Configurable Regulator

LinearThe LTM4644 quad output step-down µModule (micromodule) regulator is configurable as a single (16-A), dual (12-A, 4-A, or 8-A, 8-A), triple (8-A, 4-A, 4-A), or quad (4-A each) output regulator. This flexibility enables system designers to rely on one simple and compact µModule regulator for the various voltage and load current requirements of FPGAs, ASICs, and microprocessors as well as other board circuitry. The LTM4644 is ideal for communications, data storage, industrial, transportation, and medical system applications.

The LTM4644 regulator includes DC/DC controllers, power switches, inductors and compensation components. Only eight external ceramic capacitors (1206 or smaller case sizes) and four feedback resistors (0603 case size) are required to regulate four independently adjustable outputs from 0.6 to 5.5 V. Separate input pins enable the four channels to be powered from a common supply rail or different rails from 4 to 14 V.

At an ambient temperature of 55°C, the LTM4644 delivers up to 13 A at 1.5 V from a 12-V input or up to 14 A with 200-LFM airflow. The four channels operate at 90° out-of-phase to minimize input ripple whether at the 1-MHz default switching frequency or synchronized to an external clock between 700 kHz and 1.3 MHz. With the addition of an external bias supply above 4 V, the LTM4644 can regulate from an input supply voltage as low as 2.375 V. The regulator also includes output overvoltage and overcurrent fault protection.

The LTM4644 costs $22.85 each in 1,000-unit quantities.

Linear Technology Corp.

High-Voltage Gate Driver IC

Allegro A4900 Gate Driver IC

Allegro A4900 Gate Driver IC

The A4900 is a high-voltage brushless DC (BLDC) MOSFET gate driver IC. It is designed for high-voltage motor control for hybrid, electric vehicle, and 48-V automotive battery systems (e.g., electronic power steering, A/C compressors, fans, pumps, and blowers).

The A4900’s six gate drives can drive a range of N-channel insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) or power MOSFET switches. The gate drives are configured as three high-voltage high-side drives and three low-side drives. The high-side drives are isolated up to 600 V to enable operation with high-bridge (motor) supply voltages. The high-side drives use a bootstrap capacitor to provide the supply gate drive voltage required for N-channel FETs. A TTL logic-level input compatible with 3.3- or 5-V logic systems can be used to control each FET.

A single-supply input provides the gate drive supply and the bootstrap capacitor charge source. An internal regulator from the single supply provides the logic circuit’s lower internal voltage. The A4900’s internal monitors ensure that the high- and low-side external FET’s gate source voltage is above 9 V when active.

The control inputs to the A4900 offer a flexible solution for many motor control applications. Each driver can be driven with an independent PWM signal, which enables implementation of all motor excitation methods including trapezoidal and sinusoidal drive. The IC’s integrated diagnostics detect undervoltage, overtemperature, and power bridge faults that can be configured to protect the power switches under most short-circuit conditions. Detailed diagnostics are available as a serial data word.

The A4900 is supplied in a 44-lead QSOP package and costs $3.23 in 1,000-unit quantities.

Allegro MicroSystems, LLC

Voltage Regulator Protection (EE Tip #103)

In many cases, the load connected to a voltage regulator is not returned to ground. It goes to an even lower voltage or perhaps even the negative power supply voltage. (Here we make the assumption of using positive voltages, when using voltage regulators with negative output voltages the reverse is true.)

Op-amps and level-shifters come to mind. In such cases, a diode (1N4001 or equivalent) connected across the output of the regulator IC usually provides sufficient protection (see Figure 1).

Source:Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

Source:Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

Polarity inversions which could occur, for example, during power on or during a short circuit could prove fatal for the regulator IC, but such a diode prevents the output of the IC going lower than ground (well, minus 0.7 V, to be accurate).

A short-circuit proof voltage regulator (such as the 78xx series) will survive such a situation without any problems. It is also possible for the input voltage of a voltage regulator to drop quicker than the output voltage—for example, when there is a protection circuit that shorts the input power supply voltage as a result of an overvoltage at the output.

