A Visit to the World Maker Faire in New York

If you missed the World Maker Faire in New York City, you can pick up Circuit Cellar’s February issue for highlights of the innovative projects and hackers represented there.Veteran electronics DIYer and magazine columnist Jeff Bachiochi is the perfect guide.

“The World Maker Faire is part science fair and part country fair,” Bachiochi says. “Makers are DIYers. The maker movement empowers everyone to build, repair, remake, hack, and adapt all things. The Maker Faire shares the experiences of makers who have been involved in this important process… Social media keeps us in constant contact and can educate, but it can’t replace the feeling you can get from hands-on live interaction with people and the things they have created.

Photo 1: This pole-climbing robot is easy to deploy at a moment’s notice. There is no need for a ladder to get emergency communication antennas up high where they can be most effective.

Photo 1: This pole-climbing robot is easy to deploy at a moment’s notice. There is no need for a ladder to get emergency communication antennas up high where they can be most effective.

“It should be noted that not all Maker Faire exhibitors are directly involved with technology. Some non-technological projects on display included the ‘Art Car’ from Pittsburgh, which is an annual revival of an old clunker turned into a drivable art show on wheels. There was also the life-size ‘Mouse Trap’ game, which was quite the contraption and just plain fun, especially if you grew up playing the original game.”

Bachiochi’s article introduces you to a wide variety of innovators, hackers, and hackerspaces.

“The 721st Mechanized Contest Battalion (MCB) is an amateur radio club from Warren County, NJ, that combines amateur (ham) radio with electronics, engineering, mechanics, building, and making,” Bachiochi says. “The club came to the Maker Faire to demonstrate its Emergency Antenna Platform System (E-APS) robot. The robot, which is designed for First Responder Organizations, will turn any parking lot lamppost into an instant antenna tower (see Photo 1).”

The keen and growing interest in 3-D printing as a design tool was evident at the Maker Faire.

“Working by day as an analog/mixed-signal IC design engineer for Cortina Systems in Canada, Andrew Plumb needed a distraction. In the evenings, Plumb uses a MakerBot 3-D printer to create 3-D designs of plastic, like thousands of others experimenting with 3-D printing,” Bachiochi says. “Plumb was not satisfied with simply printing plastic widgets. In fact, he showed me a few of his projects, which include printing plastic onto paper and cloth (see Photo 2).”

Photo 2: Andrew Plumb showed me some unique ideas he was experimenting with using one of his 3-D printers. By printing the structural frame directly on tissue paper, ultra-light parts are practically ready to fly.

Photo 2: Andrew Plumb showed me some unique ideas he was experimenting with using one of his 3-D printers. By printing the structural frame directly on tissue paper, ultra-light parts are practically ready to fly.

Also in the 3-D arena, Bachiochi encountered some innovative new products.

“It was just a matter of time until someone introduced a personal scanner to create digital files of 3-D objects. The MakerBot Digitizer Desktop 3-D Scanner is the first I’ve seen (see Photo 3),” Bachiochi says. “It uses a laser, a turntable, and a CMOS camera to pick off 3-D points and output a STL file. The scanner will create a 3-D image from an object up to 8″ in height and width. There is no third axis scanning, so you must plan your model’s orientation to achieve the best results. Priced less than most 3-D printers, this will be a hot item for 3-D printing enthusiasts.”

Bachiochi’s article includes a lengthy section about “other interesting stuff” and people at the Maker Faire, including the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (Public Lab), a community that uses inexpensive DIY techniques to investigate environmental concerns.

Photo 3: The MakerBot Digitizer Desktop 3-D Scanner is the first production scanner I’ve seen that will directly provide files compatible with the 3-D printing process. This is a long-awaited addition to MakerBot’s line of 3-D printers. (Photo credit: Spencer Higgins)

Photo 3: The MakerBot Digitizer Desktop 3-D Scanner is the first production scanner I’ve seen that will directly provide files compatible with the 3-D printing process.  (Photo credit: Spencer Higgins)

“For instance, the New York chapter featured two spectrometers, a you-fold-it cardboard version and a near-infrared USB camera-based kit,” Bachiochi says. “This community of educators, technologists, scientists, and community organizers believes they can promote action, intervention, and awareness through a participatory research model in which you can play a part.”

