Client Profile: Integrated Knowledge Systems

Integrated Knowledge Systems' NavRanger board

Integrated Knowledge Systems’ NavRanger board

Phoenix, AZ

CONTACT: James Donald, james@iknowsystems.com
www.iknowsystems.com

EMBEDDED PRODUCTS: Integrated Knowledge Systems provides hardware and software solutions for autonomous systems.
featured Product: The NavRanger-OEM is a single-board high-speed laser ranging system with a nine-axis inertial measurement unit for robotic and scanning applications. The system provides 20,000 distance samples per second with a 1-cm resolution and a range of more than 30 m in sunlight when using optics. The NavRanger also includes sufficient serial, analog, and digital I/O for stand-alone robotic or scanning applications.

The NavRanger uses USB, CAN, RS-232, analog, or wireless interfaces for operation with a host computer. Integrated Knowledge Systems can work with you to provide software, optics, and scanning mechanisms to fit your application. Example software and reference designs are available on the company’s website.

EXCLUSIVE OFFER: Enter the code CIRCUIT2014 in the “Special Instructions to Seller” box at checkout and Integrated Knowledge Systems will take $20 off your first order.


 

Circuit Cellar prides itself on presenting readers with information about innovative companies, organizations, products, and services relating to embedded technologies. This space is where Circuit Cellar enables clients to present readers useful information, special deals, and more.

Wireless Data Links (Part 2): Transmitters and Antennas

If you built your own ham radio “back in the day,” you’ll recall the frustration of putting it together with components that were basic at best.

But as columnist George Novacek points out in the second installment of his series examining wireless data links: “Today you can purchase excellent, reasonably priced low-power gear for data communications off the shelf.”

Transmitter and receiver

Photo 1: SparkFun Electronics’s WRL-10524 transmitter and WRL-10532 receiver are low cost, basic, and work well.

Part 2 of Novacek’s series, appearing in the March issue, looks at transmitters and antennas.

In one section, Novacek expands upon the five basic data-transmitter modules—a data encoder, a modulator, a carrier frequency generator, an RF output amplifier, and an antenna:

Low-power data transmitters often integrate the modulator, the carrier frequency generator, and the amplifier into one circuit. A single transistor can do the job. I’ll discuss antennas later. When a transmitter and a receiver are combined into one unit, it’s called a transceiver.

Modulation may not be needed in some simple applications where the mere presence of a carrier is detected to initiate an action. A simple push button will suffice, but this is rarely used as it is subject to false triggering by other transmitters working in the area in the same frequency band.

Digital encoder and decoder ICs are available for simple devices (e.g., garage door openers) or keyless entry where just an on or off output is required from the receiver. These ICs generate a data packet for transmission. If the received packet matches the data stored in the decoder, an action is initiated. Typical examples include Holtek Semiconductor HT12E encoders and HT12D decoders and Freescale Semiconductor MC145026, MC145027, and MC145028 encoder and decoder pairs. For data communications a similar but more advanced scheme is used. I’ll address this when I discuss receivers (coming up in Part 3 of this series).

Novacek’s column goes on to explain modulation types, including OOK and ASK modulation:

OOK modulation is achieved by feeding the Data In line with a 0-to+V-level  datastream. ASK modulation can be achieved by the data varying the transistor biasing to swing the RF output between 100% and typically 30% to 50% amplitude. I prefer to add a separate modulator.

The advantage of ASK as opposed to OOK modulation is that the carrier is always present, thus the receiver is not required to repeatedly synchronize to it. Different manufacturers’ specifications claim substantially higher achievable data rates with ASK rather than OOK.

For instance, Photo 1 shows a SparkFun Electronics WRL-10534 transmitter and a WRL-10532 receiver set for 433.9 MHz (a 315-MHz set is also available), which costs less than $10. It is a bare-bones design, but it works well. When you build supporting circuits around it you can get excellent results. The set is a good starting point for experimentation.

The article also includes tips on a transceiver you can purchase to save time in developing ancillary circuits (XBee), while noting a variety of transceiver, receiver, and transmitter modules are available from manufacturers such as Maxim Integrated, Micrel, and RF Monolithics (RFM).  In addition, the article discusses design and optimization of the three forms of antennas: a straight conductor (monopole), a coil (helical), and a loop.

“These can be external, internal, or even etched onto the PCB (e.g., keyless entry fobs) to minimize the size,” Novacek says.

Do you need advice on what to consider when choosing an antenna for your design?  Find these tips and more in Novacek’s March issue article.

Wireless Product Regulations (EE Tip #123)

Are you working on a wireless design that you’d like to bring to market? If so, be sure to anticipate regulatory constraints right from the start. Planning upfront will save you a lot of time, money, and hassle.

Electrical engineer Robert Lacoste notes:

Unless you’re working on a prototype that won’t ever leave your lab, there is a high probability that you will need to comply with some regulations. FCC and CE are the most common, but you’ll also find local regulations as well as product-class requirements for a broad range of products, from toys to safety devices to motor-based machines. (Refer to my article “CE Marking in a Nutshell,” Circuit Cellar 257, for more information.CE Mark

Let’s say you design a wireless gizmo for the U.S. market and later find that your customers want to use it in Europe. This means you lose years of work, as well as profits, because you overlooked your customers’ needs and the regulations in place in different locales.

