10-Bit HDO9000 High Definition Oscilloscopes

Teledyne LeCroy recently launched the HDO9000, which uses HD1024 high-definition technology that automatically optimizes vertical resolution under each measurement condition to deliver 10 bits of vertical resolution. Featuring a bright 15.4” capacitive touch screen, the HDO9000 oscilloscopes offer 10-bit resolution, bandwidths of 1 to 4 GHz, and sample rates of 40 GS/s. The HDO9000 and MAUI with OneTouch enables you to perform all common operations with one touch of the display.Teledyne hdo9000

The HDO9000’s features, benefits, and specs:

  • HD1024 high-definition technology provides 10 bits of vertical resolution with 4-GHz bandwidth.
  • 15.4” high resolution capacitive touch screen
  • The mixed signal (-MS) models have 16 digital lines for trigger, decode, and measurements for analyzing timing irregularities or for general-purpose debugging.
  • Compatibility with the HDA125 High-speed Digital Analyzer, with 12.5 GS/s digital sampling rate on 18 input channels, and the revolutionary QuickLink probing solution
  • Several optional software packages are available to equip HDO9000 for all validation and debug requirements ranging from automated standards compliance packages to flexible debugging toolkits.
  • The HDO9000 is available in 1, 2, 3, or 4 GHz bandwidths

The HDO9000’s prices range from $21,250 to $37,400. -MS versions of each model are available with 16 digital channel sampling at 1.25 GS/s for an additional $3,000.

Source: Teledyne LeCroy teledynelecroy.com

Hands-On Test Instrument Workshop Tour

Keysight recently announced it is running hands-on, test instrument workshop for design and test engineers.The workshop series (February 2–June 24) will be held in the United States and Canada.

The workshop is intended to focus on top test challenges with seminars and instructors leading demonstrations and lectures. Attendees can use high-performance and general-purpose oscilloscopes, RF signal analyzers and sources, RF network analyzers, AC/DC power analyzers, and bench instrumentation.

Workshop highlights include:

  • Power Integrity and Analysis Using Oscilloscopes and Power Analyzers
  • RF Transmitter/Receiver Measurements
  • Faster and Simpler Design Validation/Characterization

In addition, attendees will receive a course completion certificate and will be entered into a drawing for a free U1273A 4.5 digit, OLED display hand-held digital multimeter with a U117A Bluetooth adapter.

 

More information about the free workshop and registration, visit www.keysight.com/find/testdrive.

Source: Keysight Technologies

Expanded Auto Test Capabilities for Scopes with Support for HDMI v2.0 and Embedded DisplayPort

Teledyne LeCroy recently announced the availability of the QPHY-HDMI2 and QPHY-eDP, which expanded its automated transmitter test solutions for display standards to include HDMI Version 2.0 and Embedded DisplayPort. The QPHY-HDMI2 software option for the WaveMaster/SDA/DDA 8 Zi series of oscilloscopes provides validation/verification and debug tools in accordance with version 2.0 of the HDMI electrical test specification. Teledyne QPHY-HDMI2

The QPHY-eDP software option for the WaveMaster/SDA/DDA 8 Zi series of oscilloscopes provides an automated test environment for running all of the real-time oscilloscope tests for sources in accordance with Version 1.4a of the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) Embedded DisplayPort PHY Compliance Test Guideline. QPHY-eDP supports testing at up to 5.4 Gbps for full coverage of all bit rates included in the eDP 1.4 compliance test guideline. As with QPHY-HDMI2, optional RF switching and de-embedding is also supported by QPHY-eDP.

The QPHY-HDMI2 and QPHY-eDP each cost $7,000. Both are available on WaveMaster 8Zi, LabMaster 9Zi, and LabMaster 10Zi oscilloscopes with bandwidths of 13 GHz or higher and running firmware version 7.9.x or later.