At this family-friendly event, Bachiochi met a family that “creates” together.

“Asheville, NC-based Beatty Robotics is not your average robotics company,” Bachiochi says. “The Beatty team is a family that likes to share fun robotic projects with friends, family, and other roboticists around the world. The team consists of Dad (Robert) and daughters Camille ‘Lunamoth’ and Genevieve ‘Julajay.’ The girls have been mentored in electronics, software programming, and workshop machining. They do some unbelievable work (see Photo 4). Everyone has a hand in designing, building, and programming their fleet of robots. The Hall of Science is home to one of their robots, the Mars Rover.”

There is much more in Bachiochi’s five-page look at the Maker Faire, including resources for finding and participating in a hackerspace community. The February issue including Bachiochi’s articles is available for membership download or single-issue purchase.

Photo 4: Beatty Robotics is a family of makers that produces some incredible models. Young Camille Beatty handles the soldering, but is also well-versed in machining and other areas of expertise.

Photo 4: Beatty Robotics is a family of makers that produces some incredible models. Young Camille Beatty handles the soldering, but is also well-versed in machining and other areas of expertise.

Q&A: Andrew Godbehere, Imaginative Engineering

Engineers are inherently imaginative. I recently spoke with Andrew Godbehere, an Electrical Engineering PhD candidate at the University of California, Berkeley, about how his ideas become realities, his design process, and his dream project. —Nan Price, Associate Editor

Andrew Godbehere

Andrew Godbehere

NAN: You are currently working toward your Electrical Engineering PhD at the University of California, Berkeley. Can you describe any of the electronics projects you’ve worked on?

ANDREW: In my final project at Cornell University, I worked with a friend of mine, Nathan Ward, to make wearable wireless accelerometers and find some way to translate a dancer’s movement into music, in a project we called CUMotive. The computational core was an Atmel ATmega644V connected to an Atmel AT86RF230 802.15.4 wireless transceiver. We designed the PCBs, including the transmission line to feed the ceramic chip antenna. Everything was hand-soldered, though I recommend using an oven instead. We used Kionix KXP74 tri-axis accelerometers, which we encased in a lot of hot glue to create easy-to-handle boards and to shield them from static.

This is the central control belt-pack to be worn by a dancer for CUMotive, the wearable accelerometer project. An Atmel ATmega644V and an AT86RF230 were used inside to interface to synthesizer. The plastic enclosure has holes for the belt to attach to a dancer. Wires connect to accelerometers, which are worn on the dancer’s limbs.

This is the central control belt-pack to be worn by a dancer for CUMotive, the wearable accelerometer project. An Atmel ATmega644V and an AT86RF230 were used inside to interface to synthesizer. The plastic enclosure has holes for the belt to attach to a dancer. Wires connect to accelerometers, which are worn on the dancer’s limbs.

The dancer had four accelerometers connected to a belt pack with an Atmel chip and transceiver. On the receiver side, a musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) communicated with a synthesizer. (Design details are available at http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/FinalProjects/s2007/njw23_abg34/index.htm.)

I was excited about designing PCBs for 802.15.4 radios and making them work. I was also enthusiastic about trying to figure out how to make some sort of music with the product. We programmed several possibilities, one of which was a sort of theremin; another was a sort of drum kit. I found that this was the even more difficult part—not just the making, but the making sense.

When I got to Berkeley, my work switched to the theoretical. I tried to learn everything I could about robotic systems and how to make sense of them and their movements.

NAN: Describe the real-time machine vision-tracking algorithm and integrated vision system you developed for the “Are We There Yet?” installation.

