Whiskey Lake-UE Boards Feature up to 15-year Availability

By Eric Brown

Congatec has launched a “Conga-TC370” COM Express Type 6 and two SBCs — the 3.5-inch “Conga-JC370” and thin Mini-ITX “Conga-IC370” — with new embedded “UE” 8th Gen chips with 10-year plus availability.

At Embedded World in early March, Congatec unveiled 3.5-inch Conga-JC370 and thin Mini-ITX Conga-IC370 SBCs with Intel’s 8th Gen Whiskey Lake U-series processors. Now, the German embedded firm has announced their availability along with a new Conga-TC370 COM Express Compact Type 6 module. The Linux-friendly boards sport Intel’s new embedded-focused UE versions of the chips, featuring 10-year plus availability.


Congatec’s 8th Gen UE-series lineup (left to right): Conga-IC370, Conga-JC370, and Conga-TC370
(click image to enlarge)
This is the first we’ve heard of the Whiskey Lake UE models, which do not appear to be publicly documented. The processors appear to be otherwise identical with the 8th Gen U-series.

Congatec claims its new boards “are the first in the industry to offer long-term availability of 10+ years.” The boards offer “10+ and on basis of specific last time buy contract up to 15 years long-term availability right from the start,” stated Christian Eder, Congatec Director of Marketing. He noted that most embedded boards offer 7-year availability, which is insufficient for the transportation and mobility sector, as well as many medical devices, industrial controls, embedded edge clients, and HMI systems. Congatec’s 8th Gen Coffee Lake-H based Conga-TS370 Type 6 module goes longer than that, but is still limited to “up to” 10-year availability.

The new Congatec boards run Linux, Windows 10, or Win 10 IoT Enterprise on the following processors:

  • Core i5-8365UE (4x cores @ 1.6GHz, 6MB cache, 15W)
  • Core i7-8665UE (4x cores @ 1.7GHz, 8MB cache, 15W)
  • Core i3-8145UE (2x cores @ 2.2GHz, 4MB cache, 15W)
  • Celeron 4305UE (2x cores @ 2.0GHz, 2MB cache, 15W)

Congatec touts the quad-core i7 and i5 Whiskey Lake chips for their performance boost of up to 58 percent compared to previous U-Series processors. ASll the Whiskey Lake CPUs have an “improved microarchitecture” and provide “efficient task scheduling,” says the company. They also support RTS hypervisor software “to allow additional optimization of I/O throughput from the input channels to the processor cores.”

The 24-EU Intel Gen9 HD graphics supports OpenCL 2.1, OpenGL 4.5 and DirectX12, as well as hardware MPEG-2 or WMV9 (VC-1) decode and H.265 (HEVC) support. All three of the Congatec boards support up to 3x independent 60Hz UHD displays with up to 4096 x 2304 resolution.

 
Conga-TC370, front and back
(click images to enlarge)
Common features among the Conga-TC370, Conga-JC370, and Conga-IC370 include support for up to 64GB DDR4-2400 via dual channels. They all provide native USB 3.1 Gen 2 for transfer rates of 10Gbps and offer Gigabit Ethernet with TSN (Time-Sensitive Networking) real-time support.

The new boards support 0 to 60°C temperatures and offer humidity resistance rated at “10 to 90% r. H. non cond.” They all ship with TPM 2.0 security and the Congatec Board Controller, which offers features like a multi-stage watchdog, power loss control, and hardware health monitoring.

Conga-TC370

Whereas the earlier, Coffee Lake-H based Conga-TS370 adopts the 125 x 95mm COM Express Basic Type 6 form factor, the Conga-TC370 is a 95 x 95 mm Compact Type 6 module. Features include an Intel i219LM GbE controller and interfaces including 3x SATA III, 8x PCIe Gen 3.0, 4x USB 3.1 Gen2, and 8x USB 2.0. There are also LPC, I2C, and 2x UART interfaces.


Conga-TC370 block diagram
(click image to enlarge)
For video, you get 2x DisplayPort 1.2 or HDMI 2.0a ports (or dual DP++), as well as an eDP 1.4. Other features include embedded BIOS boot, update, and security functions and optional active and passive cooling solutions.

Conga-JC370 and Conga-IC370

Aside from the new processor models, the now shipping Conga-JC370 and Conga-IC370 appear to be the same as described in our March coverage. That report offers detailed spec lists and block diagrams.

 
Conga-JC370 (left) and Conga-IC370
(click images to enlarge)
The 146 x 102mm Conga-JC370 appears to be Congatec’s first 3.5-inch SBC. Display features include a DP++ port, with the possibility of a second DP port via the USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C port. The Type-C can also draw power as an alternative to the 12-24V DC input. In addition to the standard LVDS or eDP interface, there’s an option for a second LVDS via an adapter.


Conga-JC370 detail view
(click image to enlarge)
One of the 2x GbE ports support TSN. Other features include 2x USB 3.1 Gen 2 ports, an RS232/422/485 port, and internal USB 2.0, serial, GPIO, powered SATA III, and optional CAN interfaces. For expansion, there’s a mini-PCIe slot and micro-SIM slot, as well as an M.2 M-key storage slot with Optane support and general-purpose M.2 B- and E-key slots.

The 170 x 170mm Conga-IC370 thin Mini-ITX board shares several features with the Conga-JC370, including 2x GbE ports, a single USB 3.1 Gen. 2 port, and a 12-24V input. Expansion features are the same except that instead of the M.2 M-key storage socket you get a second SATA III port. The Conga-IC370 also adds a PCIe x4 slot.


Conga-IC370 detail view
(click image to enlarge)
The Conga-IC370 lacks the 3.5-inch model’s Type-C port, but you get dual DP++ ports, LVDS, and eDP. For audio, there’s SPDIF in addition to dual audio jacks. The dual USB 2.0 interfaces have been expressed as coastline ports.

Further information

The Conga-TC370, Conga-JC370, and Conga-IC370 are available now, with pricing undisclosed. More information may be found in Congatec’s 8th Gen UE announcementand the Conga-TC370Conga-JC370, and Conga-IC370 product pages.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on June 12.

Congatec | www.congatec.com

Anker Selects Cypress’ USB-C Controller for New Charger Family

Cypress Semiconductor has announced that its USB-C controller with USB Power Delivery (PD) was selected by Anker for integration into Anker’s new family of USB-C chargers. With the integration of Cypress’ EZ-PD CCG3PA with USB PD, Anker’s new family of PowerPort PD chargers deliver up to 2.5x faster charging times than standard USB-C power adapters, according to Cypress. The EZ-PD CCG3PA controller is compact with a highly-integrated architecture, which helped enable Anker to reduce its own charger dimensions by up to 40%.

USB-C is gaining rapid support with top-tier electronics manufacturers by enabling slim industrial designs, easy-to-use connectors and cables, the ability to transmit multiple protocols, and provide up to 100 W of power. The USB-C standard’s 2.4-mm-high connector plug is also significantly smaller than the current 4.5-mm USB Standard-A connector, enabling easier integration for a wider range of devices.

