Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

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Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (10/2) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (10/9) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (10/16) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Semtech LoRa Technology Leveraged for Flood Sensor System

Semtech has announced that Green Stream has incorporated Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology (LoRa Technology) and Senet’s LoRaWAN-based network into its autonomous flood sensor systems for use in coastal areas, including towns and cities.
Green Stream’s solutions use LoRa Technology, a proven technology leaderused in IoT environmental solutions. Green Stream’s end-to-end flood monitoring solutions are designed using commercial, off-the-shelf ultrasonic sensors and easy-to-deploy LoRa-enabled gateways. The data is communicated over a LoRaWAN-based network provided by Senet, a leading provider of Cloud-based LoRaWAN services platforms that enable the on-demand build out and management of IoT connectivity. The Green Stream LoRa-based flood sensors are autonomous, requiring no external power or wired network connection.

Each sensor is a self-contained, weather-proof, solar-powered unit that comes with a universal mounting bracket and extension arm. These sensors are small enough to be installed on top of crosswalks, light or electric poles, and bridges. The rugged sensor gateway is positioned above a body of water or over dry land.

Semtech | www.semtech.com

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(9/25) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (10/2) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (10/9) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Velocity and Speed Sensors

Measuring Motion

Automatic systems require real-life physical attributes to be measured and converted to electrical quantities ready for electronic processing. Velocity is one such attribute. In this article, George steps through the math, science and technology behind measuring velocity and the sensors used for such measurements.

By George Novacek

Automatic systems respond to a multitude of inputs affecting their output. Real life physical attributes need to be measured and converted to electrical quantities ready for electronic processing. Velocity is one of such attributes. By its definition, velocity is a vector comprising speed and direction of a motion. The speed is the rate of change of an object’s position with respect to some reference point over time. In situations such as an automobile cruise control, the direction of the movement is not important. In other applications—typically a guidance system or aircraft autopilot—the velocity must be determined in three axes simultaneously. In those applications the velocity directions are often referred to as pitch, roll and yaw—although technically those are angular positions and their rates of change.

A common unit of speed in the SI (the metric system) is meters per second (m/s). Other units are derived, based on their magnitude, by multiplication or division, such as millimeters per second (mm/s), kilometers per hour (km/h) and so forth. The Imperial system expresses speed in miles, feet or inches per second, hour and such. We should not forget Mach, the unit of speed named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Walfried Mach. It is used primarily in aerospace applications. The Mach number is dimensionless, expressing the ratio of the local flow speed (v) over the speed of sound (c) in its particular medium, often air. Therefore M = v/c. Mach 1 equals to the speed of sound 331.46 m/s (1,193.26 km/h or 741.45 miles/h). The speed of sound, however, changes with the conditions of the medium, such as its temperature, so the Mach number may vary while the ground speed remains constant. Nautical and subsonic aviation in the English-speaking world commonly use a Knot (kn or kt). 1 kt = 1.151 miles/h = 1.852 km/h.

The angular—rotational velocity—of an object is the rate of change of the angular position with respect to time. It is a measure of how fast the object is turning. Angular velocity is also a vector with the direction being the axis about which the object rotates. In many control systems the axis is stationary, while our primary interest is the rotational speed. The common unit is rotations per minute, or RPM.

There aren’t very many transducers available for measuring linear speed directly. Such measurements can be performed by displacement sensors [1] combined with some method of time measurement. The speed “s” is expressed as:

The speed is defined as the change of position over time. When the amount of time is substantial with respect to the traveled distance, the resulting speed is likely to be considered average. For the time interval approaching zero the immediate speed is dx/dt.

LVDT and Doppler Methods

Low speed displacement measurement can be performed, for example, by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) [1], but the range is small due to the mechanical limitations of the transducer. At the opposite extreme, optical, ultrasound or radio displacement detection methods are used to establish the time for an object to pass detection points. Two basic methods are common. One is the measurement of the distance by the time of flight and calculating the speed per equation #1.