ANDREW: I’ve always been interested in using electronics and robotics for art. Having a designated emphasis in New Media on my degree, I was fortunate enough to be invited to help a professor on a fascinating project.

This view of the Yud Gallery is from the installed camera with three visitors present. Note the specular reflections on the floor. They moved throughout the day with the sun. This movement needed to be discerned from a visitor’s typical movement .

This view of the Yud Gallery is from the installed camera with three visitors present. Note the specular reflections on the floor. They moved throughout the day with the sun. This movement needed to be discerned from a visitor’s typical movement .

For the “Are We There Yet?” installation, we used a PointGrey FireFlyMV camera with a wide-angle lens. The camera was situated a couple hundred feet away from the control computer, so we used a USB-to-Ethernet range extender to communicate with the camera.

We installed a color camera in a gallery in the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco, CA. We used Meyer Sound speakers with a high-end controller system, which enabled us to “position” sound in the space and to sweep audio tracks around at (the computer’s programmed) will. The Meyer Sound D-Mitri platform was controlled by the computer with Open Sound Control (OSC).

This view of the Yud Gallery is from the perspective of the computer running the analysis. This is a probabilistic view, where the brightness of each pixel represents the “belief” that the pixel is part of an interesting foreground object, such as a pedestrian. Note the hot spots corresponding nicely with the locations of the visitors in the image above.

This view of the Yud Gallery is from the perspective of the computer running the analysis. This is a probabilistic view, where the brightness of each pixel represents the “belief” that the pixel is part of an interesting foreground object, such as a pedestrian. Note the hot spots corresponding nicely with the locations of the visitors in the image above.

The hard work was to then program the computer to discern humans from floors, furniture, shadows, sunbeams, and cloud reflections. The gallery had many skylights, which made the lighting very dynamic. Then, I programmed the computer to keep track of people as they moved and found that this dynamic information was itself useful to determine whether detected color-perturbance was human or not.

Once complete, the experience of the installation was beautiful, enchanting, and maybe a little spooky. The audio tracks were all questions (e.g., “Are we there yet?”) and they were always spoken near you, as if addressed to you. They responded to your movement in a way that felt to me like dancing with a ghost. You can watch videos about the installation at www.are-we-there-yet.org.

The “Are We There Yet?” project opens itself up to possible use as an embedded system. I’ve been told that the software I wrote works on iOS devices by the start-up company Romo (www.kickstarter.com/projects/peterseid/romo-the-smartphone-robot-for-everyone), which was evaluating my vision-tracking code for use in its cute iPhone rover. Further, I’d say that if someone were interested, they could create a similar pedestrian, auto, pet, or cloud-tracking system using a Raspberry Pi and a reasonable webcam.

I may create an automatic cloud-tracking system to watch clouds. I think computers could be capable of this capacity for abstraction, even though we think of the leisurely pastime as the mark of a dreamer.

NAN: Some of the projects you’ve contributed to focus on switched linear systems, hybrid systems, wearable interfaces, and computation and control. Tell us about the projects and your research process.

ANDREW: I think my research is all driven by imagination. I try to imagine a world that could be, a world that I think would be nice, or better, or important. Once I have an idea that captivates my imagination in this way, I have no choice but to try to realize the idea and to seek out the knowledge necessary to do so.

For the wearable wireless accelerometers, it began with the thought: Wouldn’t it be cool if dance and music were inherently connected the way we try to make it seem when we’re dancing? From that thought, the designs started. I thought: The project has to be wireless and low power, it needs accelerometers to measure movement, it needs a reasonable processor to handle the data, it needs MIDI output, and so forth.

My switched linear systems research came about in a different way. As I was in class learning about theories regarding stabilization of hybrid systems, I thought: Why would we do it this complicated way, when I have this reasonably simple intuition that seems to solve the problem? I happened to see the problem a different way as my intuition was trying to grapple with a new concept. That naive accident ended up as a publication, “Stabilization of Planar Switched Linear Systems Using Polar Coordinates,” which I presented in 2010 at Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC) in Stockholm, Sweden.

