copied from an Excel spreadsheet and the connectors can be place by the pin numbers alpha-numeric value.

EDM in VX.2.5, along with Siemens NX, breaks down barriers with 3D model management. NX models can now be imported and exported in the EDM library cockpit ensuring tight integration, model integrity and accelerates collaboration. In VX.2.5, EDM Collaborate now enables users to view the net class and net topology information in the properties view. Whether you are viewing the schematic or layout, the information is available in properties and when selecting a net.

Routing Enhancements

Xpedition VX.2.5 also has a new capability called Semi Trunk routing that’s been added to Sketch Planning. This capability allows the user to create a Sketch plan that will only be routed on one end of the plan. By choosing the new command, Route Semi-Trunk, the Sketch plan will be optimized for the end opposite the Route to Dot, and then routed. This can help the user to pre-route interfaces that may still require placement or pin and gate swapping optimization. To complete optimization of an FPGA or ASIC and ensure the placement of the interface is complete, users can easily Reverse the Sketch plan to optimize the other end.

The new Xpedition version adds an advanced graphic orientation triad that enables users to quickly and easily control the 3D view. It also brings improvements to the online 3D DRC enabling users to identify critical interference issues quickly. From the hazard explorer users can select on interference issues and jump to their location to both view and resolve issues in the 3D environment.

Several additional electrical DRC checks are included in the new release. For signal integrity, a new reference rule covers traces vs. specific power nets. There is also a new Min/Max routed comp-to-comp length rule. Additionally, there is a novel Adjacent layer routing parallel coupling check as well as a new trace width check in BGA area vs. pin pad width. For power integrity, there is a new check for stitching via spacing. For ESD, there is a new check to ensure that components are aligned and finally, for Safety, there is a new rule that checks the distance between soldermask/silkscreen and any objects.

In version VX.2.5, the tool now integrates directly with HyperLynx advanced solvers for automatic board parasitic extraction. You can also select nets on the schematics, extract layout parasitic effects of selected nets, insert generated parasitic effects into simulation and evaluate the parasitic effects both with and without parasitics.

Marrying IC and PCB Design

One of the strengths of the PCB design tools from Cadence Design Systems is an ability to tie capabilities between the IC, packaging and PCB domains. One example is its Cadence’s OrbitIO interconnect designer (Figure 2). The tool revamps the cross-fabric planning and assessment process by unifying silicon, package and board data in a single canvas environment. This enables engineers to achieve the optimal balance of connectivity for performance, cost and manufacturability prior to implementation. That means fewer iterations and shorter development cycles.

Figure 2
Cadence’s PCB design tools feature an ability to tie capabilities between the IC, packaging and PCB domains. Its OrbitIO interconnect designer and Sigrity Technologies are two examples.

According to Cadence, the combination of growing functional integration at both the die and package level, combined with the latest high-performance interfaces, requires greater planning and coordination across all fabrics to achieve product performance objectives. That leaves little room for inefficient and error-prone methodologies.

The OrbitIO system planner provides an environment capable of uniting design content from various sources for the purpose of planning, then communicating the data back to their respective implementation tools for completion. It enables rapid exploration and evaluation of connectivity scenarios providing immediate feedback on the impact to adjacent devices and fabrics. Planning results and route plans are directly exchanged with package design resources whether it’s an internal group or outsourced assembly and test (OSAT) provider. As part of an overall Cadence co-design solution, OrbitIO interconnect designer can seamlessly exchange silicon, package and PCB data with their corresponding implementation tools.

Another way that Cadence provides solutions between different design domains is with its Sigrity family of signal integrity tools. The 2018 release of Sigrity features an upgraded interconnect modeling technology crafted to address latest trends on PCB and IC package design. With signal speeds climbing to 32 Gbps and faster, the need to strategically model PCBs and connectors as one structure is now required, says Cadence.

The new Cadence Sigrity 3D Workbench, included with the Sigrity PowerSI 3D EM Extraction Option (3DEM), enables system designers to import mechanical structures, such as cables and connectors, and merge them with the PCB so that critical 3D structures that cross from the board to the connector can be modeled and optimized as one structure. Updates to the PCB can be automatically back-annotated to the PCB layout tool.

DFM Partnerships

One the newest additions to the Cadence portfolio is its DesignTrue DFM technology. In September the company launched a broad ecosystem with nine initial PCB manufacturing partners to enable customers to easily get the partners’ technology files they need to ensure PCB design manufacturability early in the design process. The goal is to reduce rework, shorten design cycles and accelerate new product introduction.

According to Cadence, design engineer customers have received savings from half to two-thirds fewer technical queries (TQs) from manufacturers when they’ve used the Cadence DesignTrue DFM technology due to using tailor-made spacing, annular ring, copper features and mask rules to assure they are designing the board correctly the first time.