Source: Teledyne LeCroy

Open-Source USB Oscilloscope for Mobile USE

LabNation’s SmartScope is the world’s first 100-Msps open-source USB oscilloscope for smartphone, tablet, and PC is now available at a special low price for a limited time only. Order the SmartScope beforeTuesday, September 15, 2015 to save over $30.smartscope-contents

Features, specs, and benefits:

  • Compatible with OS X, Linux, Windows, Android, and iOS (jail broken)
  • Go mobile with single-cable connectivity.
  • Intuitive operation: pointing, pinching and swiping finally replaces the clunky interfaces of old scopes
  • Develop digital interfaces with the  100-Msps logic analyzer
  • Design a signal with Excel and then upload it to the built-in Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG)
  • Capture the voltage at any point at 100 million times each second.

Source: Elektor

New Probe Adapters for Teledyne LeCroy Oscilloscopes

Teledyne LeCroy has introduced two new adapters to support third-party probes and current measurement devices. The TPA10 TekProbe Probe Adapter adapts a wide variety of Tektronix voltage and current probes. The CA10 Current Sensor Adapter adapts a wide variety of third-party current measurement devices. Both connect to the Teledyne LeCroy ProBus probe interface that’s on most Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes.TELEDYNELECROY-probe-adapter

The TPA10 TekProbe Probe Adapter enables you to connect select Tektronix TekProbe interface level II probes to any ProBus-equipped Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscope. It automatically detects the Tektronix probe, supplies power and offset control to the probe, and then communicates the probe signal to the oscilloscope. Supported probes include many popular Tektronix probes, preamplifiers, current probes, single-ended active probes, and differential active probes.

With the CA10 Current Sensor Adapter, a third-party current measurement device can operate like a Teledyne LeCroy probe. It is programmable and customizable to work with third-party current measurement devices that output voltage or current signals proportional to measured current. The CA10 also provides the ability to easily install physical hardware components (e.g., shunt resistors and bandwidth filter components).

The TPA10 costs $950. The CA10 is $295. A QuadPak (four of each device) costs $3800 and $1180, respectively. The QuadPak includes a soft-carrying case to store the adapters. Delivery time for each item is four to six weeks.

Source: Teledyne LeCroy

New Oscilloscopes with Capacitive Touch Screens, Zone Triggering

Keysight Technologies recently introduced the InfiniiVision 3000T X-Series digital-storage and mixed-signal oscilloscopes  with intuitive graphical triggering capability. This new oscilloscope series delivers capacitive touch screens and zone triggering to the mainstream oscilloscope market for the first time. The scopes help engineers overcome usability and triggering challenges and improve their problem-solving capability and productivity.

As digital speeds and device complexity continue to increase, signals under test are getting more complex, and engineers are more challenged to isolate anomalies in their devices. Intuitive graphical triggers, previously unavailable in mainstream oscilloscopes, help engineers debug and characterize their cutting-edge devices faster and more easily. With graphical triggers, engineers can use a finger to draw a box around a signal of interest on the instrument display to create a trigger.Keysight InfiniiVision

 

The new oscilloscope series offers upgradable bandwidths from 100 MHz to 1.0 GHz and several benchmark features in addition to the touch screen interface and graphical zone triggering capability. An uncompromised update rate of one million waveforms per second gives engineers visibility into subtle signal details. The series comes with six-instruments-in-one integration, including oscilloscope functionality, digital channels (MSO), protocol analysis capability, a digital voltmeter, a WaveGen function/arbitrary waveform generator, and an eight-digit hardware counter/totalizer. Finally, the 3000T X-Series delivers correlated frequency and time domain measurements using the gated FFT function for the first time in this class, to address emerging measurement challenges.

The 3000T X-Series supports a wide range of popular and emerging serial bus applications: MIL-STD 1553 and ARINC 429, I2S, CAN/CAN-FD/CAN-Symbolic, LIN, SENT, FlexRay, RS232/422/485/UART and I2C/SPI. The new gated FFT function allows engineers to correlate time and frequency domain phenomenon on a single screen. Finally, the power analysis, video analysis and hardware-based mask test option makes the 3000T X-Series a comprehensive mainstream oscilloscope.

The InfiniiVision 3000T X-Series includes 100-MHz, 200-MHz, 350-MHz, 500-MHz and 1-GHz models. The standard configuration for all models includes 4 Mpts of memory, segmented memory, advanced math, and 500-MHz passive probes. Keysight InfiniiVision 3000T X-Series oscilloscopes are now available starting at $3,350.