NAN: How did you become interested in electronics?

ANDREW: I always thought things that moved seemingly of their own volition were cool and inherently attention-grabbing. I would think: Did it really just do that? How is that possible?

Andrew worked on this project when computers still had parallel ports. a—This photo shows manually etched PCB traces for a digital EKG (the attempted EEG) with 8-bit LED optoisolation. The rainbow cable connects to a computer’s parallel port. The interface code was written in C++ and ran on DOS. b—The EKG circuitry and digitizer are shown on the left. The 8-bit parallel computer interface is on the right. Connecting the two boards is an array of coupled LEDs and phototransistors, encased in heat shrink tubing to shield against outside light.

Andrew worked on this project when computers still had parallel ports. a—This photo shows manually etched PCB traces for a digital EKG (the attempted EEG) with 8-bit LED optoisolation. The rainbow cable connects to a computer’s parallel port. The interface code was written in C++ and ran on DOS. b—The EKG circuitry and digitizer are shown on the left. The 8-bit parallel computer interface is on the right. Connecting the two boards is an array of coupled LEDs and phototransistors, encased in heat shrink tubing to shield against outside light.

Electric rally-car tracks and radio-controlled cars were a favorite of mine. I hadn’t really thought about working with electronics or computers until middle school. Before that, I was all about paleontology. Then, I saw an episode of Scientific American Frontiers, which featured Alan Alda excitedly interviewing RoboCup contestants. Watching RoboCup [a soccer game involving robotic players], I was absolutely enchanted.

While my childhood electronic toys moved and somehow acted as their own entities, they were puppets to my intentions. Watching RoboCup, I knew these robots were somehow making their own decisions on-the-fly, magically making beautiful passes and goals not as puppets, but as something more majestic. I didn’t know about the technical blood, sweat, and tears that went into it all, so I could have these romantic fantasies of what it was, but I was hooked from that moment.

That spurred me to apply to a specialized science and engineering high school program. It was there that I was fortunate enough to attend a fabulous electronics class (taught by David Peins), where I learned the basics of electronics, the joy of tinkering, and even PCB design and assembly (drilling included). I loved everything involved. Even before I became academically invested in the field, I fell in love with the manual craft of making a circuit.

NAN: Tell us about your first design.

ANDREW: Once I’d learned something about designing and making circuits, I jumped in whole-hog, to a comical degree. My very first project without any course direction was an electroencephalograph!

I wanted to make stuff move on my computer with my brain, the obvious first step. I started with a rough design and worked on tweaking parameters and finding components.

In retrospect, I think that first attempt was actually an electromyograph that read the movements of my eye muscles. And it definitely was an electrocardiograph. Success!

Someone suggested that it might not be a good idea to have a power supply hooked up in any reasonably direct path with your brain. So, in my second attempt, I tried to make something new, so I digitized the signal on the brain side and hooked it up to eight white LEDs. On the other side, I had eight phototransistors coupled with the LEDs and covered with heat-shrink tubing to keep out outside light. That part worked, and I was excited about it, even though I was having some trouble properly tuning the op-amps in that version.

NAN: Describe your “dream project.”

ANDREW: Augmented reality goggles. I’m dead serious about that, too. If given enough time and money, I would start making them.

I would use some emerging organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology. I’m eyeing the start-up MicroOLED (www.microoled.net) for its low-power “near-to-eye” display technologies. They aren’t available yet, but I’m hopeful they will be soon. I’d probably hook that up to a Raspberry Pi SBC, which is small enough to be worn reasonably comfortably.

Small, high-resolution cameras have proliferated with modern cell phones, which could easily be mounted into the sides of goggles, driving each OLED display independently. Then, it’s just a matter of creativity for how to use your newfound vision! The OpenCV computer vision library offers a great starting point for applications such as face detection, image segmentation, and tracking.