Cadence DesignTrue DFM functionality flags manufacturing rule violations in real time during the PCB layout process with both the Allegro and OrCAD design tools. In contrast, other PCB design tools demand designers wait until the design is complete to do DFM signoff on manufacturing outputs, which often requires significant rework and schedule delays, says Cadence. Nine PCB manufacturers have already become Cadence DesignTrue partners, allowing them to distribute their manufacturing rules to Cadence customers. These include Bay Area Circuits, CircuitHub, Mass Design, Multek, OSH Park, Rocket EMS, Sierra Circuits, Tempo Automation and Würth Elektronik.

Customers can view participating manufacturers and request DesignTrue DFM technology files directly, eliminating the lengthy and error-prone manual entry of hundreds of rules. DFM rules are checked in real time as part of the PCB layout process, reducing the amount of DFM errors found in the manufacturing output. These checks prevent crucial manufacturing errors and limit iterations required to fix such errors.

3D, Multi-Board and More

For its part, Altium typically announces a new version of its Altium Design PCB software once a year. In December, the launch of Altium Designer version 19 introduced a number of new features aimed at enabling a convenient and connected design including multi-board capability, 3D modelling, enhanced HDI, routing automation and more (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Altium Designer version 19 introduces several new features including multi-board capability, 3D modelling, enhanced HDI, routing automation and more.

The version features an advanced Layer Stack Manager. It lets users easily define stackups and exploit comprehensive editing type functionality from the convenience of their layer stack management tool. Routing improvements in version 19 enable designers to complete and perfect routing in a fraction of the time with new capabilities in ActiveRoute like the Move Component feature, Glossing Pushed Routes and Follow Mode.

A new Properties panel in Altium Designer lets designers edit their Thermal Relief settings for one or multiple vias in a single edit action. And support is provided to allow designers to expertly model microvias and HDI stackups on their boards to accommodate high input/output densities of advanced component packages.

Also provided in Altium Designer 19 is a refined documentation process that lets users utilize new, realistic board region views and create highly customizable fabrication and assembly drawings in Draftsman. A real-time BOM (bill of materials) management capability enables you to generate and build comprehensive BOM reports quickly and accurately with access to the latest supplier information and parts availability in ActiveBOM. And new parts search and components panels provide immediate access to component libraries and parts availability from major providers, with the ability to place components directly from the panel.

The new release improves multi-board modeling and collaboration. It simplifies object mating with a single-point selection for each object with MCAD-like editing functionality, powered by a new 3D engine. Version 19 also lets users actualize layer-less design concepts with the ability to print electronic circuits directly onto a substrate that becomes a part of the product.

Front-Loading Design Intent

In the 2018 release of Zuken’s system-level PCB design environment, CR-8000 features were added to support the unique requirements of high-density, high-speed, multi-board designs. With support for system-level engineering and 2D/3D multi-board implementation capabilities, the CR-8000 family of applications spans the complete PCB engineering lifecycle: from system level planning through implementation and design for manufacturability. The CR-8000 environment also includes 3D IC packaging and chip/package/board co-design.

Among the enhancements to the latest version of CR-8000 is the front-loading of design intent (Figure 4). This means enabling efficient front-loading of design constraints and specifications to the design creation process, coupled with sophisticated placement and routing capabilities for physical layout. This increases efficiency and ensures quality through streamlined collaboration across the PCB design chain.

Figure 4
In CR-8000 2018, a front-loading capability enables improved layout control by enabling hardware engineers to assign and edit topology templates and clearance classes to selected signals.

Front-loading of design intent from Design Gateway to Design Force has been achieved by adding an enhanced, unified constraint browser for both applications. This enables hardware engineers to assign topology templates, modify differential signals and assign clearance classes to individual signals. Using a rule stack editor during the circuit design phase, hardware engineers can now load design rules that include differential pair routing and routing width stacks directly from the design rule library into their schematic. Here, they can modify and assign selected rules for improved cross talk and differential pair control. Finally, an enhanced component browser enables component variants to be managed in the schematic, and assigned in a user-friendly table.

In Zuken’s CR-8000 2018, manual routing is supported by a new auto complete and route function that layout designers can use to complete manually routed traces in an automated way. Designers also have the option to look for paths on different layers while automatically inserting vias.

A new bus routing function allows layout designers to sketch paths for multiple nets to be routed over dense areas. An added benefit is the routing of individual signals to the correct signal length as per the hardware engineer’s front-loaded constraints, to meet timing skew and budgets. If modifications to fully placed and routed boards are required, an automatic re-route function allows connected component pins to remain connected with a simple reroute operation during the move process. In all operations, clearance and signal length specifications are automatically controlled and adjusted by powerful algorithms.