Source: Keysight Technologies 

Probe a Circuit with the Power Off (EE Tip #146)

Imagine something is not working on your surface-mounted board, so you decide use your new oscilloscope. You take the probe scope in your right hand and put it on the microcontroller’s pin 23. Then, as you look at the scope’s screen, you inadvertently move your hand by 1 mm. Bingo!ComponentsDesk-iStock_000036102494Large

The scope probe is now right between pin 23 and pin 24, and you short-circuit two outputs. As a result, the microcontroller is dead and, because you’re unlucky, a couple of other chips are dead too. You just successfully learned Error 22.

Some years ago a potential customer brought me an expensive professional light control system he wanted to use. After 10 minutes of talking, I opened the equipment to see how it was built. My customer warned me to take care because he needed to use it for a show the next day. Of course, I said that he shouldn’t worry because I’m an engineer. I took my oscilloscope probe and did exactly what I said you shouldn’t do. Within 5 s, I short-circuited a 48-V line with a 3V3 regulated wire. Smoke and fire! I transformed each of the beautiful system’s 40 or so integrated circuits into dead silicon. Need I say my relationship with that customer was rather cold for a few weeks?

In a nutshell, don’t ever try to connect a probe on a fine-pitch component when the power is on. Switch everything off, solder a test wire where you need it to be, grab your probe on the wire end, ensure there isn’t a short circuit and then switch on the power. Alternatively, you can buy a couple of fine-pitch grabbers, expensive but useful, or a stand-off to maintain the probe in a precise position. But still don’t try to connect them to a powered board.—Robert Lacoste, CC25, 2013

High-Bandwidth Oscilloscope Probe

Keysight Technologies recently announced a new high-bandwidth, low-noise oscilloscope probe, the N7020A, for making power integrity measurements to characterize DC power rails. The probe’s specs include:

  • low noise
  • large ± 24-V offset range
  • 50 kΩ DC input impedance
  • 2-GHz bandwidth for analyzing fast transients on their DC power-rails KeysightN7020A

According to Keysight’s product release, “The single-ended N7020A power-rail probe has a 1:1 attenuation ratio to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the power rail being observed by the oscilloscope. Comparable oscilloscope power integrity measurement solutions have up to 16× more noise than the Keysight solution. With its lower noise, the Keysight N7020A power-rail probe provides a more accurate view of the actual ripple and noise riding on DC power rails.”

 

The new N7020A power-rail probe starts at $2,650.

Source: Keysight Technologies 

WaveSurfer 3000 Oscilloscopes with MAUI

Teledyne LeCroy recently introduced the WaveSurfer 3000 series of oscilloscopes. The series features the MAUI advanced user interface, which “integrates a deep measurement toolset and multi-instrument capabilities into a cutting edge user experience centered on a large 10.1” touch screen,” the company stated in a release.

Source: Teledyne LeCroy

Source: Teledyne LeCroy

Essential characteristics, specs, and features include:

  • Bandwidths from 200 MHz to 500 MHz, with 10 Mpts/ch memory and up to 4 GS/s sample rate.
  • Multi-instrument capabilities such as waveform generation, protocol analysis, and logic analysis
  • 130,000 waveforms/second with waveform update, as well as waveform playback and WaveScan search/find
  • An advanced active probe
  • A comprehensive toolset featuring powerful math and measurement capabilities, sequence mode segmented memory, and LabNotebook

The WaveSurfer 3000 is available in four different models (200 MHz, two-channel to 500 MHz, four-channel) with prices ranging from $3,200 to $6,950.

Source: Teledyne LeCroy

One Professor and Two Orderly Labs

Professor Wolfgang Matthes has taught microcontroller design, computer architecture, and electronics (both digital and analog) at the University of Applied Sciences in Dortmund, Germany, since 1992. He has developed peripheral subsystems for mainframe computers and conducted research related to special-purpose and universal computer architectures for the past 25 years.

When asked to share a description and images of his workspace with Circuit Cellar, he stressed that there are two labs to consider: the one at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts and the other in his home basement.

Here is what he had to say about the two labs and their equipment:

In both labs, rather conventional equipment is used. My regular duties are essentially concerned  with basic student education and hands-on training. Obviously, one does not need top-notch equipment for such comparatively humble purposes.