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com

 

Automotive USB 3.1 SmartHub Features Type-C Support

Microchip Technology provides an automotive-qualified USB 3.1 Gen1 SmartHub IC, offering up to 10 times faster data rates over existing USB 2.0 solutions and reducing indexing times to improve the user experience in vehicles. To support the rising adoption of USB Type-C in the smartphone market and enable universal connectivity in vehicles, the USB7002 SmartHub IC includes interfaces for USB Type-C connectors.

As automotive manufacturers continue to add more functions to vehicles and integrate with mobile phone applications, the role of USB for reliable data transfers requires robust functionality and faster transfer speeds. Consumers expect instant responses from infotainment systems despite many functions occurring simultaneously in vehicles, from transferring mapping data to playing music and interacting with user interfaces.

The 5 Gbps SuperSpeed data rates of USB 3.1 ensure higher bandwidth and maximum functionality, making it well suited for applications that require gigabit speeds for faster data streaming, data download and in-vehicle communication. The USB7002 also reduces the download time for large videos, which is ideal for vehicles that have integrated 4K dash cams.

Consumer demand for faster mobile device charging has led to the rise of USB Type-C in the smartphone industry. The USB7002 combines the benefits of USB 3.1 technology with the rising popularity of USB Type-C. The USB7002 enables direct USB Type-C connections through native Configuration Channel (CC) pin interfaces and integrated 2:1 multiplexers that support the reversible connection feature of the USB Type-C connector.

To support the driver assistance applications that are now standard on all mobile handsets, the SmartHub ICs also include Microchip’s patented FlexConnect technology, which provides the unique ability to dynamically swap between a USB host and USB device. The SmartHub ICs also feature patented multi-host end-point reflector technology, which enables USB data to be mirrored between two USB hosts. These fundamental features enable the graphical user interface of a phone to be displayed on the vehicle’s screen and integrate with voice commands inside the car, while simultaneously charging the mobile device. This allows consumers to easily and safely use their mobile devices while driving, providing a user-friendly way to make calls, send messages and get directions while focusing on the road.

Development Tools

The USB7002 IC comes with a complete solution including the MPLAB® Connect Configurator hub configuration tool, evaluation boards with schematics and gerbers to reduce development time. Microchip’s USBCheck services allow manufacturers to verify designs and layouts prior to sending out a PCB for manufacturing, significantly accelerating time to market for their end products.

The USB7002-I/KDXVA0 is AEC-Q100 Grade 3 qualified and available now starting at $4.05 in volume production quantities.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

 

Rugged Computers Run Linux on Jetson TX2 and Xavier

By Eric Brown

Aitech, which has been producing embedded Linux-driven systems for military/aerospace and rugged industrial applications since at least 2004, announced that Concurrent Real-Time’s hardened RedHawk Linux RTOS will be available on two Linux-ready embedded systems based on the Nvidia Jetson TX2 module. With Redhawk Linux standing in for the default Nvidia Linux4Tegra stack, the military-grade A176 Cyclone and recently released, industrial-focused A177 Twister systems can “enhance real-time computing for mission-critical applications,” says Aitech.


MIL/AERO focused A176 Cyclone (left) and new A177 Twister
(click image to enlarge)
Here, we’ll take a closer look at the A177 Twister, which was announced in October as a video capture focused variant of the similar, MIL/AERO targeted A176 Cyclone. Both of these “SWaP-optimized (size, weight and power) supercomputers” are members of Aitech’s family of GPGPU RediBuilt computers, which also include PowerPC and Intel Core based systems.

We’ll also briefly examine an “EV178 Development System” for an Nvidia Xavier based A178 Thunder system that was revealed at Embedded World. The A178 Thunder targets MIL/AERO, as well as autonomous vehicles and other applications (see farther below).

Both the A177 Twister and A176 Cyclone systems deploy the Arm-based Jetson TX2module in a rugged, small form factor (SFF) design. The TX2 module features 2x high-end “Denver 2” cores and 4x Cortex-A57 cores. There’s also a 256-core Pascal GPU with CUDA libraries for running AI and machine learning algorithms.


 
A177 Twister (left) and Jetson TX2
(click images to enlarge)
The TX2 module is further equipped with 8GB LPDDR4 and 32GB eMMC 5.1. Other rugged TX2-based systems include Axiomtek’s eBOX800-900-FL.

The RedHawk Linux RTOS distribution, which was announced in 2005, is based on Red Hat Linux and the security-focused SELinux. RedHawk offers a hardened real-time Linux kernel with ultra-low latency and high determinism. Other features include support for multi-core architectures and x86 and ARM64 target platforms.

The RedHawk BSP also includes “NightStar” GUI debugging and analysis tools, which were announced with the initial RedHawk distro. NightStar supports hot patching “and provides a complete graphical view of multithreaded applications and their interaction with the Linux kernel,” says Concurrent Real-Time.

A177 Twister

The A177 Twister leverages the Jetson TX2 and its “CUDA and deep learning acceleration capabilities to easily handle the complex computational requirements needed in embedded systems that are managing multiple data and video streams,” says Aitech. The system is optimized for video capture, processing, and overlays.


A177 Twister
(click image to enlarge)
The A177 Twister supports applications including robotics, automation and optical inspection systems in industrial facilities, as well as for autonomous aircraft and ground environments,” says Aitech. Other applications include security and surveillance, mining and excavating computers, complex marine and boating applications, and agricultural machinery.

The 148 x 148 x 63mm A177 Twister is protected against ingress per IP67. The fanless system weighs 2.2 lbs. (just under 1Kg) and supports -20 to 65°C temperatures.

The Jetson TX2 module supplies 8GB LPDDR4 and 32GB eMMC 5.1. The A177 Twister adds a microSD slot with optional preconfigured card, as well as an optional “Mini-SATA SSD with Quick Erase and Secure Erase support.”

The system shares many features with the A176 Cyclone, with the major difference being that it adds optional WiFi-ac and Bluetooth 4.1, as well as support for simultaneous capture of up to 8x RS-170A (NTSC/PAL) composite video channels at full frame rates. It also has lower ruggedization levels and a smaller 6-24V input range compared to 11-36V, among other differences.


 
A177 Twister block diagram (left) and I/O specs
(click images to enlarge)
As shown in the spec-sheet above, you can purchase the Twister with and without 8x composite inputs and/or 1x SDI input with up to 1080/60 H.264 encoding. There’s also a choice of composite or SDI frame grabbers, both, or none at all. The one SKU that offers all of the above sacrifices the single USB 3.0 port.

Standard features include USB 2.0, HDMI, Composite input, GbE. 2x RS-232 (one for debug/console), 2x CAN, and 4x single-end discrete I/O. Most of these interfaces are bundled up into rugged military-style composite I/O ports.

Power consumption is typically 8-10W with a maximum of 17W. The system also provides reverse polarity and EMC protections, hardware accelerated AES encryption/decryption, temperature sensors, elapsed time recorder, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling.

EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder

Aitech revealed an A178 Thunder< at computer at Embedded World. The company recently followed up with a formal announcement and product page for an EV178 Development System that helps unlock the computer for early customers.


 
EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder (left) and Jetson AGX Xavier
Built around Nvidia’s high-end Jetson AGX Xavier module, the compact, Linux-driven A178 Thunder “is the most advanced solution for video and signal processing, deep-learning accelerated, for the next generation of autonomous vehicles, surveillance and targeting systems, EW systems, and many other applications,” says Aitech. The EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder processes at up to 11 TFLOPS (Terra floating point operations per second) and 22 TOPS (Terra operations per second), says Aitech.

The Jetson AGX Xavier has greater than 10x the energy efficiency and more than 20x the performance of the Jetson TX2, claims Nvidia. The 105 x 87 x 16mm Xavier module features 8x ARMv8.2 cores and a high-end, 512-core Nvidia Volta GPU with 64 tensor cores with 2x Nvidia Deep Learning Accelerator (DLA) — also called NVDLA — engines. The module is also equipped with a 7-way VLIW vision chip, as well as 16GB 256-bit LPDDR4 RAM and 32GB eMMC 5.1.
EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder
(click image to enlarge)

Preliminary specs for the EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder include:

  • Nvidia Jetson AGX Xavier module
  • 4x simultaneous SDI (SD/HD) video capture channels
  • 8x simultaneous Composite (RS-170A [NTSC]/PAL) video capture channels
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • HDMI output
  • USB 3.0
  • UART Serial
  • Discretes
  • Pre-installed Linux OS, drivers, and test applications
  • Cables and external power supply

Further information

Concurrent’s RedHawk Linux RTOS appears to be available now as an optional build for the A177 Twister and earlier A176 Cyclone, both of which appear to be available with undisclosed pricing. No ship date was announced for the EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder. More information may be found in Aitech’s RedHawk Linux announcement, as well as the A177 Twister product page. More on the A178 Thunder may be found in the EV178 Development System for A178 Thunder announcementand product page.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on March 18.

Aitech | www.rugged.com

May Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The May issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is out next week!. We’ve been hard at work laying the foundation and nailing the beams together with a sturdy selection of  embedded electronics articles just for you. We’ll soon be inviting you inside this 84-page magazine.

Not a Circuit Cellar subscriber?  Don’t be left out! Sign up today:

 

Here’s a sneak preview of May 2019 Circuit Cellar:

EMBEDDED COMPUTING AT WORK

Technologies for Digital Signage
Digital signage ranks among the most dynamic areas of today’s embedded computing space. Makers of digital signage players, board-level products and other technologies continue to roll out new solutions for implementing powerful digital signage systems. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in digital signage.

PC/104 and PC/104 Family Boards
PC/104 has come a long way since its inception over 25 ago. With its roots in ISA-bus PC technology, PC/104 evolved through the era of PCI and PCI Express by spinning off its wider family of follow on versions including PC/104-Plus, PCI-104, PCIe/104 and PCI/104-Express. This Product Focus section updates readers on these technology trends and provides a product gallery of representative PC/104 and PC/104-family boards.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR EMBEDDED ENGINEERING

Code Analysis Tools
Today it’s not uncommon for embedded devices to have millions of lines of software code. Code analysis tools have kept pace with these demands making it easier for embedded developers to analyze, debug and verify complex embedded software. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest technology trends and product developments in code analysis tools.

Transistor Basics
In this day and age of highly integrated ICs, what is the relevance of the lone, discrete transistor? It’s true that most embedded systems can be solved by chip level solutions. But electronic component vendors do still make and sell individual transistors because there’s still a market for them. In this article, Stuart Ball reviews some important basics about transistors and how you can use them in your embedded system design.

Pressure Sensors
Over the years, George Novacek has done articles examining numerous types of sensors that measure various physical aspects of our world. But one measurement type he’s not yet discussed in the past is pressure. Here, George looks at pressure sensors in the context of using them in an electronic monitoring or control system. The story looks at the math, physics and technology associated with pressure sensors.

MICROCONTROLLERS DO IT ALL

Robotic Arm Plays Beer Pong
Simulating human body motion is a key concept in robotics development. With that in mind, learn how these Cornell graduates Daniel Fayad, Justin Choi and Harrison Hyundong Chang accurately simulate the movement of a human arm on a small-sized robotic arm. The Microchip PIC32 MCU-based system enables the motion-controlled, 3-DoF robotic arm to take a user’s throwing motion as a reference to its own throw. In this way, they created a robotic arm that can throw a ping pong ball and thus play beer pong.

Fancy Filtering with the Teensy 3.6
Signal filtering entails some tricky tradeoffs. A fast MCU that provides hardware-based floating-point capability eases some of those tradeoffs. In the past, Brian Millier has used the Arm-based Teensy MCU modules to serve meet those needs. In this article, Brian taps the Teensy 3.6 Arm MCU module to perform real-time audio FFT-convolution filtering.

Real-Time Stock Monitoring Using an MCU
With today’s technology, even very simple microcontroller-based devices can fetch and display data from the Internet. Learn how Cornell graduates David Valley and Saelig Khatta built a system using that can track stock prices in real-time and display them conveniently on an LCD screen. For the design, they used an Espressif Systems ESP8266 Wi-Fi module controlled by a Microchip PIC32 MCU. Our fun little device fetches chosen stock prices in real-time and displays them on a screen.

… AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS

Attacking USB Gear with EMFI
Many products use USB, but have you ever considered there may be a critical security vulnerability lurking in your USB stack? In this article, Colin O’Flynn walks you through on example product that could be broken using electromagnetic fault injection (EMFI) to perform this attack without even removing the device enclosure.

An Itty Bitty Education
There’s no doubt that we’re living in a golden age when it comes to easily available and affordable development kits for fun and education. With that in mind, Jeff Bachiochi shares his experiences programming and playing with the Itty Bitty Buggy from Microduino. Using the product, you can build combine LEGO-compatible building blocks into mobile robots controlled via Bluetooth using your cellphone.

Odroid-N2 SBC has Hexa-Core Amlogic S922X and $63 to $79 Price

By Eric Brown

Hardkernel announced an “Odroid-N2” SBC with a Cortex-A73 and -A53 based Amlogic S922X SoC plus 2-4GB DDR4, 4x USB 3.0, HDMI 2.1, an audio DAC, and a 40-pin header.

Hardkernel unveiled its open-spec, Ubuntu-ready Odroid-N1 SBC a year ago with a Rockchip RK3399 SoC. Since it was scheduled for June shipment, we included it our reader survey of 116 hacker boards. Yet, just before we published the results, including a #16 ranking for the N1, Hardkernel announced it was shelving the board due to sourcing problems and switching to a similar new board with an unnamed new SoC. The Odroid-N2 would also switch to DDR4 RAM from the previously announced DDR3, which was in short supply.