Design for Manufacturing

To address manufacturing requirements for high-speed design, CR-8000 2018 enables the automatic stitching of vias in poured conductive areas to be specified in comprehensive detail—for example inside area online, perimeter outline or both inside and perimeter. DFM has been enhanced to include checks for non-conductor items, such as silkscreen and assembly drawing placed reference designators. A design rule check makes sure component reference designators are listed in the same order as the parts for visual inspection accuracy.

Because many product engineers do not work with EDA tools, intelligent PDF documentation is required, especially in 3D. Design Force now supports creation of PRC files commonly used for 3D printing. The PRC files can be opened in PDF authoring applications such as Adobe Acrobat, where they are realized as a 3D PDF file complete with 3D models and bookmarks to browse the design.

There’s no doubt that PCB design tools have advanced way beyond the days when placement and routing were the only duties on their plates. As PCB designs—and the ICs populating them—grow ever more complex, PCB design tool vendors must race to keep up with advanced integrated tool solutions.

RESOURCES

Altium | www.altium.com
Bay Area Circuits | bayareacircuits.com
Cadence Design Systems | www.cadence.com
Mentor, a Siemens Company | www.mentor.com
Zuken | www.zuken.com

This article appeared in the June 347 issue of Circuit Cellar

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30 W DC-DC Converters Blend High Power Density, Compact Size

MINMAX Technology has announced the MINMAX MJWI30 series range of 30 W isolated DC-DC power modules with ultra-wide input ranges in the compact 1” x 1” package measuring only 1.0” × 1.0” × 0.4”. The devices offer a very high-power density up to 75 W/in3. This level of integration offers system designers the opportunity to reduce overall PCB layout area or add more features into existing PCB profiles. The MJWI30 family of DC-DC converters consists of 14 models offering 9-36 or 18-75 VDC input ranges with single output models ranging 3.3–24 VDC and dual output models ±12 V or ±15 V delivering 30 W of output power.

All models feature: I/O Isolation of 1, 500 VDC, key performance featuring high efficiency up to 90%, operating ambient temperature range of -40°C to +80°C , faster start-up; fully regulated outputs with high precision, no minimum load requirement, very low no-load power consumption, shielded metal package and under-voltage/overload/short-circuit protection.

MJWI30 Series need few peripheral components to meet EN55032 Class A & Class B. EMS EN61000-4-2/3/4/5/6/8 approved with criteria A, and EN61000-4-4/5 need few peripheral components. (UL/cUL/IEC/EN 62368-1 Safety Approval & CE Marking is undergoing.)

Features:

  • Ultra-compact 1″×1″ Package
  • Ultra-wide 4:1 Input Voltage Range
  • Fully Regulated Output Voltage
  • Excellent Efficiency up to 90%
  • I/O Isolation 1500 VDC
  • Operating Ambient Temp. Range -40℃ to +80℃
  • No Min. Load Requirement
  • Very low no load power consumption
  • Under-voltage, Overload/Voltage and Short Circuit Protection
  • Remote On/Off Control, Output Voltage Trim
  • Shielded Metal Case with Insulated Baseplate
  • UL/cUL/IEC/EN 62368-1 Safety Approval & CE Marking

MINMAX Technology | www.minmaxpower.com

Dev Tools Extend Transportation Safety Standards Coverage

IAR Systems has updated the functional safety editions of the leading embedded development toolchain IAR Embedded Workbench with new functional safety certificates. The new certificates add the standard EN 50657:2017 “Railways Applications – Rolling stock applications – Software on Board Rolling Stock” as well as a later revision of the “Road vehicles – Functional safety” standard called ISO 26262:2018.

Functional safety is one of the most important features in many embedded systems and companies must consider development tools as an integral part of the system certification, says IAR Systems. The proof of compliance for the tools increases cost and time of development. To solve this problem, IAR Systems provides certified versions of the complete compiler and debugger toolchain IAR Embedded Workbench for Arm, Renesas RX, Renesas RL78 and Renesas RH850.

The build chains of IAR Embedded Workbench for Arm, RX, RL78 and RH850 have been tested and approved according to the requirements on support tools put forth in the international umbrella standard for functional safety IEC 61508, the standard for automotive safety-related systems ISO 26262, and the the European railway standard EN 50128 and EN 50657. For Arm, RX and RL78, the certification also covers IEC 62304, defining the life cycle requirements for medical device software.

The quality assurance measures applied by IAR Systems and the included Safety Manual allow application developers to use the tools in safety-related software development for each Safety Integrity Level (SIL) according to IEC 61508 and each Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of ISO 26262. IAR Embedded Workbench is certified by TÜV SÜD.

IAR Embedded Workbench provides a complete IDE including the IAR C/C++ Compiler and the C-SPY Debugger. The code analysis tools C-RUN® and C-STAT® add static and runtime analysis, enabling complete code control through the entire development cycle. Thanks to the complete integration of the tools in the IAR Embedded Workbench IDE, developers get up and running quickly with the analysis.