When designing a wireless gizmo that will be used outside the U.S., having adequate information from the start will help you make good decisions. An example would be selecting a worldwide-enabled band like the ubiquitous 2.4 GHz. Similarly, don’t forget that EMC/ESD regulations require that nearly all inputs and outputs should be protected against surge transients. If you forget this, your beautiful, expensive prototype may not survive its first day at the test lab.

Lacoste’s full article appeared in Circuit Cellar’s anniversary issue, CC25.

An Organized Space for Programming, Writing, and Soldering

AndersonPhoto1

Photo 1—This is Anderson’s desk when he is not working on any project. “I store all my ‘gear’ in a big plastic bin with several smaller bins inside, which keeps the mess down. I have a few other smaller storage bins as well hidden here and there,” Anderson explained.

AndersonPhoto2

Photo 2—Here is Anderson’s area set up for soldering and running his oscilloscope. “I use a soldering mat to protect my desk surface,” he says. “The biggest issue I have is the power cords from different things getting in my way.”

Al Anderson’s den is the location for a variety of ongoing projects—from programming to writing to soldering. He uses several plastic bins to keep his equipment neatly organized.

Anderson is the IT Director for Salish Kootenai College, a small tribal college based in Pablo, MT. He described some of his workspace features via e-mail:

I work on many different projects. Lately I have been doing more programming. I am getting ready to write a book on the Xojo development system.

Another project I have in the works is using a Raspberry Pi to control my hot tub. The hot tub is about 20 years old, and I want to have better control over what it is doing. Plus I want it to have several features. One feature is a wireless interface that would be accessible from inside the house. The other is a web control of the hot tub so I can turn it on when we are still driving back from skiing to soak my tired old bones.

I am also working on a home yard sprinkler system. I laid some of the pipe last fall and have been working on and off with the controller. This spring I will put in the sprinkler heads and rest of the pipe. I tend to like working with small controllers (e.g., the Raspberry Pi, BeagleBoard’s BeagleBone, and Arduino) and I have a lot of those boards in various states.

Anderson’s article about a Raspberry Pi-based monitoring device will appear in Circuit Cellar’s April issue. You can follow him on Twitter at @skcalanderson.

Wireless Data Links (Part 1)

In Circuit Cellar’s February issue, the Consummate Engineer column launches a multi-part series on wireless data links.

“Over the last two decades, wireless data communication devices have been entering the realm of embedded control,” columnist George Novacek says in Part 1 of the series. “The technology to produce reasonably priced, reliable, wireless data links is now available off the shelf and no longer requires specialized knowledge, experience, and exotic, expensive test equipment. Nevertheless, to use wireless devices effectively, an engineer should understand the principles involved.”

Radio communicationsPart 1 focuses on radio communications, in particular low-power, data-carrying wireless links used in control systems.

“Even with this limitation, it is a vast subject, the surface of which can merely be scratched,” Novacek says. “Today, we can purchase ready-made, low-power, reliable radio interface modules with excellent performance for an incredibly low price. These devices were originally developed for noncritical applications (e.g., garage door openers, security systems, keyless entry, etc.). Now they are making inroads into control systems, mostly for remote sensing and computer network data exchange. Wireless devices are already present in safety-related systems (e.g., remote tire pressure monitoring), to say nothing about their bigger and older siblings in remote control of space and military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).”

An engineering audience will find Novacek’s article a helpful overview of fundamental wireless communications principles and topics, including RF circuitry (e.g., inductor/capacitor, or LC, circuits), ceramic surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, frequency response, bandwidth, sensitivity, noise issues, and more.

Here is an article excerpt about bandwidth and achieving its ideal, rectangular shape:

“The bandwidth affects receiver selectivity and/or a transmitter output spectral purity. The selectivity is the ability of a radio receiver to reject all but the desired signal. Narrowing the bandwidth makes it possible to place more transmitters within the available frequency band. It also lowers the received noise level and increases the selectivity due to its higher Q. On the other hand, transmission of every signal but a non-modulated, pure sinusoid carrier—which, therefore, contains no information—requires a certain minimum bandwidth. The required bandwidth is determined by the type of modulation and the maximum modulating frequency.

“For example, AM radios carry maximum 5-kHz audio and, consequently, need 10-kHz bandwidth to accommodate the carrier with its two 5-kHz sidebands. Therefore, AM broadcast stations have to be spaced a minimum of 20 kHz apart. However, narrowing the bandwidth will lead to the loss of parts of the transmitted information. In a data-carrying systems, it will cause a gradual increase of the bit error rate (BER) until the data becomes useless. At that point, the bandwidth must be increased or the baud rate must be decreased to maintain reliable communications.

“An ideal bandwidth would have a shape of a rectangle, as shown in Figure 1 by the blue trace. Achieving this to a high degree with LC circuits can get quite complicated, but ceramic resonators used in modern receivers can deliver excellent, near ideal results.”

Figure 1: This is the frequency response and bandwidth of a parallel resonant LC circuit. A series circuit graph would be inverted.

Figure 1: This is the frequency response and bandwidth of a parallel resonant LC circuit. A series circuit graph would be inverted.

To learn more about control-system wireless links, check out the February issue now available for membership download or single-issue purchase. Part 2 in Novacek’s series discusses transmitters and antennas and will appear in our March issue.