Arduino-Based Hand-Held Gaming System

gameduino2-WEBJames Bowman, creator of the Gameduino game adapter for microcontrollers, recently made an upgrade to the system adding a Future Technology Devices International (FTDI) FT800 chip to drive the graphics. Associate Editor Nan Price interviewed James about the system and its capabilities.

NAN: Give us some background. Where do you live? Where did you go to school? What did you study?

Bowman-WEB

James Bowman

 JAMES: I live on the California coast in a small farming village between Santa Cruz and San Francisco. I moved here from London 17 years ago. I studied computing at Imperial College London.

NAN: What types of projects did you work on when you were employed by Silicon Graphics, 3dfx Interactive, and NVIDIA?

JAMES: Always software and hardware for GPUs. I began in software, which led me to microcode, which led to hardware. Before you know it you’ve learned Verilog. I was usually working near the boundary of software and hardware, optimizing something for cost, speed, or both.

NAN: How did you come up with the idea for the Gameduino game console?

JAMES: I paid for my college tuition by working as a games programmer for Nintendo and Sega consoles, so I was quite familiar with that world. It seemed a natural fit to try to give the Arduino some eye-catching color graphics. Some quick experiments with a breadboard and an FPGA confirmed that the idea was feasible.

NAN: The Gameduino 2 turns your Arduino into a hand-held modern gaming system. Explain the difference from the first version of Gameduino—what upgrades/additions have been made?

Gameduinofinal-WEB

The Gameduino2 uses a Future Technology Devices International chip to drive its graphics

JAMES: The original Gameduino had to use an FPGA to generate graphics, because in 2011 there was no such thing as an embedded GPU. It needs an external monitor and you had to supply your own inputs (e.g., buttons, joysticks, etc.). The Gameduino 2 uses the new Future Technology Devices International (FTDI) FT800 chip, which drives all the graphics. It has a built-in color resistive touchscreen and a three-axis accelerometer. So it is a complete game system—you just add the CPU.

NAN: How does the Arduino factor into the design?

GameduinoPCB-WEB

An Arduino, Ethernet adapter, and a Gameduino

 JAMES: Arduino is an interesting platform. It is 5 V, believe it or not, so the design needs a level shifter. Also, the Arduino is based on an 8-bit microcontroller, so the software stack needs to be carefully built to provide acceptable performance. The huge advantage of the Arduino is that the programming environment—the IDE, compiler, and downloader—is used and understood by hundreds of thousands of people.

 NAN: Is it easy or possible to customize the Gameduino 2?

 JAMES: I would have to say no. The PCB itself is entirely surface mount technology (SMT) and all the ICs are QFNs—they have no accessible pins! This is a long way from the DIP packages of yesterday, where you could change the circuit by cutting tracks and soldering onto the pins.

I needed a microscope and a hot air station to make the Gameduino2 prototype. That is a long way from the “kitchen table” tradition of the Arduino. Fortunately the Arduino’s physical design is very customization-friendly. Other devices can be stacked up, adding networking, hi-fi sound, or other sensor inputs.

 NAN: The Gameduino 2 project is on Kickstarter through November 7, 2013. Why did you decide to use Kickstarter crowdfunding for this project?

 JAMES: Kickstarter is great for small-scale inventors. The audience it reaches also tends to be interested in novel, clever things. So it’s a wonderful way to launch a small new product.

NAN: What’s next for Gameduino 2? Will the future see a Gameduino 3?

 JAMES: Product cycles in the Arduino ecosystem are quite long, fortunately, so a Gameduino 3 is distant. For the Gameduino 2, I’m writing a book, shipping the product, and supporting the developer community, which will hopefully make use of it.

 

Q&A: Jeremy Blum, Electrical Engineer, Entrepreneur, Author

Jeremy Blum

Jeremy Blum

Jeremy Blum, 23, has always been a self-proclaimed tinkerer. From Legos to 3-D printers, he has enjoyed learning about engineering both in and out of the classroom. A recent Cornell University College of Engineering graduate, Jeremy has written a book, started his own company, and traveled far to teach children about engineering and sustainable design. Jeremy, who lives in San Francisco, CA, is now working on Google’s Project Glass.—Nan Price, Associate Editor

NAN: When did you start working with electronics?