 
Odroid-N1 with heatsink (left) and within black case
(click images to enlarge)
The Odroid-N2 will arrive in April about four months later than intended, but with a much lower $63 (2GB RAM) and $79 (4GB) price compared to the original Odroid-N1 goal of “about $110.” The new model has also advanced to a similarly hexa-core, but much faster Amlogic S922X SoC, which was unveiled in September along with the quad-core -A53 Amlogic S905X2 and S905Y2.

Amlogic has yet to post a product page for the 12nm-fabricated S922X, which integrates 4x Cortex-A73 cores instead of the RK3399’s 2x 2.0GHz -A72 cores. The S922X also has 2x -A53 cores that clock to 1.9GHz instead of 4x 1.5GHz -A53 cores on the high-end version of the RK3399 used by the N1. The N2 also moves up to a Mali-G52 GPU with 6x 846MHz execution engines, which the Odroid project benchmarks as 10 percent faster.


 
Odroid-N2 CPU benchmark comparison (left) and block diagram 
(click images to enlarge)
Hardkernel has posted benchmarks that claim around 20 percent faster CPU performance than the RK3399-driven N1. The inclusion of a substantial metal heatsink and the placement of the SoC and RAM on the bottom of the board enable top speeds “without thermal throttling,” says the Odroid project. With the 4GB version (the only configuration announced for the N1), the N2’s 1320MHz DDR4-RAM is claimed to be 35 percent faster than the N1’s 800MHz DDR3.

Although it may not make much sense to compare the Odroid-N2 to a board that never shipped, it should be noted that the Odroid-N1’s PCIe-based SATA connectors (also found on a few other RK3399 boards) have disappeared. However, you get 4x USB 3.0 host ports instead of a split between 3.0 and 2.0.



Odroid-N2 detail view (see legend farther below)
(click image to enlarge)
The USB ports sit next to a faster GbE port (about 1Gbps) and a 4K-ready HDMI port which is variablly listed as 2.0 and 2.1. For wireless, you’ll need to use one of the USB ports.



Legend for detail view above
(click image to enlarge)
The Odroid-N2 is slightly smaller than the N1 at 90 x 90 x 17mm and has a different design. Several ports such as the micro-USB OTG port and new IR sensor and composite A/V jack appear on the opposite coastline. The A/V jack includes a high-quality audio DAC (384Khz/32bit) with dynamic range, near-100dB SNR, and Total-Harmonic-Distortion lower than 0.006 percent, claims the Odroid project.

The 40-pin expansion header provides 25x GPIO, 2x I2C, SPDIF, and other 3.3V interfaces except for the dual 1.8V ADC signals. The pinout is said to be similar to the Amlogic S905 based Odroid-C2. There’s a wide-range 7.5-20V DC jack, and power consumption is listed as 1.8W idle to 5.5W CPU stress. No operating range was listed, but benchmarks suggest it runs run fine at 35°C.

The Odroid-N2 is available with 64-bit Ubuntu 18.04 LTS with Linux 4.9.152 LTS and Android 9 Pie “with full source code BSP and pre-built image together.” There is no X11 GPU driver and the Mali G52 GPU Linux driver currently works only on the framebuffer, but there’s a hardware-accelerated VPU driver. A Linux Wayland driver and Vulkan capable GPU driver for Android are in the works.


 
Odroid-N2 in white case (left) and GPIO pinout
(click images to enlarge)
The board ships with 8MB SPI along with a boot select switch and a Petitboot app. It requires removal of any bootable eMMC while you’re making the switch.

Odroid boards, such as the ever popular Odroid-XU4 have usually scored high in our reader surveys due to solid HW/SW quality, vigorous open source support, and a devoted community. The Odroid project recently branched into x86 territory with its Intel Gemini Lake based Odroid-H2.

Specifications listed for the Odroid-N2 include:

  • Processor — Amlogic S922X (4x Cortex-A73 @ 1.8GHz, 2x Cortex-A53 @ 1.9GHz); 12nm fab; Mali-G52 GPU with 6x 846MHz EEs
  • Memory/storage:
    • 2GB or 4GB DDR4 (1320MHz, 2640MT/s) 32-bit RAM
    • eMMC socket with optional 8GB to 128GB
    • MicroSD slot with UHS-1 SDR104 support
    • 8MB SPI flash with boot select switch and Petitboot app
  • Wireless — Optional USB WiFi adapter
  • Networking — Gigabit Ethernet port (Realtek RTL8211F); about 1Gbps
  • Media I/O:
    • HDMI 2.1 port for up to 4K@60Hz with HDR, CEC, EDID
    • Composite video jack with stereo line-out and 384Khz/32bit audio DAC
    • SPDIF audio via 40-pin
  • Other I/O:
    • 4x USB 3.0 host ports (340MB/s typical)
    • Micro-USB 2.0 OTG port (no power)
    • Serial console interface
    • Fan connector
  • Expansion — 40-pin GPIO header (25x GPIO, 2x i2C, 2x ADC, 6x PWM, SPI, UART, SPDIF, various power signals, etc.)
  • Other features — RTC (NXP PCF8563) with battery connector; IR receiver; metal heatsink; 2x LEDs; optional $4 acrylic case
  • Power — 7.5-20V DC jack; 12V/2A adapter recommended; consumption: 1.8W idle to 5.5W stress
  • Dimensions — 90 x 90 x 17mm
  • Operating system — Ubuntu 18.04 LTS with Kernel 4.9.152 LTS and Android 9 Pie BSPs

Further information

The Odroid-N2 will go on sale in late March with shipments beginning in April. Some engineering samples will head out to a lucky few over the next week. Pricing is $63 (2GB RAM) and $79 (4GB) price. More information may be found on Hardkernel’s Odroid-N1 announcement and product page and wiki.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on February 13.

Odroid by Hardkernel | forum.odroid.com

Guitar Video Game Uses PIC32

Realism Revamp

While music-playing video games are fun, their user interfaces tend to leave a lot to be desired. Learn how these two Cornell students designed and built a musical video game that’s interfaced using a custom-built wireless guitar controller. The game is run on a Microchip PIC32 MCU and has a TFT LCD display to show notes that move across the screen toward a strum region.

By Jake Podell and Jonah Wexler

While many popular video games involve playing a musical instrument, the controllers used by the player are not the greatest. These controllers are often made of cheap plastic, and poorly reflect the feeling of playing the real instrument. We have created a fun and competitive musical video game, which is interfaced with using a custom-built wireless guitar controller (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The motivation for the project was to experiment with video game interfaces that simulate the real-world objects that inspired them.

Figure 1
Front of the guitar controller. Note the strings and plectrum.

Figure 2
Back of the guitar controller

The video game is run on a Microchip PIC32 microcontroller [1]. We use a thin-film-transistor LCD display (TFT) to display notes that move across the screen toward a strum region. The user plays notes on a wireless mock guitar, which is built with carbon-impregnated elastic as strings and a conducting plectrum for the guitar pick. The game program running on the PIC32 produces guitar plucks and undertones of the song, while keeping track of the user’s score. The guitar is connected to an Arduino Uno and Bluetooth control center, which communicates wirelessly to the PIC32.