The second method is based on the Doppler effect, named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who discovered it in 1842. If a periodic signal is emitted at some frequency ranging from acoustic to light, its reflection, frequency shifted up or down, depending on the object’ direction of travel, is received. The magnitude of the shift depends on the speed of the motion. Assuming the direction is straight towards the receiver, the measured frequency (Equation #2):

and the frequency shift (Equation #3):

where ∆f = f – f0 and ∆v = vr – vs. ∆v is the expression of the velocity of the receiver relative to the source.

Light interferometry methods, such as the VISAR system, are too specialized and too costly to be found in most embedded control systems. VISAR is an acronym that stands for “velocity interference system for any reflector.”

To measure speed, it is often convenient to convert a linear velocity into a rotary one, using a tachometer (essentially a dynamo), Hall Effect diodes or rotary encoders. Anemometers are a typical example where the fluid (or air) flow rotates a small propeller which rotates a tachometer.

Tachometers have been commonly recognized as automobile instruments, but the old mechanical devices are no longer ideal for modern electronic control. Today the automobile speed is often derived from counting the ignition firing. Some motors comprising an integral tachometer are often considered too bulky and too expensive by today’s standards. Instead, optical or magnetic sensors are preferred. The principle of optical speed detection is shown in Figure 1.

FIGURE 1
An optical rotational speed detector

Magnetic sensors use Hall Effect sensors to replace the light detector in Figure 1, one or more permanent magnets located on the rotating disc and the light source is omitted. The Hall effect was discovered by E. H. Hall in 1879. The Hall element is made from a thin sheet of a conductive material with the output connections perpendicular to the direction of current flow. When subjected to a magnetic field, the sensor generates voltage proportional to the magnetic field strength. The generated voltage is in the order of microvolts and therefore electronics are needed to amplify the output to a useful level. Hall sensors produce a voltage proportional to the magnetic field strength, while Hall switches output logic levels only. Hall switches are perfect for rotational speed measurement. They are found in brushless DC motors (BLDC) as speed feedback devices, in antilock braking systems and so forth. Permanent magnets attached to a rotating shaft cause the switch to generate a pulse every time a magnet moves past it. The rotational speed of electrical motors can also be measured by monitoring their back EMF (electromotive force) with no sensors needed.  …

Read the full article in the September 338 issue of Circuit Cellar

Don’t miss out on upcoming issues of Circuit Cellar. Subscribe today!
 

Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your
Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (9/4) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (9/11) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (9/18) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(9/25) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (10/2) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (10/9) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Wireless Weather Station Uses Arduino

And Two ASK Radios

Integrating wireless technologies into embedded systems recently has become much easier. In this project article, Raul describes his homemade wireless weather station that monitors ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. The design uses Arduino and a pair of inexpensive Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) radio modules.

By Raul Alvarez Torrico

In this project I present a homemade wireless weather station. The system comprises two wireless nodes in a peer-to-peer communication setup: one Transmitting Node with all the weather sensors, and one Receiving Node with a display to show the received data. At the Transmitting Node, I have a low cost DHT22 sensor for reading temperature and ambient humidity, an anemometer for wind speed and a wind vane for sensing wind direction. At the Receiving Node, I connected a 0.96″ OLED display with SPI interface for visualizing the received weather readings. Both nodes have ASK transmitting and receiving radio modules, respectively. The range for these modules is around 50 m (line of sight) with a 5-V DC power supply.

Due to the inherent unreliability of wireless communications, the data are transmitted using a very simple communication protocol designed specifically for this project. This protocol allows the transmission of data packed into frames and implements basic addressing and payload error checking. This helps to determine, for instance, if a given received frame is, in fact, directed to the Receiving Node—and if the received data are error-free. A few Arduino libraries are available for wireless communication using ASK modules that implement communication protocols. I won’t be using any of them, however, because one of the objectives for this project is to show the basics about how to implement a wireless communication protocol, for those who are new to the subject.