IAR Systems also offers a Functional Safety Support and Update Agreement with guaranteed support for the sold version for the longevity of the contract. In addition to prioritized technical support, the agreement includes access to validated service packs and regular reports of known deviations and problems.

IAR Systems | www.iar.com

 

Open-Spec Omega2 LTE SBC Features Cat 4 and GNSS

By Eric Brown

Last December, Onion updated its MIPS-based, WiFi-enabled Omega2 board with a similarly OpenWrt-driven Omega2 Pro SBC that increased RAM to 512 MB and flash to 8 GB and added real-world USB host and micro-USB ports. Now, the company has returned to Crowd Supply with a similarly open source, OpenWrt Linux driven Omega2 LTE model with 4G LTE and GNSS location connectivity. Pricing ranges from $99 for the board alone to $199 for a fully loaded “Ultimate Collection” kit, all with early August shipments.

 
Omega2 LTE
(click images to enlarge)
The Omega2 LTE is not based on the Omega2 Pro, but rather the earlier, surface-mount Omega2S+ compute module version of the Omega2 announced back in 2017. Designed for the OEM market, the 42.9 mm x 26.4 mm  x 9.9 mm Omega2S+ module is equipped with the same MIPS-based, 580MHz MediaTek MT7688 SoC with 2.4GHz 802.11b/g/n radio found on the Omega2 and Omega2 Pro. However, it has a smaller allotment of 128 MB RAM and 32 MB flash.


Omega2 Pro

The 80 mm x 50 mm Omega2 LTE board is slightly larger than the 73 mm x 44 mm Omega2 Pro. The 5 V board features a JST-PH battery connector and LiPo battery management for mobile and remote applications. The SBC is designed for applications including remote sensor hubs and real-time asset and fleet tracking gizmos that need to report “geoposition, an accurate timestamp, and other data to remote servers,” says Onion.

The Omega2 LTE is equipped with a Quectel EC25 chipset available in variants for North American and global LTE Cat 4 networks. Cat 4 provides 150Mbps downlink and 50Mbps uplink speeds. The Omega2 LTE board supports the module with a nano-SIM slot and U.FL connectors for main and diversity antennas.

The Quectel EC25 also supplies a “high-sensitivity, multi-constellation” GNSS receiver for satellite positioning with support for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo, and QZSS networks. With the help of a built-in U.FL connector, the GNSS receiver provides “accurate time data worldwide,” says Onion.

You can set up the system to keep the power-sucking LTE modem asleep for most of the time, waking only at intervals to transmit cached data stored on the microSD card. At the same time, you can keep the lower-powered GNSS connection operating continually. The system can also be configured to share the LTE connection over the Omega 2S+ WiFi radio, which can simultaneously establish an access point while running a client session. As usual, the WiFi radio includes with u.FL connector and is accompanied by a 2 dBi directional chip antenna.

 
Omega2 LTE detail views
(click images to enlarge)
The Omega2 LTE lacks the USB 2.0 host port of the Omega2 Pro. In place of the micro-USB port, it supplies a USB Type-C port with power and serial communications support. A USB-to-serial chip provides always-on access to the command line for configuration and debugging. Alternatively, you can use a more secure command-line terminal connection through the local network using SSH.

The SBC is further equipped with a power switch, a programmable button, multi-colored status LEDs for LTE and general operation, and a 30-pin GPIO connector. The latter supports the same add-on modules that debuted on the Omega2 Pro. including 10/100 Ethernet, 1-inch OLED, 16-signal servo, 4-channel, 16-bit ADC, NFC/RFID, and a proto-pad breadboard for soldering.

 
Omega2 LTE pinout and add-on modules
(click images to enlarge)
A $129 Essential Collection gives you the Ethernet and ADC modules, as well as a $10 3-in-1 Flex Antenna Kit. The Ultimate Collection adds the OLED, servo, NFC/RFID, and Proto-pad modules, as well as a $49 Pro Antenna Kit.

Like the Omega2 Pro, the board offers the OnionOS GUI stack on top of the underlying OpenWrt 18.06 Linux distro stored in flash. Running within a browser, OnionOS supports languages such as Python, GoLang, NodeJS, PHP, C, and C++. It also includes Terminal and Code Editor apps.

Further information

The Omega2 LTE is available for the next 36 days on Crowd Supply starting at $99 with volume discounts. Shipping is free in the U.S. and $10 to $15 worldwide, and current orders will be fulfilled Aug. 9. More information may be found on the Omega2 LTE Crowd Supply page and the Onion website.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on May 22.

Onion | onion.io

Reference Designs and Analog ICs Target Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Texas Instruments (TI) has introduced fully tested reference designs for battery management and traction inverter systems, along with new analog circuits with advanced monitoring and protection features to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and enable hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (HEV/EVs) to drive farther and longer.
Scalable across six to 96-series cell supervision circuits, TI’s new battery management system (BMS) reference design (shown) features the advanced BQ79606A-Q1 precision battery monitor and balancer. Engineers can get their automotive designs to market quickly using the reference design, which implements the battery monitor in a daisy chain configuration to create a highly accurate and reliable system design for three- to 378-series, 12-V up to 1.5 kV lithium-ion battery packs.