Student workplaces in the Dortmund lab are equipped for basic training in analog electronics.

Student workplaces in the Dortmund lab are equipped for basic training in analog electronics.

In adjacent rooms at the Dortmund lab, students pursue their own projects, working with soldering irons, screwdrivers, drills,  and other tools. Hence, these rooms are  occasionally called the blacksmith’s shop. Here two such workplaces are shown.

In adjacent rooms at the Dortmund lab, students pursue their own projects, working with soldering irons, screwdrivers, drills, and other tools. Hence, these rooms are occasionally called “the blacksmith’s shop.” Two such workstations are shown.

Oscilloscopes, function generators, multimeters, and power supplies are of an intermediate price range. I am fond of analog scopes, because they don’t lie. I wonder why neither well-established suppliers nor entrepreneurs see a business opportunity in offering quality analog scopes, something that could be likened to Rolex watches or Leica analog cameras.

The orderly lab at home is shown here.

The orderly lab in Matthes’s home is shown here.

Matthes prefers to build his  projects so that they are mechanically sturdy. So his lab is equipped appropriately.

Matthes prefers to build mechanically sturdy projects. So his lab is appropriately equipped.

Matthes, whose research interests include advanced computer architecture and embedded systems design, pursues a variety of projects in his workspace. He describes some of what goes on in his lab:

The projects comprise microcontroller hardware and software, analog and digital circuitry, and personal computers.

Personal computer projects are concerned with embedded systems, hardware add-ons, interfaces, and equipment for troubleshooting. For writing software, I prefer PowerBASIC. Those compilers generate executables, which run efficiently and show a small footprint. Besides, they allow for directly accessing the Windows API and switching to Assembler coding, if necessary.

Microcontroller software is done in Assembler and, if required, in C or BASIC (BASCOM). As the programming language of the toughest of the tough, Assembler comes second after wire [i.e., the soldering iron].

My research interests are directed at computer architecture, instruction sets, hardware, and interfaces between hardware and software. To pursue appropriate projects, programming at the machine level is mandatory. In student education, introductory courses begin with the basics of computer architecture and machine-level programming. However, Assembler programming is only taught at a level that is deemed necessary to understand the inner workings of the machine and to write small time-critical routines. The more sophisticated application programming is usually done in C.

Real work is shown here at the digital analog computer—bring-up and debugging of the master controller board. Each of the six microcontrollers is connected to a general-purpose human-interface module.

A digital analog computer in Matthes’s home lab works on master controller board bring-up and debugging. Each of the six microcontrollers is connected to a general-purpose human-interface module.

Additional photos of Matthes’s workspace and his embedded electronics and micrcontroller projects are available at his new website.

 

 

 

User-Extensible FDA for Real-Time Oscilloscopes

Keysight Technologies recently announced the availability of a frequency domain analysis (FDA) option, a user-extensible spectrum frequency domain analysis application solution for real-time oscilloscopes.

Source: Keysight Technologies

Source: Keysight Technologies

The FDA option extends the capabilities of Keysight Infiniium and InfiniiVision Series oscilloscopes by enabling you to acquire live signals from the oscilloscope and visualize them in the frequency domain, as well as make key frequency domain measurements.

Option N8832A-001 includes the application, the application source code for user extensibility, and MATLAB software. These tools enable you to extend an application’s capabilities to meet their current and future testing needs.

With the FDA application, you can address a variety of FDA challenges such as:

  • Power spectral density (PSD) and spectrogram visualization
  • Frequency domain measurements in an application including relevant peaks in the PSD and measurements such as occupied bandwidth, SNR, total harmonic distortion (THD ), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR), and frequency error
  • Oscilloscope configuration through the application to allow for repeatable instrument configuration and measurements; optionally includes additional SCPI commands for more advanced instrument setup
  • Insertion of additional custom signal processing commands prior to frequency domain visualization, as needed, for more advanced analysis insight
  • Live or post-acquisition analysis of time-domain data in MATLAB software

Source: Keysight Technologies

Measuring Jitter (EE Tip #132)

Jitter is one of the parameters you should consider when designing a project, especially when it involves planning a high-speed digital system. Moreover, jitter investigation—performed either manually or with the help of proper measurement tools—can provide you with a thorough analysis of your product.