Looking under the hood, this project is a basic introduction to the way wireless communications protocols work, using the concept of packing data into frames. I’ll also examine why adding metadata to them is important for addressing, packet identification and error checking, among other things. And, to explain what got me interested in these types of projects, see sidebar: “A Tribute to Steve Ciarcia” on page 14.

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

As I said earlier, the system comprises two wireless nodes: one transmitting and one receiving. Each are based on an Arduino Pro Mini board with a Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller (Figure 1). The Transmitting Node is the one with the weather sensors: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. It has also a low-cost ASK transmitter radio module working in the 433 MHz band. But 315 MHz modules can also be used. The Receiving Node has its corresponding 433 MHz ASK receiver radio module and a 0.96″ OLED display that shows the received weather data.

FIGURE 1 Wireless Weather Station block diagram

The Transmitting Node takes readings from all its sensors and sends the data wirelessly every fixed period statically defined in code—in other words, every few seconds. Meanwhile, the Receiving Node is constantly listening for incoming data. And every time it receives a valid data frame that is addressed to it, it will extract the payload containing the readings from all remote sensors and then visualize them in the OLED display. The Transmitting Node sends the data packed into frames following a very simple protocol designed specifically for this project. I will explain this protocol in detail later.

Both the transmitter and receiver are low-cost ASK radio modules, such as those used for wireless garage door openers. Why use these “toy” radio modules instead of much more sophisticated ones? For me, the short answer is: Because it can be done! I really like minimalist approaches, and I always tend to push things to the extremes to see how so much can be accomplished with so little. …

Read the full article in the September 338 issue of Circuit Cellar

Don’t miss out on upcoming issues of Circuit Cellar. Subscribe today!

Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Sensor Interface IC Enables Advanced Bio-Chemical Sensing

Analog Devices has announced today a new sensor interface IC that enables the next generation of intelligent electrochemical sensors. According to the company, it is the only solution available to incorporate potentiostat and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) functionality on a single chip. The ADuCM355 precision analog microcontroller with bio-sensor and chemical sensor interface is well suited for applications such as industrial gas sensing, instrumentation, vital signs monitoring and disease management.

The ADuCM355 is an ultra-low power precision analog microcontroller based on the ARM Cortex M3 processor especially designed to control and measure chemical and biosensors. It is the only solution available that supports dual potentiostat and >3 sensor electrodes.

Additional features:

  • Voltage, current and impedance measurement
  • Dual ultra-low power, low noise potentiostats: 8.5u A, 1.6 uV RMS
  • Flexible 16-bit, 400 ksps measurement channel
  • Advanced sensor diagnostics
  • Integrated analog hardware accelerators
  • 26 MHz core, 128 kB Flash, 64 kB SRAM

View the ADuCM355 product page, download data sheet, order samples and evaluation board.: www.analog.com/ADuCM355. Available now, the ADuCM355 is priced at $5.90 (1,000s).

Analog Devices | www.analog.com

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your
Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

July has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
PCB Design (7/31) PCB design tools and methods continue to evolve as they race to keep pace with faster, highly integrated electronics. Automated, rules-based chip placement is getting more sophisticated and tools are addressing the broader picture of the PCB design process. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in PCB design tools.

Analog & Power. (8/7) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (8/14) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (8/21) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(7/24) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

July has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
PCB Design (7/31) PCB design tools and methods continue to evolve as they race to keep pace with faster, highly integrated electronics. Automated, rules-based chip placement is getting more sophisticated and tools are addressing the broader picture of the PCB design process. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in PCB design tools.

Analog & Power. (8/7) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (8/14) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

MCUs Offer Configurable Signal Chain Elements

Texas Instruments (TI) has announced the addition of new microcontrollers with integrated signal-chain elements and an extended operating temperature range to its MSP430 value line portfolio. New MSP430FR2355 ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) MCUs allow developers to reduce printed circuit board (PCB) size and bill-of-materials (BOM) cost while meeting temperature requirements for sensing and measurement in applications such as smoke detectors, sensor transmitters and circuit breakers.
Engineers can enjoy more flexibility in their system design with MSP430FR2355 MCUs, which integrate smart analog combos—configurable signal-chain elements that include options for multiple 12-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and programmable gain amplifiers, along with a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and two enhanced comparators.