The controller was designed to simulate the natural motion of playing a guitar as closely as possible. We broke down that motion on a real guitar into two parts. First, users select the sound they want to play by holding the appropriate strings down. Second, the users play the sound by strumming the strings. To have a controller that resembled a real guitar, we wanted to abide by those two intuitive motions.

Fret & Strum Circuits

At the top of the guitar controller is the fret board. This is where the users can select the sounds they want to play. Throughout the system, the sound is represented as a nibble (4 bits), so we use 4 strings to select the sound.

Each string works as an active-low push-button. The strings are made of carbon-impregnated elastic, which feels and moves like elastic but is also conductive. Each string was wrapped in 30-gauge copper wire, to ensure solid contact with any conductive surfaces. The strings are each connected to screws that run through the fret board and connect the strings to the fret circuit (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Complete controller circuit schematic (on guitar).

The purpose of the fret circuit is to detect changes in voltage across four lines. Each line is branched off a power rail and connected across a string to an input pin on an Arduino Uno. Current runs from the power rail across each string to its respective input pin, which reads a HIGH signal. To detect a push on the string, we grounded the surface into which the string is pushed. By wrapping the fret board in a grounded conductive pad and pushing the string into the fret board, we are able to ground our signal before it can reach the input pin. When this occurs, the associated pin reads a LOW signal, which is interpreted as a press of the string by our system.

Along with the fret circuit, we needed a way to detect strums. The strum circuit is similar in its use of a copper-wrapped, carbon-impregnated elastic string. The string is connected through the fret board to an input pin on the Arduino, but is not powered. Without any external contact, the pin reads LOW. When voltage is applied to the string, the pin reads HIGH, detecting the strum. To mimic the strumming motion most accurately, we used a guitar pick to apply the voltage to the string. The pick is wrapped in a conductive material (aluminum foil), which is connected to the power rail. Contact of the pick applies voltage to the string, which on a rising edge denotes a strum.

Figure 4
Shown here is a block diagram of the controller signals.

As shown in Figure 4, the direct user interface for the player is the guitar controller. The physical interaction with the guitar is converted to an encoded signal by an Arduino mounted to the back of the guitar. The Arduino Uno polls for a signal that denotes a strum, and then reads the strum pattern across the four strings. The signal is sent over USB serial to a Bluetooth control station, which uses a Python script to broadcast the signal to an Adafruit Bluetooth LE module. The laptop that we used as a Bluetooth control station established a link between the controller and the Bluetooth receiver, and was paramount to the debugging and testing of our system. Finally, the Bluetooth module communicated over UART with the PIC, which interpreted the user’s signal in the context of the game [2].  …

Read the full article in the March 344 issue of Circuit Cellar
(Full article word count: 3271 words; Figure count: 10 Figures.)

Watch the project video here:

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March Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The March issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is out next week!. We’ve rounded up an outstanding selection of in-depth embedded electronics articles just for you, and rustled them all into our 84-page magazine.

Not a Circuit Cellar subscriber?  Don’t be left out! Sign up today:

 

Here’s a sneak preview of March 2019 Circuit Cellar:

POWER MAKES IT POSSIBLE

Power Issues for Wearables
Wearable devices put extreme demands on the embedded electronics that make them work—and power is front and center among those demands. Devices spanning across the consumer, fitness and medical markets all need an advanced power source and power management technologies to perform as expected. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines how today’s microcontroller and power electronics are enabling today’s wearable products.

Power Supplies for Medical Systems
Over the past year, there’s been an increasing trend toward new products that have some sort of application or industry focus. That means supplies that include either certifications, special performance specs or tailored packaging intended for a specific application area such as medical. This Product Focus section updates readers on these technology trends and provides a product gallery of representative medical-focused power supplies.

DESIGN RESOURCES, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Flex PCB Design Services
While not exactly a brand-new technology, flexible printed circuit boards are a critical part of many of today’s challenging embedded system applications from wearable devices to mobile healthcare electronics. Circuit Cellar’s Editor-in-Chief, Jeff Child, explores the Flex PCB design capabilities available today and whose providing them.

Design Flow Ensures Automotive Safety
Fault analysis has been around for years, and many methods have been created to optimize evaluation of hundreds of concurrent faults in specialized simulators. However, there are many challenges in running a fault campaign. Mentor’s Doug Smith presents an improved formal verification flow that reduces the number of faults while simultaneously providing much higher quality of results.

Cooling Electronic Systems
Any good embedded system engineer knows that heat is the enemy of reliability. As new systems cram more functionality at higher speeds into ever smaller packages, it’s no wonder an increasing amount of engineering mindshare is focusing on cooling electronic systems. In this article, George Novacek reviews some of the essential math and science around cooling and looks are several cooling technologies—from cold pates to heat pipes.

MICROCONTROLLER PROJECTS WITH ALL THE DETAILS

MCU-Based Solution Links USB to Legacy PC I/O
In PCs, serial interfaces have now been just about completely replaced by USB. But many of those interfaces are still used in control and monitoring embedded systems. In this project article, Hossam Abdelbaki describes his ATSTAMP design. ATSTAMP is an MCS-51 (8051) compatible microcontroller chip that can be connected to the USB port of any PC via any USB-to-serial bridge currently available in the market.

Pet Collar Uses GPS and Wi-Fi
The PIC32 has proven effective for a myriad of applications, so why not a dog collar? Learn how Cornell graduates Vidya Ramesh and Vaidehi Garg built a GPS-enabled pet collar prototype. The article discusses the hardware peripherals used in the project, the setup, and the software. It also describes the motivation behind the project, and possibilities to expand the project in the future.

Guitar Video Game Uses PIC32
While music-playing video games are fun, their user interfaces tend leave a lot to be desired. Learn how Cornell students Jake Podell and Jonah Wexler designed and built a musical video game that’s interfaced with using a custom-built wireless guitar controller. The game is run on a Microchip PIC32 MCU and uses a TFT LCD display to show notes that move across the screen towards a strum region.

… AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS

Non-Evasive Current Sensor
Gone are the days when you could do most of your own maintenance on your car’s engine. Today they’re sophisticated electronic systems. But there are some things you can do with the right tools. In his article, By Jeff Bachiochi talks about how using the timing light on his car engine introduced him to non-contact sensor technology. He talks about the types of probes available and how to use them to read the magnitude of alternating current (AC

Impedance Spectroscopy using the AD5933
Impedance spectroscopy is the measurement of a device’s impedance (or resistance) over a range of frequencies. Brian Millier has designed many voltammographs and conductivity meters over the years. But he recently came across the Analog Devices AD5933 chip made by which performs most all the functions needed to do impedance spectroscopy. In this article, explores the technology, circuit design and software that serve these efforts.