JEREMY: I’ve been tinkering, in some form or another, ever since I figured out how to use my opposable thumbs. Admittedly, it wasn’t electronics from the offset. As with most engineers, I started with Legos. I quickly progressed to woodworking and I constructed several pieces of furniture over the course of a few years. It was only around the start of my high school career that I realized the extent to which I could express my creativity with electronics and software. I thrust myself into the (expensive) hobby of computer building and even built an online community around it. I financed my hobby through my two companies, which offered computer repair services and video production services. After working exclusively with computer hardware for a few years, I began to dive deeper into analog circuits, robotics, microcontrollers, and more.

NAN: Tell us about some of your early, pre-college projects.

JEREMY: My most complex early project was the novel prosthetic hand I developed in high school. The project was a finalist in the prestigious Intel Science Talent Search. I also did a variety of robotics and custom-computer builds. The summer before starting college, my friends and I built a robot capable of playing “Guitar Hero” with nearly 100% accuracy. That was my first foray into circuit board design and parallel programming. My most ridiculous computer project was a mineral oil-cooled computer. We submerged an entire computer in a fish tank filled with mineral oil (it was actually a lot of baby oil, but they are basically the same thing).

DeepNote Guitar Hero Robot

DeepNote Guitar Hero Robot

Mineral Oil-Cooled Computer

Mineral Oil-Cooled Computer

NAN: You’re a recent Cornell University College of Engineering graduate. While you were there, you co-founded Cornell’s PopShop. Tell us about the workspace. Can you describe some PopShop projects?

Cornell University's PopShop

Cornell University’s PopShop

JEREMY: I recently received my Master’s degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Cornell University, where I previously received my BS in the same field. During my time at Cornell, my peers and I took it upon ourselves to completely retool the entrepreneurial climate at Cornell. The PopShop, a co-working space that we formed a few steps off Cornell’s main campus, was our primary means of doing this. We wanted to create a collaborative space where students could come to explore their own ideas, learn what other entrepreneurial students were working on, and get involved themselves.

The PopShop is open to all Cornell students. I frequently hosted events there designed to get more students inspired about pursuing their own ideas. Common occurrences included peer office hours, hack-a-thons, speed networking sessions, 3-D printing workshops, and guest talks from seasoned venture capitalists.

Student startups that work (or have worked) out of the PopShop co-working space include clothing companies, financing companies, hardware startups, and more. Some specific companies include Rosie, SPLAT, LibeTech (mine), SUNN (also mine), Bora Wear, Yorango, Party Headphones, and CoVenture.

NAN: Give us a little background information about Cornell University Sustainable Design (CUSD). Why did you start the group? What types of CUSD projects were you involved with?

CUSD11JEREMY: When I first arrived at Cornell my freshman year, I knew right away that I wanted to join a research lab, and that I wanted to join a project team (knowing that I learn best in hands-on environments instead of in the classroom). I joined the Cornell Solar Decathlon Team, a very large group of mostly engineers and architects who were building a solar-powered home to enter in the biannual solar decathlon competition orchestrated by the Department of Energy.

By the end of my freshman year, I was the youngest team leader in the organization.  After competing in the 2009 decathlon, I took over as chief director of the team and worked with my peers to re-form the organization into Cornell University Sustainable Design (CUSD), with the goal of building a more interdisciplinary team, with far-reaching impacts.

CUSD3

Under my leadership, CUSD built a passive schoolhouse in South Africa (which has received numerous international awards), constructed a sustainable community in Nicaragua, has been the only student group tasked with consulting on sustainable design constraints for Cornell’s new Tech Campus in New York City, partnered with nonprofits to build affordable homes in upstate New York, has taught workshops in museums and school, contributed to the design of new sustainable buildings on Cornell’s Ithaca campus, and led a cross-country bus tour to teach engineering and sustainability concepts at K–12 schools across America. The group is now comprised of students from more than 25 different majors with dozens of advisors and several simultaneous projects. The new team leaders are making it better every day. My current startup, SUNN, spun out of an EPA grant that CUSD won.

CUSD7NAN: You spent two years working at MakerBot Industries, where you designed electronics for a 3-D printer and a 3-D scanner. Any highlights from working on those projects?

JEREMY: I had a tremendous opportunity to learn and grow while at MakerBot. When I joined, I was one of about two dozen total employees. Though I switched back and forth between consulting and full-time/part-time roles while class was in session, by the time I stopped working with MakerBot (in January 2013), the company had grown to more than 200 people. It was very exciting to be a part of that.