Developers can use MSP430FR2355 MCUs for applications that require operation at temperatures as high as 105°C while also benefiting from FRAM data-logging capabilities. Engineers gain more options to select the right memory and processing speed for cost-sensitive applications with the MSP430FR2355 MCUs, which add options to the MSP430 value line FRAM MCU family by offering memory up to 32 KB and central processing unit (CPU) speeds up to 24 MHz. Designers can also scale to the rest of the MSP430 FRAM MCU portfolio for applications that require up to 256 KB of memory, higher performance or more analog peripherals.

Developers can start evaluating with the MSP430FR2355 MCU LaunchPad development kit (MSP-EXP430FR2355), available for US$12.99 from the TI store.

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

PICMG to Demo IIoT Development Concept at Sensors Expo

The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG), a not-for-profit consortium of companies and organizations that collaboratively develop open specifications will have a booth at Sensors Expo (#1642) to promote its concepts for a new IIoT specification.  Live demonstrations will be performed to illustrate PICMG’s approach to connect sensor and the controller endpoints using new Internet of Things (IoT) methodologies.

Doug Sandy, CTO of PICMG, will hold a tutorial on Thursday June 28th in the Live Embedded Theater on the subject “Making Sense of Industrial IoT”.  Part of the PICMG tutorial and booth live demonstrations will be to illustrate RESTful API “put, get, delete” commands for the connected sensor/computer interaction. PICMG has a working agreement with the DMTF to utilize the well-known Redfish APIs. The new PICMG specification will intend to develop a meta-data model that encompasses a breadth of individual data models for IoT. The booth will include information on a concept for a developer’s kit geared to help legacy sensors and PLCs become “IoT enabled”. PICMG will also have details on its existing embedded market open specifications for high-performance industrial computing.

PICMG | www.picmg.org

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your
Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (7/3) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (7/10) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (7/17) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Development Tool Speeds IoT Sensor Design

STMicroelectronics offers a tool called AlgoBuilder designed to take the coding out of firmware development by letting users build sensor-control algorithms graphically with library modules, ready to compile and run on an STM32 microcontroller.

Created to simplify development of IoT devices containing ST’s MEMS sensors and MCUs, AlgoBuilder helps quickly get a proof-of-concept model up and running. Users can build their algorithms quickly and intuitively by dragging and dropping selected functions, connecting the blocks, and configuring properties. AlgoBuilder validates all design rules and automatically generates C code based on the graphical design.
AlgoBuilder provides libraries such as logic and mathematical operators, signal processing, user inputs, vector operations, and many others. Turnkey algorithms for commonly used functions such as sensor hub, motion-sensor calibration, activity recognition, motion intensity, and pedometer are included. Users can also add their own custom functions to the AlgoBuilder libraries.

AlgoBuilder provides an environment for connecting them with other logic to create a complete firmware project ready to compile using an STM32 IDE (Integrated Development Environment) such as TrueSTUDIO for STM32, SW4STM32 System Workbench for STM32, IAR-EWARM IAR Embedded Workbench for Arm and Keil µVision MDK-ARM-STM32.

AlgoBuilder can generate firmware for deployment on various STM32 platforms. These include the NUCLEO-F401RE and NUCLEO-L476RG development boards with the X-NUCLEO-IKS01A2 MEMS-sensor expansion board, and ST’s SensorTile IoT module. The SensorTile integrates a STM32L476JG ultra-low-power MCU, motion and environmental MEMS sensors and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) connectivity.

Users can test their firmware by launching the Unicleo-GUI application from within AlgoBuilder, to display outputs from running firmware. Unicleo-GUI is a dedicated sensor graphical user interface for use with ST’s sensor expansion software packages and X-NUCLEO boards, and lets users visualize sensor data as a time plot, scatter plot, or 3D plot.

AlgoBuilder is available now, and free to download from www.st.com/algobuilder-pr

STMicroelectronics | www.st.com