Side-Channel Power Analysis
Side-channel power analysis is a method of breaking security on embedded systems, and something Colin O’Flynn has covered extensively in his column. This time Colin shows how you can prove some of the fundamental assumptions that underpin side-channel power analysis. He uses the open-source ChipWhisperer project with Jupyter notebooks for easy interactive evaluation.

Low-Power Pico-ITX SBC Serves Industrial IoT Needs

Axiomtek has introduced its PICO318 board, a palm-sized fanless pico-ITX motherboard powered by the Intel Pentium processor N4200 or Celeron processor N3350 (code named Apollo Lake). The PICO318 is a low power consumption, 2.5” embedded board that is expandable, rugged, feature-rich and versatile to help facilitate quick deployment.
The PICO318 is equipped with one 204-pin DDR3L-1867 SO-DIMM for up to 8 GB system memory. A dual-display capability is available through 18/24-bit single/dual channel LVDS and DisplayPort. For storage, there are one M.2 key B slot for SATA or PCIe x2 SSD card and one half-size PCI Express Mini Card slot with support for mSATA. Moreover, the Pico-ITX form factor SBC features 12 V DC power supply input with AT Auto Power On function.

The Intel Apollo Lake-based pico-ITX board provides rich I/O connectivity including two USB 3.0 ports, two USB 2.0 ports, one RS-232/422/485 port, one RS-232 port, two Gigabit LAN ports with Intel i211AT Ethernet controller, one HD Codec audio, and 4-channel digital I/O. The PICO318 offers watchdog timer and hardware monitoring for reliable operation. It also supports AXView 2.0, intelligent remote management software for industrial IoT applications. Additionally, its I2C interface offers smart battery support. The PICO318 will be available in March, 2019.

Features:

  • Intel Pentium processor N4200 and Celeron processor N3350 (code name: Apollo Lake)
  • One 204-pin DDR3L-1867 SO-DIMM, up to 8GB
  • Two USB 2.0 ports and two USB 3.0 ports
  • Two Gigabit Ethernet ports and two COM ports
  • PCI Express Mini Card slot with mSATA support
  • Supports M.2 Key B (SATA, USB 2.0, PCIe x2 for option) in 22 mm x 42 mm or 30 mm x 42 mm

Axiomtek | www.axiomtek.com

 

Secure Cellular Router Serves Industrial and Transportation Needs

Digi International has announced the Digi WR54, a rugged, secure, high-performance wireless router for complex mobile and industrial environments. With dual cellular interfaces, Digi WR54 provides immediate carrier failover for near-constant uptime and continuous connectivity, especially as vehicles move throughout a city or for locations with marginal cellular coverage. Together with a hardened milspec-certified design and built-in Digi TrustFence security framework, this LTE-Advanced router is designed specifically to meet the connectivity challenges inherent in multi-location, on-the-move conditions, from rail and public transit to trucking fleets and emergency vehicle applications.

LTE-Advanced technologies with carrier aggregation are pushing theoretical download speeds to 300 Mbps, and the next generation of cellular radios is capable of aggregating three or more channels for capabilities up to 600 Mbps. It’s expected that 5G deployments this year will push the demands for performance and edge computing even further. Digi WR54 provides an LTE-Advanced cellular module built on a platform that supports higher speeds to optimize bandwidth today while also being positioned for the future as network capabilities improve.

Multiple transit system use cases require rugged, reliable, high-speed connectivity solutions to carry mission-critical data and communications. Transit system integrators require connectivity for fleet tracking, logistics, engine and driver performance monitoring, fare collection and video monitoring; rail companies that are building in wayside data capabilities need constant visibility into complex systems; industrial corporations like utility companies need to monitor high-value assets.

The Digi WR54 architecture supports these performance requirements with not just the aforementioned LTE-Advanced cellular module, but four Gigabit Ethernet ports for wired systems and the latest 802.11 ac Wi-Fi which combine to support the needs of any user. Other key features include:

  • Dual-core 880 MHz MIPS processor: designed with this high-speed architecture, the Digi WR54 is future-built with a CPU capable of supporting higher network speeds and capabilities as infrastructure is updated to support them
  • SAE J1455, MILSTD-810G and IP-54 rated: tested and certified to withstand water, dust, heat, vibration and other environmental challenges suitable to transportation and many industrial applications
  • Optional dual-cellular radios for continuous connectivity between carriers: for users that cannot afford downtime, if the primary cellular carrier drops out, the Digi WR54 automatically and immediately switches over to the secondary carrier
  • Digi TrustFence: a device-security framework that simplifies the process of securing connected devices and adapts to new and evolving threats
  • Digi Remote Manager: with this Digi web-based management tool, users can simply manage their devices, receive alerts and monitor the health of their deployed devices

For users looking to add high-speed passenger Wi-Fi to mass transit systems, the recently launched Digi WR64 dual LTE-Advanced cellular and dual 802.11ac Wi-Fi router offers an all-in-one mobile communications solution for secure cellular connectivity between vehicles and a central operations center. It offers a flexible interface design with integrated Wi-Fi for client and access point connectivity along with USB, serial, a four-port wired Ethernet switch, GPS and Bluetooth in order to consolidate multiple transit or industrial applications into a single, consolidated router.

Digi International| www.digi.com

Connecting USB to Simple MCUs

Helpful Hosting

Sometimes you want to connect a USB device such as a flash drive to a simple microcontroller. The problem is most MCUs cannot function as a USB host. In this article, Stuart steps through the technology and device choices that solve this challenge. He also puts the idea into action via a project that provides this functionality.

By Stuart Ball

Even though many microcontrollers (MCUs) may have a USB device interface that can connect to a host, rarely is a host interface available on simple MCUs. There are various reasons for this, including the complexity of implementing a USB host interface on a simple processor, the need to enumerate and recognize many device types and the memory required to do so. Functioning as a single USB device is much simpler. Implementing a host interface also puts some constraints on the MCU for throughput and clock speed choices.

I have been working on a retro CPU board design, using the Z80180 processor that can run the old CP/M-80 operating system. This is just a fun project, with no real practical use. But the project needed storage that could replace the floppy disk normally used in CP/M. I considered using SD cards, but in experimenting with them, I decided that they are just not what I wanted. What I did want was the ability to plug a USB flash drive into the circuit.

Even though my CP/M project is not that useful, there are other applications where the ability to plug a USB flash drive into an MCU-based circuit is desirable. Examples include:

• Capturing logging or debug data
• Flashing new code into the MCU
(if the MCU has self-programming flash)
• Downloading crypto keys or other
one-time data to the MCU
• Downloading configuration information
to enable or disable features
• Downloading language translation
information
• Retaining critical data
• Serving as a “key” to restrict access to
maintenance mode functions only
to authorized personnel
• Downloading GPS coordinates or map
information
• Updating stored part numbers, serial
numbers or any stored value that can
change.