I designed all of the electronics for the original MakerBot Replicator. This constituted a complete redesign from the previous electronics that had been used on the second generation MakerBot 3-D printer. The knowledge I gained from doing this (e.g., PCB design, part sourcing, DFM, etc.) drastically outweighed much of what I had learned in school up to that point. I can’t say much about the 3-D scanner (the MakerBot Digitizer), as it has been announced, but not released (yet).

The last project I worked on before leaving MakerBot was designing the first working prototype of the Digitizer electronics and firmware. These components comprised the demo that was unveiled at SXSW this past April. This was a great opportunity to apply lessons learned from working on the Replicator electronics and find ways in which my personal design process and testing techniques could be improved. I frequently use my MakerBot printers to produce custom mechanical enclosures that complement the open-source electronics projects I’ve released.

NAN: Tell us about your company, Blum Idea Labs. What types of projects are you working on?

JEREMY: Blum Idea Labs is the entity I use to brand all my content and consulting services. I primarily use it as an outlet to facilitate working with educational organizations. For example, the St. Louis Hacker Scouts, the African TAHMO Sensor Workshop, and several other international organizations use a “Blum Idea Labs Arduino curriculum.” Most of my open-source projects, including my tutorials, are licensed via Blum Idea Labs. You can find all of them on my blog (www.jeremyblum.com/blog). I occasionally offer private design consulting through Blum Idea Labs, though I obviously can’t discuss work I do for clients.

NAN: Tell us about the blog you write for element14.

JEREMY: I generally use my personal blog to write about projects that I’ve personally been working on.  However, when I want to talk about more general engineering topics (e.g., sustainability, engineering education, etc.), I post them on my element14 blog. I have a great working relationship with element14. It has sponsored the production of all my Arduino Tutorials and also provided complete parts kits for my book. We cross-promote each-other’s content in a mutually beneficial fashion that also ensures that the community gets better access to useful engineering content.

NAN: You recently wrote Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engineering Wizardry. Do you consider this book introductory or is it written for the more experienced engineer?

JEREMY: As with all the video and written content that I produce on my website and on YouTube, I tried really hard to make this book useful and accessible to both engineering veterans and newbies. The book builds on itself and provides tons of optional excerpts that dive into greater technical detail for those who truly want to grasp the physics and programming concepts behind what I teach in the book. I’ve already had readers ranging from teenagers to senior citizens comment on the applicability of the book to their varying degrees of expertise. The Amazon reviews tell a similar story. I supplemented the book with a lot of free digital content including videos, part descriptions, and open-source code on the book website.

NAN: What can readers expect to learn from the book?

JEREMY: I wrote the book to serve as an engineering introduction and as an idea toolbox for those wanting to dive into concepts in electrical engineering, computer science, and human-computer interaction design. Though Exploring Arduino uses the Arduino as a platform to experiment with these concepts, readers can expect to come away from the book with new skills that can be applied to a variety of platforms, projects, and ideas. This is not a recipe book. The projects readers will undertake throughout the book are designed to teach important concepts in addition to traditional programming syntax and engineering theories.

NAN: I see you’ve spent some time introducing engineering concepts to children and teaching them about sustainable engineering and renewable energy. Tell us about those experiences. Any highlights?

JEREMY: The way I see it, there are two ways in which engineers can make the world a better place: they can design new products and technologies that solve global problems or they can teach others the skills they need to assist in the development of solutions to global problems. I try hard to do both, though the latter enables me to have a greater impact, because I am able to multiply my impact by the number of students I teach. I’ve taught workshops, written curriculums, produced videos, written books, and corresponded directly with thousands of students all around the world with the goal of transferring sufficient knowledge for these students to go out and make a difference.

Here are some highlights from my teaching work:

bluestamp

I taught BlueStamp Engineering, a summer program for high school students in NYC in the summer of 2012. I also guest-lectured at the program in 2011 and 2013.

I co-organized a cross-country bus tour where we taught sustainability concepts to school children across the country.

indiaI was invited to speak at Techkriti 2013 in Kanpur, India. I had the opportunity to meet many students from IIT Kanpur who already followed my videos and used my tutorials to build their own projects.

