The iC-HT laser diode driver enables microcontroller-based activation of laser diodes in Continuous Wave mode. With this device, laser diodes can be driven by the optical output power (using APC), the laser diode current (using ACC), or a full controller-based power control unit.
The maximum laser diode current per channel is 750 mA. Both channels can be switched in parallel for high laser diode currents of up to 1.5 A. A current limit can also be configured for each channel.
Internal operating points and voltages can be output through ADCs. The integrated temperature sensor enables the system temperature to be monitored and can also be used to analyze control circuit feedback. Logarithmic DACs enable optimum power regulation across a large dynamic range. Therefore, a variety of laser diodes can be used.
The relevant configuration is stored in two equivalent memory areas. Internal current limits, a supply-voltage monitor, channel-specific interrupt-switching inputs, and a watchdog safeguard the laser diodes’ operation through iC-HT.
The device can be also operated by pin configuration in place of the SPI or I2C interface, where external resistors define the APC performance targets. An external supply voltage can be controlled through current output device configuration overlay (DCO) to reduce the system power dissipation (e.g., in battery-operated devices or systems).
The iC-HT operates on 2.8 to 8 V and can drive both blue and green laser diodes. The diode driver has a –40°C-to-125°C operating temperature range and is housed in a 5-mm × 5-mm, 28-pin QFN package.
The PA4000 power analyzer provides accurate power measurements. It offers one to four input modules, built-in test modes, and standard PC interfaces.
The analyzer features innovative Spiral Shunt technology that enables you to lock onto complex signals. The Spiral Shunt design ensures stable, linear response over a range of input current levels, ambient temperatures, crest factors, and other variables. The spiral construction minimizes stray inductance (for optimum high-frequency performance) and provides high overload capability and improved thermal stability.
The PA4000’s additional features include 0.04% basic voltage and current accuracy, dual internal current shunts for optimal resolution, frequency detection algorithms for noisy waveform tracking, application-specific test modes to simplify setup. The analyzer easily exports data to a USB flash drive or PC software. Harmonic analysis and communications ports are included as standard features.
A few months ago, we listed the top design projects from the Renesas RL78 Green Energy Challenge. Today, we’re excited to announce that Circuit Cellar‘s upcoming 25th anniversary issue will include a mini-challenge featuring the RL78. In the issue, you’ll learn about a new opportunity to register for an RL78/G14 demonstration kit that you can use to build a low-power design.
The RL78/G14 demonstration kit (RDK) is a handy evaluation tool for the RL78/G14 microcontrollers. Several powerful compilers and sample projects will be offered either free-of-charge (e.g., the GNU compiler) or with a code-size-limited compiler evaluation license (e.g., IAR Systems). Also featured will be user-friendly GUIs, including the Eclipse-based e2studio.
RL78G14 RDK KIT
32-MHz RL78/G14 MCU board with integrated debugger and huge peripheral, including Wi-Fi, E Ink display, matrix LCD, audio ports, IR ports, motor control port, FET and isolated triac interfaces
256-KB On-chip flash
USB Debugger cable
Four factory demos showcasing local and cloud connectivity through Wi-Fi
How do you clean a clean-energy generating system? With a microcontroller (and a few other parts, of course). An excellent example is US designer Scott Potter’s award-winning, Renesas RL78 microcontroller-based Electrostatic Cleaning Robot system that cleans heliostats (i.e., solar-tracking mirrors) used in solar energy-harvesting systems. Renesas and Circuit Cellar magazine announced this week at DevCon 2012 in Garden Grove, CA, that Potter’s design won First Prize in the RL78 Green Energy Challenge.
This image depicts two Electrostatic Cleaning Robots set up on two heliostats. (Source: S. Potter)
The nearby image depicts two Electrostatic Cleaning Robots set up vertically in order to clean the two heliostats in a horizontal left-to-right (and vice versa) fashion.
The Electrostatic Cleaning Robot in place to clean
Potter’s design can quickly clean heliostats in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. The heliostats must be clean in order to maximize steam production, which generates power.
The robot cleaner prototype
Built around an RL78 microcontroller, the Electrostatic Cleaning Robot provides a reliable cleaning solution that’s powered entirely by photovoltaic cells. The robot traverses the surface of the mirror and uses a high-voltage AC electric field to sweep away dust and debris.