There are ways to implement USB host capability on an MCU, especially if it has a USB interface that supports OTG (on-the-go) USB capability. But no matter how you do it, you have to write or obtain drivers and integrate the functionality into your software. You will also be constrained as to which MCUs you can use, based on availability of USB host capability. But for a simple design, you may not want to be forced to use a part just because it has USB host capability.

VDrive3

FTDI makes a USB host module called the VDrive3 that provides a limited USB host interface and can connect to an MCU (or even a PC) using an asynchronous serial port. The module also has an SPI interface, although I did not use that in my design. A link to the datasheet is provided on the Circuit Cellar article materials webpage.

The VDrive3 (Figure 1) uses the FTDI Vinculum IC, which provides a USB host interface on one side and a serial or SPI interface to your MCU on the other. Since all of the hardware and software to implement the USB host interface is inside the VDrive3 module, you don’t need to develop USB stacks or drivers, or deal with licensing issues. The VDrive3 comes in a plastic housing so it is easy to mount in a rectangular cutout.

Figure 1
VDrive3 module. The module comes with the attached cable, which I modified to use a different connector on my board.

The VDrive3 has a file-based interface for USB flash drives, which means that you don’t need to manage the memory yourself. You open files, write to them, read them, close them and create directories. The VDrive3 shields the host from the memory management functionality, allowing all this to be done with simple commands over the serial interface. The VDrive3 manages the file system so you don’t have to.

In my application, I was emulating a floppy disk. I defined the “virtual floppy” to have 256 tracks of 32 sectors each. To implement that on the VDrive3, I created 256 directories named TRAK000 through TRAK0FF. In each directory, I created 32 files named SEC00 through SEC1F. So, when the CP/M operating system wants to read or write a specific sector, the AVR MCU navigates to the directory that represents the selected track and opens the sector file corresponding to the specified sector.

This is a simple mechanism that is really applicable only to the way I’m using the flash drive, but the general principles apply to any VDrive3 application. You can create a directory, and then create files within the directory that correspond to whatever information you need to store. Or you can skip the directories and store everything at the top directory level.

One advantage of using the VDrive3 is interoperability with a PC. If I used SD drives, I would either have a proprietary format that couldn’t be read in a PC, or else I’d have to manage a PC-compatible file system in my MCU. But the VDrive3 recognizes the standard FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32 file systems, so a flash drive written on a VDrive3 can be inserted into a PC and read. This could be very useful if you are collecting debug or log data from your MCU application. In my case, I could make a copy of a CP/M “floppy” on a PC.

Commands

The VDrive3 recognizes various commands, including SEK (seek to file offset), OPW (open file for writing) and WRF (write to file). The commands used in my application are listed in Table 1. VDrive3 commands can be sent in ASCII as in the command list in Table 1, or you can configure it to use a short command set that requires fewer bytes to transmit. Data can be either ASCII or binary. The VDrive3 defaults to the extended command set and binary data transfer, and I leave the module in that mode for my application.

Table 1
The VDrive3 recognizes various commands. Shown here are the commands used in my application. VDrive3 commands can be sent in ASCII as in this command list, or you can configure it to use a short command set that requires fewer bytes to transmit.

Generally, each command is sent as a string of two or three characters. If data such as a filename are needed, the command is followed by a space, the appropriate text and a carriage return character (0x0D). If no data are needed, such as for the FWV (FW version) command, the command can be immediately followed by the carriage return. Setting the baud rate requires a divisor value, so the SBD command (set baud rate) is followed by a 3-byte divisor value and then a carriage return. …

Read the full article in the January 342 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Tiny MCU-Based Development Platform Hosts Dual USB Ports

Segger Microcontroller has introduced emPower-USB-Host, a compact low-cost development board. With two USB host ports, many applications using USB peripherals can be realized with little effort. Precompiled applications for barcode and smartcard readers, as well as POS displays, LTE sticks and USB to LAN adapters are available for download, including complete projects for Embedded Studio with source code of these applications. The applications are using Segger’s emUSB-Host software API, which makes accessing the different types of USB devices easy.
emPower-USB-Host uses the emLoad bootloader, pre-loaded into the flash of the MCU, to easily change applications in seconds using a USB flash drive. Development of custom applications is also supported. The board has a debug connector, providing full access to the NXP LPC54605J512 MCU with its Cortex-M4 core. Schematics and PCB layout of the board are available under a Creative Commons license. This way, the hardware can be used as a blueprint for custom devices using two USB host ports.

Segger Microcontroller | www.segger.com

Rugged PC/104 SBC Sports Dual Core Bay Trail SoC

Versalogic has announced “SandCat”, a low-cost rugged new PC/104-Plus SBC. Based on Intel’s dual-core Bay Trail SoC, SandCat is an entry level PC/104-Plus SBC that provides a cost optimized performance level and I/O capability. The SandCat is designed and tested for industrial temperature (-40° to +85°C) operation and meets MIL-STD-202G specifications to withstand high impact and vibration. Latching connectors and fanless operation provide additional benefits in harsh environments.

SandCat’s I/O connectivity includes a Gigabit Ethernet port with network boot capability, four USB 2.0 ports, two serial ports (RS-232/422/485), I2C, and eight digital I/O lines. A SATA 3 Gbit/s interface supports high-capacity rotating or solid-state drives. A Mini PCIe socket with mSATA capability provides flexible solid-state drive (SSD) options.

The board’s SandCat’s Mini PCIe socket allows easy on-board expansion with plug-in Wi-Fi modems, GPS receivers, and other mini cards such as MIL-STD-1553, Ethernet and analog. For stacking expansion using industry-standard add-on boards, the SandCat supports PC/104-Plus expansion, including ISA and PCI based modules. The on-board expansion site provides plug-in access to a wide variety of expansion modules from numerous vendors, all with bolt-down ruggedness.

Like other Versalogic products, the SandCat is designed for long-term availability (10+ year typical production lifecycle). Customization services to help customers create unique solutions are available for the SandCat, even in low OEM quantities. Customization options include conformal coating, revision locks, custom labeling, customized testing and screening.

The SandCat single board computer, part number VL-EPM-39EBK, is in stock at both Versa;ogic and Digi-Key. OEM quantity pricing starts at $370.

Versalogic | www.versalogic.com

IoT Door Security System Uses Wi-Fi

Control Via App or Web

Discover how these Cornell students built an Internet-connected door security system with wireless monitoring and control through web and mobile applications. The article discusses the interfacing of a Microchip PIC32 MCU with the Internet, and the application of IoT to a door security system.

By Norman Chen, Ram Vellanki and Giacomo Di Liberto

The idea for an Internet of Things (IoT) door security system came from our desire to grant people remote access to and control over their security system. Connecting the system with the Internet not only improves safety by enabling users to monitor a given entryway remotely, but also allows the system to transmit information about the traffic of the door to the Internet. With these motivations, we designed our system using a Microchip Technology PIC32 microcontroller (MCU) and an Espressif ESP8266 Wi-Fi module to interface a door sensor with the Internet, which gives the user full control over the system via mobile and web applications.