Blum Idea Labs partnered with the St. Louis Hacker Scouts to construct a curriculum for teaching electronics to the students. Though I wasn’t there in person, I did welcome them all to the program with a personalized video.

brooklyn_childrens_zoneThrough CUSD, I organized multiple visits to the Brooklyn Children’s Zone, where my team and I taught students about sustainable architecture and engineering.

Again with CUSD, we visited the Intrepid museum to teach sustainable energy concepts using potato batteries.

intrepid

NAN: Speaking of promoting engineering to children, what types of technologies do you think will be important in the near future?

JEREMY: I think technologies that make invention more widely accessible are going to be extremely important in the coming years. Cheaper tools, prototyping platforms such as the Arduino and the Raspberry Pi, 3-D printers, laser cutters, and open developer platforms (e.g., Android) are making it easier than ever for any person to become an inventor or an engineer.  Every year, I see younger and younger students learning to use these technologies, which makes me very optimistic about the things we’ll be able to do as a society.

Multi-Tasking Robot Platform

Fisnar F9960N

Fisnar F9960N

The F9960N multitasking robot is designed to dispense applications including miniature SMT circuit boards, large PCBs, and finished assemblies. The robot’s dispensing and coating system can be integrated within a conveyor-dependent inline manufacturing environment or installed as a stand-alone module.

The enclosed environment provides access for fume extraction systems, which creates a safeguard from potentially hazardous substances. Access to the working area is through a security door, which is locked while in operation but accessible during programming.

The robot includes a 178-mm touchscreen display that enables you to program a dispense path with unique characteristics (e.g., continuous path and point-to-point routing).

Contact Fisnar for pricing.

Fisnar, Inc.
www.fisnar.com

CC278: Serial Displays Save Resources (BMP Files)

In Circuit Cellar’s September issue, columnist Jeff Bachiochi provides his final installment in a three-part series titled “Serial Displays Save Resources.” The third article focuses on bitmap (BMP) files, which store images.

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A BMP file has image data storage beginning with the image’s last row. a—Displaying this data as stored will result in an upside-down image. b—Using the upsidedown=1 command will rotate the display 180°. c—The mirror=1 command flips the image horizontally. d—Finally, an origin change is necessary to shift the image to the desired location. These commands are all issued prior to transferring the pixels, to correct for the way the image data is stored.

LCDs are inexpensive and simple to use, so they are essential to many interesting projects, Jeff says. The handheld video game industry helped popularize the use of LCDs among DIYers.

Huge production runs in the industry “made graphic displays commonplace, helping to quickly reduce their costs,” Jeff says. “We can finally take advantage of lower-cost graphic displays, with one caveat: While built-in hardware controllers and drivers take charge of the pixels, you are now responsible for more than just sending a character to be printed to the screen. This makes the controllers and drivers not work well with the microcontroller project. That brings us to impetus for this article series.

“In Part 1 (‘Routines, Registers and Commands,’ Circuit Cellar 276, 2013), I began by discussing how to use a graphic display to print text, which, of course, includes character generation. In essence, I showed how to insert some intelligence between a project and the display. This intermediary would interpret some simple commands that enable you to easily make use of the display’s flexibility by altering position, screen orientation, color, magnification, and so forth.

“Part 2 (‘Button Commands,’ Circuit Cellar 277) revealed how touch-sensitive overlays are constructed and used to provide user input. The graphic display/touch overlay combination is a powerful combination that integrates I/O into a single module. Adding more commands to the interface makes it easier to create dynamic buttons on the graphic screen and reports back whenever a button is touched.

The prototype PCB I used for this project mounts to the reverse side of the thin-film transistor (TFT) LCD. The black connector holds the serial and power connections to your project. The populated header is for the Microchip Technology MPLAB ICD 3 debugger/programmer.

“Since I am using a graphic screen, it makes sense to investigate graphic files. This article (Part 3, ‘BMP Files,’ Circuit Cellar 277) examines the BMP file makeup and how this relates to the graphic screen.”

To learn more about the BMP graphical file format and Jeff’s approach to working with a graphic icon’s data, check out the September issue.