Google Glass is starting to get some notice as a sort of “heads-up” display, but in my opinion, it doesn’t go nearly far enough. Here’s the craziest part—please bear with me—I’m willing to give up directly viewing the world with my natural eyes, I would be willing to have full field-of-vision goggles with high-resolution OLED displays with stereoscopic views from two high-resolution smartphone-style cameras. (At least until the technology gets better, as described in Rainbows End by Vernor Vinge.) I think, for this version, all the components are just now becoming available.

Augmented reality goggles would do a number of things for vision and human-computer interaction (HCI). First, 3-D overlays in the real world would be possible.

Crude example: I’m really terrible with faces and names, but computers are now great with that, so why not get a little help and overlay nametags on people when I want? Another fascinating thing for me is that this concept of vision abstracts the body from the eyes. So, you could theoretically connect to the feed from any stereoscopic cameras around (e.g., on an airplane, in the Grand Canyon, or on the back of some wild animal), or you could even switch points of view with your friend!

Perhaps reality goggles are not commercially viable now, but I would unabashedly use them for myself. I dream about them, so why not make them?

Member Profile: Walter O. Krawec

Walter O. Krawec

Walter O. Krawec

LOCATION:
Upstate New York

OCCUPATION:
Research Assistant and PhD Student, Stevens Institute of Technology

MEMBER STATUS:
Walter has been reading Circuit Cellar since he got his first issue in 1999. Free copies were available at the Trinity College Fire Fighting Robot Contest, which was his first experience with robotics. Circuit Cellar was the first magazine for which he wrote an article (“An HC11 File Manager,” two-part series, issues 129 and 130, 2001).

TECH INTERESTS:
Robotics, among other things. He is particularly interested in developmental and evolutionary robotics (where the robot’s strategies, controllers, and so forth are evolved instead of programmed in directly).

RECENT TECH ACQUISITION:
Walter is enjoying his Raspberry Pi. “What a remarkable product! I think it’s great that I can take my AI software, which I’ve been writing on a PC, copy it to the Raspberry Pi, compile it with GCC, then off it goes with little or no modification!”

CURRENT PROJECTS:
Walter is designing a new programming language and interpreter (for Windows/Mac/Linux, including the Raspberry Pi) that uses a simulated quantum computer to drive a robot. “What better way to learn the basics of quantum computing than by building a robot around one?” The first version of this language is available on his website (walterkrawec.org). He has plans to release an improved version.

THOUGHTS ON EMBEDDED TECH:
Walter said he is amazed with the power of the latest embedded technology, for example the Raspberry Pi. “For less than $40 you have a perfect controller for a robot that can handle incredibly complex programs. Slap on one of those USB battery packs and you have a fully mobile robot,” he said. He used a Pololu Maestro to interface the motors and analog sensors. “It all works and it does everything I need.” However, he added, “If you want to build any of this yourself by hand it can be much harder, especially since most of the cool stuff is surface mount, making it difficult to get started.”

Low-Cost SBCs Could Revolutionize Robotics Education

For my entire life, my mother has been a technology trainer for various educational institutions, so it’s probably no surprise that I ended up as an engineer with a passion for STEM education. When I heard about the Raspberry Pi, a diminutive $25 computer, my thoughts immediately turned to creating low-cost mobile computing labs. These labs could be easily and quickly loaded with a variety of programming environments, walking students through a step-by-step curriculum to teach them about computer hardware and software.

However, my time in the robotics field has made me realize that this endeavor could be so much more than a traditional computer lab. By adding actuators and sensors, these low-cost SBCs could become fully fledged robotic platforms. Leveraging the common I2C protocol, adding chains of these sensors would be incredibly easy. The SBCs could even be paired with microcontrollers to add more functionality and introduce students to embedded design.

rover_webThere are many ways to introduce students to programming robot-computers, but I believe that a web-based interface is ideal. By setting up each computer as a web server, students can easily access the interface for their robot directly though the computer itself, or remotely from any web-enabled device (e.g., a smartphone or tablet). Through a web browser, these devices provide a uniform interface for remote control and even programming robotic platforms.