If the output voltage of the regulator is more than 7 V higher than the input voltage, the emitter-base junction of the internal power transistor can break down and cause the transistor to fail.

You can use a shunt diode to prevent this condition (see Figure 2). This ensures that any higher voltage at the output of the regulator is shorted to the input.

—Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

Linear Regulator with Current and Temperature Monitor Outputs

Linear Technology Corp

Linear Technology Corp

The LT3081 is a rugged 1.5-A wide input voltage range linear regulator with key usability, monitoring, and protection features. The device has an extended safe operating area (SOA) compared to existing regulators, making it well suited for high input-to-output voltage and high output current applications where older regulators limit the output.

The LT3081 uses a current source reference for single-resistor output voltage settings and output adjustability down to ”0.” A single resistor can be used to set the output current limit. This regulator architecture, combined with low-millivolt regulation, enables multiple ICs to be easily paralleled for heat spreading and higher output current. The current from the device’s current monitor can be summed with the set current for line-drop compensation, where the LT3081’s output increases with current to compensate for line drops.

The LT3081 achieves line and load regulation below 2 mV independent of output voltage and features a 1.2-to-40-V input voltage range. The device is well suited for applications requiring multiple rails. The output voltage is programmable with a single resistor from 0 to 38.5 V with a 1.2-V dropout. The on-chip trimmed 50-µA current reference is ±1% accurate. The regulation, transient response, and output noise (30 µVRMS) are independent of output voltage due to the device’s voltage follower architecture.

Two resistors are used to configure the LT3081 as a two-terminal current source. Input or output capacitors for stability are optional in either linear regulator or current-source operation mode. The LT3081 provides several monitoring and protection functions. A single resistor is used to program the current limit, which is accurate to ±10%. Monitor outputs provide a current output proportional to temperature (1 µA/°C) and output current (200 µA/A), enabling easy ground-based measurement. The current monitor can compensate for cable drops. The LT3081’s internal protection circuitry includes reverse-input protection, reverse-current protection, internal current limiting, and thermal shutdown.

A variety of grades/temperature ranges are offered including: the E and  I grades (–40°C to 125°C), the H grade (–40°C to 150°C), and the high-reliability MP grade (–55°C to 50°C). Pricing for the E-grade starts at $2.60 each in 1,000-piece quantities.

Linear Technology Corp.

Low-Power, High-Efficiency Boost Regulator

The TS3300 is an ultra-low-power, load-independent, high-efficiency boost regulator. It operates from supply voltages as low as 0.6 up to 4.5 V and can deliver at least 75 mA of continuous output current.

The TS3300 can be powered from a variety of power sources including single- or multiple-cell alkaline or single Li-chemistry batteries. The boost regulator’s output voltage range can be user-specified from 1.8 to 5.25 V to simultaneously power a range of low-power analog circuits, microcontrollers, and low-energy Bluetooth radios. The TS3300 produces a 3-V output from a 1.2-V input source. Its efficiency performance is constant over a 100:1 span in output current. To power low-energy radios, the TS3300’s internal, low-dropout linear regulator can deliver up to 100 mA output current while reducing boost-converter-generated output voltage ripple.

Drawing only 3.5 µA no-load supply current, the TS3300 is ideal for “always on” and other battery-powered or portable applications where an extended battery run-time is required. The TS3300 operates from low power sources (e.g., photovoltaic cells to three alkaline cells) and is ideally suited for handheld/portable applications (e.g., wireless remote sensors, RFID tags, wireless microphones, solar cell post-regulator/chargers, post-regulators for energy harvesting, blood glucose meters, and personal health-monitoring devices).

The TS3300 is fully specified over the –40°C-to-85°C temperature range and is available in a low-profile, thermally-enhanced 16-pin 3mm × 3mm TQFN package with an exposed backside paddle. The TS3300 costs $0.85 in 1,000-unit quantities.

Touchstone Semiconductor