 

Q&A: Peter Lomas – Raspberry Pi: One Year Later, 1 Million Sold

Peter Lomas

Clemens Valens, Editor-in-Chief of Elektor Online and head of Elektor Labs, caught up with Peter Lomas, hardware designer for the Raspberry Pi single-board computer, earlier this year at the Embedded World 2013 trade show in Nuremberg, Germany. This is a longer version of an interview with Lomas published in Elektor’s May 2013 issue. The Lomas interview provided a one-year update on the rapid growth of interest in the Raspberry Pi since Elektor’s April 2012 interview with Eben Upton, one of the founders and trustees of the Raspberry Pi Foundation. The UK-based charitable foundation developed the inexpensive, credit card-sized computer to encourage the study of basic computer science in schools. In early 2012, the Raspberry Pi’s first production batches were arriving. Since then, more than 1 million boards have been sold.

CLEMENS: Raspberry Pi, the phenomena. It is quite amazing what happened.

PETER: It is, and lots of people keep asking me, why has Raspberry Pi done what it has done, what makes it different? I think it’s something we’ve really been trying to grasp. The first thing that happened with Raspberry Pi, which I think is important, is that we had one of our very first prototypes on a UK blog for one of the BBC correspondents, Rory Cellan-Jones, and they made a little video, a YouTube video, and that got 600,000 hits. So I guess that if you look at it from one aspect, that created a viral marketing, a very viral marketing campaign for Raspberry Pi. The other I think, the name, Raspberry Pi was key. And the logo that Paul Beach did for us is absolutely key because it has become iconic.

CLEMENS: Yes, it’s very recognizable.

PETER: Very recognizable. If I show you that, you know exactly what it is, in the electronics circle. So I think the brand has been very important. But you know, we shouldn’t forget the amount of work that Liz Upton’s been doing with the blogs and on our website, keeping people informed about what we’re doing. Then, I think we’ve got the fact we are a charity… that we are focused on the education of computing and electronics and that’s our motive—not actually to make boards and to make money except to fund the foundation.

CLEMENS: I looked at the Raspberry Pi website, and it doesn’t look easy to me. You target education, children, and on the website it’s hard to find what Raspberry Pi exactly is. It’s not really explained. You have to know it. There are several distributions, so you have to know Linux and you have to program in Python.

PETER: Well, that’s true and, in a weird way, that’s part of its success, because you actually have to be active. In order to do something with Pi, you can’t just get it out of a shiny box, put it on the desk and press “on.” You have to do some mental work. You have to figure some things out. Now, I actually think that there’s a bit of a benefit there, because when it actually works, you have some achievement. You’ve done something. Not “we’ve done something.” You’ve done it personally, and there is a gratification from doing it.

CLEMENS: But it’s not the easiest platform.

PETER: No, but with our educational proposition, the whole object now is to package that up in easier-to-use bundles. We can make the SD card boot straight to Scratch (a website project and simple programming language developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab), so Linux becomes temporarily invisible, and there’s a set of worksheets and instructions. But we’re never going to take away, hopefully, the fact that you have to put your wires in, and I do think that is part of the importance and the attraction of it.

CLEMENS: Because of all these layers of complexity and having to program it in English (Python is in English), for the non-English population it is yet another hurdle. That’s why Arduino was so successful; they made the programming really easy. They had cheap hardware but also a way to easily program it.

PETER: There’s no doubt Arduino is a brilliant product. You are right, it enables people to get to what I call “Hello World” very easily. But, in fact, on a Raspberry Pi, after you’ve made those connections and plugged the card in, you can get to an equivalent “Hello World.” But ours is the Scratch cat. Once you’ve moved the Scratch cat, you can go in a few different directions: you can move it some more, or you can use Scratch with an I/O interface to make an LED light up or you can press a button to make the Scratch cat move. There are endless directions you can go. I’ve found, and I think Eben has similarly experienced, that kids just get it. As long as you don’t make it too complicated, the kids just get it. It’s the adults who have more problems.

CLEMENS: I saw that there are at least three different distributions for the boards. So what are the differences between the three? Why isn’t there just one?

PETER: Well, they all offer subtly different features. The whole idea was to make Raspberry Pi as an undergraduate tool. You give it to Cambridge University, hopefully Manchester University, and undergraduates can view the science before they start it. They have the summer. They can work on it, come back, and say: “Look, I did this on this board.” That’s where it all started.

CLEMENS: OK. So, you were already on quite a high level.

PETER: Well we were on a high level, that’s true. We were on a high level, so Scratch wouldn’t have been on the agenda. It was really just Python—that’s actually where the Pi comes from.
What has really happened is that we’ve developed this community and this ecosystem around Pi. So we have to be able to support the, if you like, “different roots” of people wanting to use Pi. Now we’ve got the RISC OS that you can use. And people are even doing bare-metal programming. If we just gave one distribution, I guess we’re closing it up. I fully approve of having different distributions.