The highly integrated BQ79606A-Q1 accurately monitors temperature and voltage levels and helps maximize battery life and time on the road. Additionally, the BQ79606A-Q1 battery monitor features safe-state communication that helps system designers meet requirements up to Automotive Safety Integrity Level D (ASIL D), which is the highest functional safety goal defined by the ISO 26262 road vehicles standard.

With so many kilowatts of power filtering through an electric vehicle’s traction inverter and batteries, high temperatures could potentially damage expensive and sensitive powertrain elements. Excellent thermal management of the system is crucial to vehicle performance, as well as protecting drivers and passengers.

To protect powertrain systems such as a 48-V starter generator from overheating, TI introduced the TMP235-Q1 precision analog output temperature sensors. This low-power, low-quiescent-current (9-µA) device provides high accuracy (±0.5°C typical and ±2.5°C maximum accuracy across the full operating temperature from -40°C to 150°C) to help traction inverter systems react to temperature surges and apply appropriate thermal management techniques.

The TMP235-Q1 temperature sensing device joins the recently released UCC21710-Q1 and UCC21732-Q1 gate drivers in helping designers create smaller, more efficient traction-inverter designs. These devices are the first isolated gate drivers to integrate sensing features for insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistors, enabling greater system reliability in applications operating up to 1.5 kVRMS and with superior isolation surge protection exceeding 12.8 kV with a specified isolation voltage of 5.7 kV. The devices also provide fast detection times to protect against overcurrent events while ensuring safe system shutdown.

To power the new gate drivers directly from a car’s 12-V battery, TI has released a new reference design demonstrating three types of IGBT/SiC bias-supply options for traction inverter power stages. The design consists of reverse-polarity protection, electric-transient clamping and over- and under-voltage protection circuits. The compact design includes the new LM5180-Q1, which is a 65-V primary-side regulation flyback converter with a 100-V, 1.5-A integrated power MOSFET.

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

 

Hypervisor Achieves Compliance to New Version of ISO 26262

OpenSynergy has received the certificate from TÜV SÜD confirming the compliance of OpenSynergy’s COQOS Hypervisor to ISO 26262:2018 ASIL-B. COQOS Hypervisor is a Type-1 hypervisor for the ARMv8 architecture developed specifically to support automotive use-cases such as cockpit and domain controllers. OpenSynergy specializes in embedded automotive software and its hypervisor technology has been in mass production since 2014.

The COQOS Hypervisor is a Type-1 hypervisor for automotive applications. It allows customers to build highly compartmentalized systems that can be tailored to their specific requirements. The COQOS Hypervisor has been developed for the ARMv8 architecture, supports many automotive SoC’s and takes full advantage of hardware virtualization. Current series development with COQOS Hypervisor includes cockpit controllers –integrating infotainment and a digital instrument cluster–, infotainment systems, rear-seat entertainment, connectivity devices and gateways.
Some of these use-cases include safety-relevant functionalities, such as displaying tell-tales on the instrument cluster. In these cases, the hypervisor must provide freedom from interference between the safety and non-safety virtual machines. This is why OpenSynergy has developed COQOS Hypervisor as a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 ASIL-B using safety requirements based on real automotive use-cases.

The examination and certification by TÜV SÜD Rail GmbH has now confirmed that COQOS Hypervisor complies to the new version of the ISO 26262 standard (ISO 26262:2018) at the ASIL-B level. The new version of the ISO 26262 standard has additional expectations, e.g. on the management of the security of the product. COQOS Hypervisor is the first hypervisor that has been certified according to this new version.

COQOS Hypervisor is part of OpenSynergy’s package COQOS Hypervisor SDK. The SDK includes pre- integrated guest operating systems (such as Linux and Android), standards-based sharing of devices between the virtual machines and pre-configured automotive use-cases. For the cockpit controller use-case, COQOS Hypervisor SDK includes OpenSynergy’s Safe Instrument Cluster technology ensuring that tell-tales are rendered correctly when using a Linux-based instrument cluster. In December 2018, TÜV SÜD already had confirmed that this architecture satisfies ISO 26262 ASIL-B.

OpenSynergy | www.opensynergy.com

 

GPS Guides Robotic Car

Arduino UNO in Action

In this project article, Raul builds a robotic car that navigates to a series of GPS waypoints. Using the Arduino UNO for a controller, the design is aimed at robotics beginners that want to step things up a notch. In the article, Raul discusses the math, programming and electronics hardware choices that went into this project design.