The entire system works in the following way. To start, the PIC32 tells the Wi-Fi module to establish a connection to a TCP socket, which provides fast and reliable communication with the security system’s web server. Once a connection has been established, the PIC32 enters a loop to analyze the distance sensor reading to detect motion in the door. Upon any detection of motion, the PIC32 commands the Wi-Fi module to signal the event to the web server. Each motion detection is saved in memory, and simultaneously the data are sent to the website, which graphs the number of motion detections per unit time. If the security system was armed at the time of motion detection, then the PIC32 will sound the alarm via a piezoelectric speaker from CUI. The alarm system is disarmed at default, so each motion detection is logged in the web application but no sound is played. From both the web and mobile application, the user can arm, disarm and sound the alarm immediately in the case of an emergency.

DESIGN

The PIC32 acts as the hub of the whole system. As shown in Figure 1, each piece of hardware is connected to the MCU, as it detects motion by analyzing distance sensor readings, generates sound for the piezoelectric speaker and commands the Wi-Fi module for actions that pertain to the web server. The distance sensor used in our system is rated to accurately measure distances of only 10 to 80 cm [1]. That’s because motion detection requires us only to measure large changes in distances instead of exact distances, the sensor was sufficient for our needs.

Figure 1
The schematic of the security system. Note that the door sensor runs on 5  V, whereas the rest of the components run on 3.3 V

In our design, the sensor is facing down from the top of the doorway, so the nearest object to the sensor is the floor at idle times, when there is no movement through the door. For an average height of a door, about 200 cm, the sensor outputs a miniscule amount of voltage of less than 0.5 V. If a human of average height, about 160 cm, passes through the doorway, then according to the datasheet [1], the distance sensor will output a sudden spike of about 1.5 V. The code on the PIC32 constantly analyzes the distance sensor readings for such spikes, and interprets an increase and subsequent decrease in voltage as motion through the door. The alarm sound is generated by having the PIC32 repeatedly output a 1,500 Hz wave to the piezoelectric speaker through a DAC. We used the DMA feature on the PIC32 for playing the alarm sound, to allow the MCU to signal the alarm without using an interrupt-service-routine. The alarm sound output therefore, did not interfere with motion detection and receiving commands from the web server.

The Wi-Fi module we used to connect the PIC32 to the Internet is the ESP8266, which has several variations on the market. We chose model number ESP8266-01 for its low cost and small form factor. This model was not breadboard-compatible, but we designed a mount for the device so that it could be plugged into the breadboard without the need for header wires. Figure 2 shows how the device is attached to the breadboard, along with how the rest of the system is connected.

Figure 2
The full system is wired up on a breadboard. The door sensor is at the bottom of the photo, and is attached facing down from the top of a doorway when in use. The device at the top of the figure is the PIC32 MCU mounted on a development board.

The module can boot into two different modes, programming or normal, by configuring the GPIO pins during startup. To boot into programming mode, GPIO0 must be pulled to low, while GPIO2 must be pulled high. To boot into normal mode, both GPIO0 and GPIO2 must be pulled high. Programming mode is used for flashing new firmware onto the device, whereas normal mode enables AT commands over UART on the ESP8266. Because we only needed to enable the AT commands on the module, we kept GPIO0 and GPIO2 floating, which safely and consistently booted the module into normal mode.

SENDING COMMANDS

Before interfacing the PIC32 with the Wi-Fi module, we used a USB-to-TTL serial cable to connect the module to a computer, and tested the functionality of its AT commands by sending it commands from a serial terminal. …

Read the full article in the December 341 issue of Circuit Cellar

Don’t miss out on upcoming issues of Circuit Cellar. Subscribe today!

Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Industrial Mini-ITX Board Pumps up with Coffee Lake

By Eric Brown

Commell’s “LV-67X” Mini-ITX board runs on 8th Gen “Coffee Lake” processors, with up to 32GB DDR4, 3x SATA, triple 4K displays, USB 3.1, and PCIe x16 and mini-PCIe expansion. The LV-67X, which shares some of the layout and feature set of its Intel Apollo Lake based LV-67U board, is the first industrial Mini-ITX board we’ve seen with Intel’s 8th Gen Coffee Lake CPUs. (Going forward, we’ll likely use the caffeinated nickname rather than “8th Gen” because Intel also applies the 8th Gen tag to the transitional and similarly 14nm Kaby Lake-G chips as well as the new, 10nm Cannon Lake processors.)


LV-67X
(click image to enlarge)
The LV-67X is called an industrial board, and it provides a relatively wide 0 to 60°C range and a smattering of industrial I/O. However, it has a full-height profile and bridges the gap to consumer applications. The board supports video gaming, virtual reality, medical devices, imaging, machine vision, and digital signage. The product page lists only Windows drivers, but the manual notes that the board also supports Linux.

The 170 x 170mm SBC supports Coffee Lake Core, Celeron, and Pentium CPUs that work with the FCLGA1151 socket (the full name for LGA1151). The board ships with Intel Q370 chipset, one of Intel’s 300-series I/O chips announced with Coffee Lake that supports USB 3.1 Gen2 and extensive PCIe lanes.

No specific models were mentioned, but the SBC is said to support Coffee Lake chips with up to six cores running at up to 4.7GHz Turbo, with Intel 9th-gen graphics and up to 12MB cache. That would be the profile for the top-of-the-line Core i7-8700K, a hexa-core chip with 12 threads and a 95W TDP.

The LV-67X can load up to 32GB of speedy, 2666MHz DDR4 RAM via dual sockets. It provides 2x GbE ports, 3x SATA III interfaces, a full-size mini-PCIe slot with mSATA support, and another half-size mini-PCIe slot accompanied by a SIM card slot. There’s also a PCIe x16 interface.


 
LV-67X block diagram (left) and detail view
(click images to enlarge)

The description of the USB feature set varies depending on the citation, but Commell has clarified matters for us in an email. There are 6x USB 3.1 interfaces, 4x of which are coastline ports. There are also 4x USB 2.0 internal interfaces.

One key difference between earlier Core-based boards is that the LV-67X taps Coffee Lake’s ability to power three independent 4K displays. The board accomplishes this hat trick with coastline HDMI and DVI-I ports and an optional DisplayPort, as well as onboard VGA and 18/24-bit, dual-channel LVDS interfaces. If you don’t want the DisplayPort, you can instead get additional VGA and LVDS connections.

The LV-67X is further equipped with 4x RS232/422/485 or RS-232 interfaces, depending on conflicting citations, with an option to add two RS232/422/485 DB9 ports. Other features include 3x audio jacks (Realtek ALC262), 8-bit DIO, and LPC, SMBus, and PS/2 interfaces. You also get a watchdog, RTC with battery, and 24-pin ATX and 4-pin, 12V inputs.

Further information

No pricing or availability information was provided for the LV-67X. More information may be found on Commell’s announcement and product pages.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on August 17..

Commell | www.commell.com.tw