CLEMENS: From the website, it’s not clear to me what is different in these distributions. For the first one, it is written: “If you’re just starting out.”

PETER: I think maybe we do need to put some more material in there to explain to people the difference. I have to explain: I’m the hardware guy. I’m the guy who sat there connecting the tracks up, connecting the components up. My expertise with the operating systems, with the distributions that we have, is really limited to the graphical interface because that’s what I use day in, day out.

CLEMENS: Once you have chosen your distribution and you want to control an LED, you have to open a driver or something, I suppose?

PETER: Well, you’ve got the library; you just have to make a library call. Again, it’s not easy. You have to go and find the libraries and you have to download them. Which is where things such as the Pi-Face (add-on board) come in, because that comes with an interactive library that will go onto Scratch. And you’ve got the Gertboard (another extension board) and that comes with the libraries to drive it and some tutorial examples and then you can wind that back to just the bare metal interface on the GPIOs.

CLEMENS: So the simplicity is now coming from the add-on boards?

PETER: Some of the add-on boards can make it simpler, where they give you the switches and they give you the LEDs. You don’t need to do any wiring. My view is that I’m trying to make it like an onion: You can start with the surface and you can do something, and then you can peel away the layers. The more interested you get, the more layers you can peel away and the more different directions you can go (in what you do with it). You must have seen the diverse things that can be done.

CLEMENS: I’ve looked at some projects. I was surprised by the number of media centers. That’s how RS Components (which distributes the Raspberry Pi) is promoting the board. Aren’t you disappointed with that? It seems to be, for a lot of people, a cheap platform to do a Linux application on. They just want to have a media center.

PETER: I know exactly what you mean. And I suppose I should be disappointed that some people buy it, they make it into a media center, and that’s all it does. But I think if only 5% or 10% of those people who make it into a media center will think: “Well, that was easy, maybe I’ll get another and see if I can do something else with it,” then it’s a success.

CLEMENS: It would be an enabler.

PETER: Getting the technology in front of people is the first problem. Getting the “Hello World” so they’ve got a sense of achievement is the second problem. Then turning them over from doing that to “Okay, well what if I try and do this?”  then that’s  Nirvana. Certainly for the kids that’s crucial, because we’re changing them from doing what they’re told, to start doing things that they think they might be able to do—and trying it. That makes them into engineers.

CLEMENS: Let’s move on to the board’s hardware.

PETER: Sure.

CLEMENS: So, you chose a Broadcom processor. Because Eben worked at Broadcom?

PETER: He still works within Broadcom. It would be hard for me to argue that that wasn’t an influence on the decision, because Eben said: “Oh look, here’s the bright shiny chip. It can do all the things that we want, why wouldn’t we use it?” The decision we made is we nailed our credentials and our reputations to the website by saying it will cost $35—it will cost $25 for the basic one. And there was no way on Earth any of us were going to go back on that… We had a spreadsheet, the basic numbers looked plausible, we just had to do a lot of work to chop it down—to hone it, to get it tight so it would actually meet the prices. So, I think if we’d gone another way, like maybe with Samsung, that would have blown the budget.

CLEMENS: Did Broadcom help in any way to make this possible?

PETER: Every semiconductor manufacturer helped the project by making the chips available. Also, the price point of the chips is important. I think some of the people who helped us took an educated gamble and gave us good pricing from day one. Because the big problem you get with trying to bootstrap any project, is that if you don’t know what your volume is going to be. You have to be conservative.

So, initially, we priced for a thousand boards, but quickly we priced for 20,000 boards, but nowhere in our wildest dreams did we think we were going to get to a 200,000-board requirement on launch day and be so tantalizingly close to selling a million after our first year. So that’s helped in a lot of ways, because obviously it’s driven the price of all the components down. I’m not going to pretend it doesn’t please the vendors of the components that had faith in us from day one, because they’ve obviously made some money out of it.

We always had the rationale that we had to have a sustainable model where the foundation, our community that is buying the boards, and our suppliers were all making a living and could feed themselves. It would have been a total disaster if someone such as Broadcom had said: “Tell you what guys, let’s give you the processors. We’ll give you the first 20,000.” And so, we could have provided all sorts of extra bells and whistles to the design. Then, when we would have sold these 20,000 boards, we’re going to raise the price of everything by $12. That would’ve been the end of Raspberry Pi.