By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

In this article I lay out a basic differential drive robotic car for waypoint autonomous navigation using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The robotic car receives a list of GPS coordinates, and navigates to waypoints in their given order. To understand how it works, I will discuss concepts about GPS, a simple approach to implement autonomous navigation using GPS, the hardware required for the task, how to calculate navigation vectors using the “Haversine Formula” and the “Forward Azimuth Formula” and a simple implementation of a moving average filter for filtering the GPS coordinate readings. I also discuss a simple approach to navigation control by minimizing the robotic car’s distance and heading error with respect to the goal.

This project is aimed at beginners with basic robotic car experience—that is, line followers, ultrasonic obstacle avoiders and others who now want to try something a little more complex—or anyone who is interested in the subject.

Figure 1 shows the main components of the system. The GPS receiver helps to calculate the distance from the robotic car to the goal. With the aid of a digital compass, the GPS also helps to determine in which direction the goal is located. Those two parameters—distance and direction—give us the navigation vector required to control the robotic car toward the goal. I used a four-wheel differential drive configuration for the car, which behaves almost the same as a two-wheel differential drive. The code provided with the project should work well with both configurations.

Figure 1
GPS Robotic Car block diagram

To calculate the distance to the goal, I used the Haversine Formula, which gives great-circle distances between two points on a sphere from their longitudes and latitudes. The Forward Azimuth Formula was used to calculate the direction or heading. This formula is for the initial bearing which, if followed in a straight line along a great-circle arc, will take you from the start point to the end point. Both parameters can be calculated using the following known data: The goal’s GPS coordinate, the robotic car’s coordinate obtained from the GPS receiver and the car’s heading with respect to North obtained from the digital compass.

The robotic car constantly recalculates the navigation vector and uses the obtained distance and heading to control the motors to approach the goal. I also put a buzzer in the robotic car to give audible feedback when the robotic car reaches the waypoints.

HARDWARE

As shown in Figure 1, I used an Arduino UNO board as the main controller. I chose Arduino because it’s incredibly intuitive for beginners, and it has an enormous constellation of libraries. The libraries make it easy to pull off reasonably advanced projects, without excessive details about the hardware and software drivers for sensors and actuators.

The GPS receiver I chose for the task is the HiLetgo GY-GPS6MV2 module, based on the U-blox NEO-6M chip. The digital compass is the GY-271 module, based on the Honeywell HMC5883L chip. Both are low-cost and ubiquitous with readily available Arduino libraries. The U-blox NEO-6M has a UART serial communication interface, and the HMC5883L works with the I2C serial protocol. To avoid interference, the compass should be placed at least 15 cm above the rest of the electronics.

The DC motors are driven using the very popular L298N module, based on the STMicroelectronics L298N dual, full-bridge driver. It can drive two DC motors with a max current of 2 A per channel. It can also drive two DC motors in each channel if the max current specification is not surpassed—which is what I’m doing with the four-wheel drive chassis I used for my prototype. The chassis has a 30 cm × 20 cm aluminum platform, four generic 12 V DC 85 rpm motors and wheels that are 13 cm in diameter. But almost any generic two-wheel or four-wheel drive chassis can be used.

Figure 2
Circuit diagram for the Robotic Car project

For supplying power to the robotic car, I used an 11.1 V, 2,200 mA-hour (LiPo) Lithium-Polymer battery with a discharge rate of 25C. For my type of chassis, a battery half that size should also work fine. Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram for this project, and Figure 3 shows the finished car.

Figure 3
Completed GPS Robotic Car

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global navigation satellite system owned by the United States government. It provides geolocation and time information to any GPS receiver on the surface of the Earth, whenever it has unobstructed line of sight to at least four GPS satellites—the more the better [1]. GPS receivers typically can provide latitude and longitude coordinates with an accuracy of about 2.5 m to 5 m under ideal conditions, such as good sky visibility and lots of visible satellites. My robotic car is programmed with one or more waypoints given by latitude and longitude coordinates, and the car’s GPS receiver gives its actual position in the same type of coordinates.  …

Read the full article in the June 347 issue of Circuit Cellar
(Full article word count: 3773 words; Figure count: 8 Figures.)

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DENSO Taps Cypress’ Fail-Safe Flash for Car Cockpit Design

Cypress Semiconductor has announced that automotive supplier DENSO has selected Cypress’ Semper fail-safe storage for its next-generation digital automotive cockpit applications with advanced graphics. Based on an embedded Arm Cortex-M0 processing core, the Semper family is purpose-built for automotive environments.
The Cypress Semper family offers high density serial NOR Flash memory up to 4 Gbit and leverages the company’s proprietary MirrorBit process technology. The family also features EnduraFlex architecture, which achieves greater reliability and endurance. Semper fail-safe storage devices were the first in the industry to achieve the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard and are ASIL-B compliant, says Cypress.