Parts and circuitry inside the robot cleaner
Object oriented C++ software, developed with the IAR Embedded Workbench and the RL78 Demonstration Kit, controls the device.
IAR Embedded Workbench IDE
The RL78 microcontroller uses the following for system control:
• 20 Digital I/Os used as system control lines
• 1 ADC monitors solar cell voltage
• 1 Interval timer provides controller time tick
• Timer array unit: 4 timers capture the width of sensor pulses
• Watchdog timer for system reliability
• Low voltage detection for reliable operation in intermittent solar conditions
• RTC used in diagnostic logs
• 1 UART used for diagnostics
• Flash memory for storing diagnostic logs
The complete project (description, schematics, diagrams, and code) is now available on the Challenge website.
Ready to start a low-power or energy-monitoring microcontroller-based design project? You’re in luck. We’re featuring eight award-winning, green energy-related designs that will help get your creative juices flowing.
The projects listed below placed at the top of Renesas’s RL78 Green Energy Challenge.
Electrostatic Cleaning Robot: Solar tracking mirrors, called heliostats, are an integral part of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. They must be kept clean to help maximize the production of steam, which generates power. Using an RL78, the innovative Electrostatic Cleaning Robot provides a reliable cleaning solution that’s powered entirely by photovoltaic cells. The robot traverses the surface of the mirror and uses a high voltage AC electric field to sweep away dust and debris.
Parts and circuitry inside the robot cleaner
Cloud Electrofusion Machine: Using approximately 400 times less energy than commercial electrofusion machines, the Cloud Electrofusion Machine is designed for welding 0.5″ to 2″ polyethylene fittings. The RL78-controlled machine is designed to read a barcode on the fitting which determines fusion parameters and traceability. Along with the barcode data, the system logs GPS location to an SD card, if present, and transmits the data for each fusion to a cloud database for tracking purposes and quality control.
Inside the electrofusion machine (Source: M. Hamilton)
The Sun Chaser: A GPS Reference Station: The Sun Chaser is a well-designed, solar-based energy harvesting system that automatically recalculates the direction of a solar panel to ensure it is always facing the sun. Mounted on a rotating disc, the solar panel’s orientation is calculated using the registered GPS position. With an external compass, the internal accelerometer, a DC motor and stepper motor, you can determine the solar panel’s exact position. The system uses the Renesas RDKRL78G13 evaluation board running the Micrium µC/OS-III real-time kernel.
Water Heater by Solar Concentration: This solar water heater is powered by the RL78 evaluation board and designed to deflect concentrated amounts of sunlight onto a water pipe for continual heating. The deflector, armed with a counterweight for easy tilting, automatically adjusts the angle of reflection for maximum solar energy using the lowest power consumption possible.
RL78-based solar water heater (Source: P. Berquin)
Air Quality Mapper: Want to make sure the air along your daily walking path is clean? The Air Quality Mapper is a portable device designed to track levels of CO2 and CO gasses for constructing “Smog Maps” to determine the healthiest routes. Constructed with an RDKRL78G13, the Mapper receives location data from its GPS module, takes readings of the CO2 and CO concentrations along a specific route and stores the data in an SD card. Using a PC, you can parse the SD card data, plot it, and upload it automatically to an online MySQL database that presents the data in a Google map.
Air quality mapper design (Source: R. Alvarez Torrico)
Wireless Remote Solar-Powered “Meteo Sensor”: You can easily measure meteorological parameters with the “Meteo Sensor.” The RL78 MCU-based design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. Receivers are configured for listening of incoming data on the same radio channel. It simplifies the way weather data is gathered and eases construction of local measurement networks while being optimized for low energy usage and long battery life.
The design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. (Source: G. Kaczmarek)
Portable Power Quality Meter: Monitoring electrical usage is becoming increasingly popular in modern homes. The Portable Power Quality Meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis.
The portable power quality meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis. (Source: A. Barbosa)
High-Altitude Low-Cost Experimental Glider (HALO): The “HALO” experimental glider project consists of three main parts. A weather balloon is the carrier section. A glider (the payload of the balloon) is the return section. A ground base section is used for communication and display telemetry data (not part of the contest project). Using the REFLEX flight simulator for testing, the glider has its own micro-GPS receiver, sensors and low-power MCU unit. It can take off, climb to pre-programmed altitude and return to a given coordinate.
High-altitude low-cost experimental glider (Source: J. Altenburg)