CLEMENS: If Eben and the others had not worked for Broadcom…

PETER: Would we have used a different chip? Well, I sort of speculated about this and I went around and had a look and, at the time for the price point, we couldn’t find anything that would’ve met our requirements as well as that chip. So I was comfortable that was the one that would allow us to get to where we wanted to be, and I think the big key crunch for that was the high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI). From a technical point of view, one of the challenges we had was getting the breakout under the BGA, because blind and buried vias on PCBs are very expensive.

CLEMENS: How many layers is the board?

PETER: Six, which is a pretty bog-standard layer count. The only little trick that we used was to put blind vias only on layers one and two—so we had an extra drilling stage—but only one bonding stage. So that added $0.02 onto the cost of the board. But, because the next layer down was a ground plane, it meant that a lot of the connections that come out of the Broadcom processor just go down one layer. And that meant that I could have space underneath to route other things and actually make it all happen.

CLEMENS: Don’t they have guidelines at Broadcom?

PETER: Oh, they do have guidelines! Use blind and buried vias or vias in pads. Our first prototype was all singing, all dancing, but it would have cost $100 to $110 to manufacture. So we got the machete out and started hacking down all the things that we didn’t need. So you’ve got all the functionality that you want. You can get the performance that you want, you can get the compliance, but it’s got nothing extra.

CLEMENS: Have you been thinking about the future of Raspberry Pi?

PETER: Well, yeah… In our industry, you know, Moore’s law guarantees that everything is old-hat in two years’ time. So we’re thinking about it, but that’s all we’re doing. We’re trying to improve our educational release. I mean, let’s face it, I’m not going to pretend that the Raspberry Pi is perfect. We only made one modification to the board from design to release. We’ve only made some minor modifications under the V2 release. Some of that is to fix some anomalies, some of that was also to help our new manufacturing partner, Sony (in Pencoed, Wales), take it. Their process needed some slight changes to the board to make it easier to manufacture.

CLEMENS: About the original idea of Raspberry Pi, the educational thing. I had a look at the forum and there are lots of forums about technical details, quite a lot of questions and topics about start-up problems. But the educational forum is pretty small.

PETER: You’re right. You’re absolutely right. A lot of that work has been going on slowly and carefully in the background. To be completely honest with you, we were caught on the hub with the interest with Raspberry Pi, and so I’ve certainly spent the last 12 months making sure that we can deliver the product to our community so that they can develop with it and perhaps talk a little bit about our educational goals. But we’re absolutely refocusing on that.

CLEMENS: First, get the hardware into people’s hands and then focus on the education.

PETER: Exactly. And of course, we’ve also released the first computers in schools as manual teaching tools. But also we’ve got Clive, who is a full-time employee helping with the educational deployment. And it’s great that we’ve had all this support (from Google Giving) to get 15,000 kits into schools. I won’t pretend we don’t have a lot of work to do but, I think of where we were a year ago, just still trying to launch.

CLEMENS: It all went really fast.

PETER: Oh yes, it’s gone like a rocket!

CLEMENS: Have you personally learned something valuable from it?

PETER: Well, I’ve learned lots of things. I think the most valuable, maybe not a lesson, but a reinforcement of something I already thought, is that education doesn’t just exist in the classroom. It exists all around us. The opportunity to learn and the opportunity to teach exists every day in almost every aspect in what we do. You know, there are people who spend their lives trying to keep every secret, keep everything to themselves. But there are also people who just give. And I’ve met so many people who are just givers. I suppose I’ve learned there is a whole new system of education that goes on outside of the standard curriculum that helps people do what they want to do.

Editor’s Note: Interview by Clemens Valens, Transcription by Joshua Walbey.

RESOURCES

  • Embedded Linux Wiki, “RPi Gertboard,” elinux.org/RPi_Gertboard
  • W. Hettinga, “What Are You Doing? The Raspberry Pi $25 Computer,” Elektor April 2012.
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, “Scratch,” scratch.mit.edu
  • University of Manchester School of Computer Science, Projects Using Raspberry Pi, “Pi-Face Digital Interface,” http://pi.cs.man.ac.uk/interface.htm