According to Cypress, the Semper fail-safe storage products exceed automotive quality and functional safety requirements with ASIL-B compliance and are ready for use in ASIL-D systems. Cypress’ 512 Mb, 1 Gb and 2 Gb Semper devices are currently sampling.

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com

 

Isolated DC-DC Converters Meet PoE Requirements

Murata Manufacturing has expanded its lineup of isolated DC-DC converters for Power over Ethernet (PoE). The additions to the lineup consist of the following two isolation type DC-DC converter products intended for Powered Devices (PD) and also the following isolation type DC-DC converter product intended for Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE). The MYBSP0055AABFT is 5 V output /5.1 A product for PDs. The MYBSP0122BABFT is a 12 V output /2.1 A product also for PDs. And the MYBSS054R6EBF is a 54 V output/0.6 A device for PSEs.

These products are suitable for biometric authentication devices which are required mainly to occupy minimal space and possess low noise characteristics, an IoT Gateway which is necessary for edge computing, and camera modules. They also contribute to miniaturization of conventional wireless access points, IP telephones, and routers. These products are already being mass produced, and Murata can provide samples upon request.

MYBSP0055AABFT, MYBSP0122BABFT Features:

  • Complies with IEEE 802.3at Class 4
  • Compact, low-profile SMD type: 35.5 x 22.4 x 10.55 mm
  • Operating temperature range: -40 to +85°C
  • Low noise
  • Input/output isolation withstand voltage: 2250 Vdc
  • Adapter-ORing function
  • Type 2 PSE indicator function

MYBSS054R6EBF Features:

  • 30W Boost-up isolation type converter
  • Compact, low-profile SMD type: 35.5 x 22.4 x 8.9 mm
  • Operating temperature range: -40 to +85°C
  • Input/output isolation withstand voltage: 2250 Vdc
  • Supports 12 V and 24 V outputs, and also ACDC adapter inputs

Murata | www.murata.com

 

Semtech LoRa Tech Leveraged for Construction and Mining Gear

Semtech has announced that MachineMax, a provider of smart solutions for fleet management, construction and mining applications, has integrated Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology (LoRa Technology) into a new smart construction machine usage tracking solution. With Semtech’s LoRa Technology, MachineMax says they were able to create simple, easy to deploy solutions which effectively monitor machine status from anywhere on a construction or mining site.

Machine idling, where a machine’s engine is running but the machine is not actively in use, accounts for an estimated 37% of the time a construction or mining machine is operating on average. Idling results in an increased amount of fuel waste and machine wear, without creating productive machine output. Previously, monitoring the usage status of a mining or construction fleet was accomplished manually, with site managers continually checking on the use status of machines, an expensive and time consuming task.

MachineMax developed a LoRa-based solution which can be easily deployed onto fleet machines in under a minute. The devices attach magnetically and gather real-time data on machine usage status, such as whether or not a machine is idle. With real-time data on when a machine is in use, site managers can make more efficient use of a machine’s time to prevent idling, reducing the amount of fuel used and prolonging machine life.

Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology is a widely adopted long-range, low-power solution for IoT that gives telecom companies, IoT application makers and system integrators the feature set necessary to deploy low-cost, interoperable IoT networks, gateways, sensors, module products and IoT services worldwide. IoT networks based on the LoRaWAN specification have been deployed in 100 countries and Semtech is a founding member of the LoRa Alliance.

Semtech | www.semtech.com

 

June (issue #347) Circuit Cellar Article Materials

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p.6: Taming Your Wind Turbine: Power Perfected, By Alexander Pozhitkov, PhD.

References:
[1]  F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan and A. L. Rogers. Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application, Second Edition 2009. JohnManwell_09 Wiley & Sons.

BK Precision | www.bkprecision.com
MidNite Solar | www.midnitesolar.com

p12: Haptic Feedback Electronic Travel Aid: Vibration Vision,
         By Aaheli Chattopadhyay, Naomi Hess and Jun Ko

References:
[1] National Research Council (US) Working Group on Mobility Aids for the Visually Impaired and Blind. Electronic Travel AIDS: New Directions for Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1986. Chapter 6, THE TECHNOLOGY OF ELECTRONIC TRAVEL AIDS. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218025/
[2] Protothreads documentation, Adam Dunkels, http://dunkels.com/adam/pt/
[3] GetSerialBuffer, Bruce Land
[4] Poika Isokoski, ‎Jukka Springare, “Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: 8th,” 2012

Sean Carroll. The Small Board, Nov 2016 http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/PIC32/target_board.html

Cassinelli Alvaro, Reynolds Carson and Ishikawa Masatoshi : Augmenting spatial awareness with Haptic Radar, Tenth International Symposium on Wearable Computers(ISWC) (Montreux, 2006.10.11-14)

Data sheets:

VL53L0X (ST Microelectronics) www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/vl53l0x.pdf