A server-side language (e.g., Python or PHP) can handle direct serial/I2C communications with actuators and sensors. It can also wrap more complicated robotic concepts into easily accessible functions. For example, the server-side language could handle PID and odometry control for a small rover, then provide the user functions such as “right, “left,“ and “forward“ to move the robot. These functions could be accessed through an AJAX interface directly controlled through a web browser, enabling the robot to perform simple tasks.

This web-based approach is great for an educational environment, as students can systematically pull back programming layers to learn more. Beginning students would be able to string preprogrammed movements together to make the robot perform simple tasks. Each movement could then be dissected into more basic commands, teaching students how to make their own movements by combining, rearranging, and altering these commands.

By adding more complex commands, students can even introduce autonomous behaviors into their robotic platforms. Eventually, students can be given access to the HTML user interfaces and begin to alter and customize the user interface. This small superficial step can give students insight into what they can do, spurring them ahead into the next phase.
Students can start as end users of this robotic framework, but can eventually graduate to become its developers. By mapping different commands to different functions in the server side code, students can begin to understand the links between the web interface and the code that runs it.

Kyle Granat

Kyle Granat, who wrote this essay for Circuit Cellar,  is a hardware engineer at Trossen Robotics, headquarted in Downers Grove, IL. Kyle graduated from Purdue University with a degree in Computer Engineering. Kyle, who lives in Valparaiso, IN, specializes in embedded system design and is dedicated to STEM education.

Students will delve deeper into the server-side code, eventually directly controlling actuators and sensors. Once students begin to understand the electronics at a much more basic level, they will be able to improve this robotic infrastructure by adding more features and languages. While the Raspberry Pi is one of today’s more popular SBCs, a variety of SBCs (e.g., the BeagleBone and the pcDuino) lend themselves nicely to building educational robotic platforms. As the cost of these platforms decreases, it becomes even more feasible for advanced students to recreate the experience on many platforms.

We’re already seeing web-based interfaces (e.g., ArduinoPi and WebIOPi) lay down the beginnings of a web-based framework to interact with hardware on SBCs. As these frameworks evolve, and as the costs of hardware drops even further, I’m confident we’ll see educational robotic platforms built by the open-source community.

I/O Raspberry Pi Expansion Card

The RIO is an I/O expansion card intended for use with the Raspberry Pi SBC. The card stacks on top of a Raspberry Pi to create a powerful embedded control and navigation computer in a small 20-mm × 65-mm × 85-mm footprint. The RIO is well suited for applications requiring real-world interfacing, such as robotics, industrial and home automation, and data acquisition and control.

RoboteqThe RIO adds 13 inputs that can be configured as digital inputs, 0-to-5-V analog inputs with 12-bit resolution, or pulse inputs capable of pulse width, duty cycle, or frequency capture. Eight digital outputs are provided to drive loads up to 1 A each at up to 24 V.
The RIO includes a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller that processes and buffers the I/O and creates a seamless communication with the Raspberry Pi. The RIO processor can be user-programmed with a simple BASIC-like programming language, enabling it to perform logic, conditioning, and other I/O processing in real time. On the Linux side, RIO comes with drivers and a function library to quickly configure and access the I/O and to exchange data with the Raspberry Pi.

The RIO features several communication interfaces, including an RS-232 serial port to connect to standard serial devices, a TTL serial port to connect to Arduino and other microcontrollers that aren’t equipped with a RS-232 transceiver, and a CAN bus interface.
The RIO is available in two versions. The RIO-BASIC costs $85 and the RIO-AHRS costs $175.

Roboteq, Inc.
www.roboteq.com