Adafruit VL53L0X Breakout (Adafruit) https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-vl53l0x-micro-lidar-distance-sensor-breakout/overview

2N3904 (ST Microelectronics) www.mouser.com/ds/2/149/2N3904-82270.pdf

TIP31 (ST Microelectronics) www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/tip31c.pdf

Code/designs borrowed from others:

Polulu Arduino library for VL53L0X sensor https://github.com/pololu/vl53l0x-arduino

Protothreads source http://dunkels.com/adam/pt/

PIC32 protothread code for UART    http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/PIC32/ProtoThreads/Semaphore_alternating_input.c

PARTS LIST:
Three solderable perf boards
PIC32MX250F128B
ToF sensor
Vibration Motor (ERM 3V)
Arduino Pro Mini
Wristband (sock)
Header pins
Header sockets
Small board (PIC)
Two 9 volt batteries
Flashlight case

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.20: GPS Guides Robotic Car: Arduino UNO in Action, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

References:
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversine_formula
[3]  https://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html
[4]  https://dspguide.com/ch15.htm

Fundamentals of a GPS guided vehicle
https://www.robotshop.com/community/forum/t/fundamentals-of-a-gps-guided-vehicle/12955

Calculating the Distance Between Two GPS Coordinates with Python (Haversine Formula)
https://nathanrooy.github.io/posts/2016-09-07/haversine-with-python/

Arduino UNO https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/ArduinoUno

GY-GPS6MV2 GPS receiver module https://www.amazon.com/gy-gps6mv2/s?k=gy-gps6mv2

HMC5883L digital compass module
https://www.amazon.com/s?k=GY-271+HMC5883L&ref=nb_sb_noss

L298N motor driver https://www.amazon.com/s?k=l298n+motor+driver

Arduino | www.arduino.cc
HiLetgo | www.hiletgo.com
Honeywell | www.honeywell.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
U-blox | www.u-blox.com

p.28: Understanding PID: Control Concepts, By Stuart Ball

Wikipedia has a good article on PID control: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller

TM4C1231233H6PM datasheet: http://www.ti.com/lit/gpn/tm4c1233h6pm

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.36: Building a PoE Power Subsystem: Design Decisions,
             By Thong Huynh and Suhel Dhanani

References:
[1] https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/poe-chipsets-market-size-worth-1-22-billion-by-2025-cagr-12-6-grand-view-research-inc–843035168.html
[2] https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/power-over-ethernet-solution-market-84424663.html?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI86airsDm3wIV8iCtBh2-vg5rEAAYASAAEgK3y_D_BwE
[3] http://www.delloro.com

Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com

p.42: Integration Trend Leads PCB Design Tool Evolution: Comprehensive Solutions, By Jeff Child

Altium | www.altium.com
Cadence Design Systems | www.cadence.com
Mentor, a Siemens Company | www.mentor.com
Zuken | www.zuken.com

p.48: Sensor Innovations Span a Wide Range of Solutions: Ready for the IoT Era,
By Jeff Child

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
ACEINNA | www.aceinna.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.53: PRODUCT FOCUS: AC-DC Power Supplies: Application Emphasis,
           By Jeff Child

Aimtec | www.aimtec.com
CUI| www.cui.com
MINMAX Technology | www.minmaxpower.com
RECOM | www.recom-power.com
TDK-Lambda Americas | www.us.tdk-lambda.com
XP Power | www.xppower.com

p.56: THE DARKER SIDE: dB for Dummies: Decibels Demystified,
           By Robert Lacoste

“ dB or not dB?”, A. Winter, Rohde & Schwarz, Application note 1MA98_8e, May 2014.

Rohde & Schwarz | www.rohde-schwarz.com

p.60: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Bluetooth Mesh (Part 3): Secure Provisioning,
            By Bob Japenga

References:
[1] April 2019 Circuit Cellar Embedded in Thin Slices
[2] Bluetooth Profile Specification 5.4.3
[3] August 2018 Circuit Cellar Embedded in Thin Slices

p.64: THE CONSUMMATE ENGINEER: Energy Monitoring (Part 1): Sun-Powered System, By George Novacek

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Sparkfun | www.sparkfun.com

p.67: FROM THE BENCH: Windless Wind Chimes (Part 1): Let Randomness Ring,
           By Jeff Bachiochi

http://leehite.org/Chimes.htm#DIY_Calculators

ULN2803A
Eight Darlington arrays w/diode protection
ST Microelectronics

PIC18F26K22
Low-Power, High-Performance Microcontrollers with XLP Technology
Microchip Technologies

XL6009E adjustable DC-DC Switching boost converter
Addicore

USB LiIon/LiPoly charger – v1.2
Adafruit

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Addicore | www.addicore.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.79: The Future of Embedded Databases: Embedded Database Systems in the Age of IoT, By Steve Graves

McObject | www.mcobject.com

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(5/28) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (6/4) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (6/11) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.