There are at least two ways to measure jitter: cycle-to-cycle and time interval error (TIE).

WHAT IS JITTER?
The following is the generic definition offered by The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in its G.810 recommendation. “Jitter (timing): The short-term variations of the significant instants of a timing signal from their ideal positions in time (where short-term implies that these variations are of frequency greater than or equal to 10 Hz).”

First, jitter refers to timing signals (e.g., a clock or a digital control signal that must be time-correlated to a given clock). Then you only consider “significant instants” of these signals (i.e., signal-useful transitions from one logical state to the other). These events are supposed to happen at a specific time. Jitter is the difference between this expected time and the actual time when the event occurs (see Figure 1).

Figure 1—Jitter includes all phenomena that result in an unwanted shift in timing of some digital signal transitions in comparison to a supposedly “perfect” signal.

Figure 1—Jitter includes all phenomena that result in an unwanted shift in timing of some digital signal transitions in comparison to a supposedly “perfect” signal.

Last, jitter concerns only short-term variations, meaning fast variations as compared to the signal frequency (in contrast, very slow variations, lower than 10 Hz, are called “wander”).

Clock jitter, for example, is a big concern for A/D conversions. Read my article on fast ADCs (“Playing with High-Speed ADCs,” Circuit Cellar 259, 2012) and you will discover that jitter could quickly jeopardize your expensive, high-end ADC’s signal-to-noise ratio.

CYCLE-TO-CYCLE JITTER
Assume you have a digital signal with transitions that should stay within preset time limits (which are usually calculated based on the receiver’s signal period and timing diagrams, such as setup duration and so forth). You are wondering if it is suffering from any excessive jitter. How do you measure the jitter? First, think about what you actually want to measure: Do you have a single signal (e.g., a clock) that could have jitter in its timing transitions as compared to absolute time? Or, do you have a digital signal that must be time-correlated to an accessible clock that is supposed to be perfect? The measurement methods will be different. For simplicity, I will assume the first scenario: You have a clock signal with rising edges that are supposed to be perfectly stable, and you want to double check it.

My first suggestion is to connect this clock to your best oscilloscope’s input, trigger the oscilloscope on the clock’s rising edge, adjust the time base to get a full period on the screen, and measure the clock edge’s time dispersion of the transition just following the trigger. This method will provide a measurement of the so-called cycle-to-cycle jitter (see Figure 2).

Figure 2—Cycle-to-cycle is the easiest way to measure jitter. You can simply trigger your oscilloscope on a signal transition and measure the dispersion of the following transition’s time.

Figure 2—Cycle-to-cycle is the easiest way to measure jitter. You can simply trigger your oscilloscope on a signal transition and measure the dispersion of the following transition’s time.

If you have a dual time base or a digital oscilloscope with zoom features, you could enlarge the time zone around the clock edge you are interested in for more accurate measurements. I used an old Philips PM5786B pulse generator from my lab to perform the test. I configured the pulse generator to generate a 6.6-MHz square signal and connected it to my Teledyne LeCroy WaveRunner 610Zi oscilloscope. I admit this is high-end equipment (1-GHz bandwidth, 20-GSPS sampling rate and an impressive 32-M word memory when using only two of its four channels), but it enabled me to demonstrate some other interesting things about jitter. I could have used an analog oscilloscope to perform the same measurement, as long as the oscilloscope provided enough bandwidth and a dual time base (e.g., an old Tektronix 7904 oscilloscope or something similar). Nevertheless, the result is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3—This is the result of a cycle-to-cycle jitter measurement of the PM5786A pulse generator. The bottom curve is a zoom of the rising front just following the trigger. The cycle-to-cycle jitter is the horizontal span of this transition over time, here measured at about 620 ps.

Figure 3—This is the result of a cycle-to-cycle jitter measurement of the PM5786A pulse generator. The bottom curve is a zoom of the rising front just following the trigger. The cycle-to-cycle jitter is the horizontal span of this transition over time, here measured at about 620 ps.

This signal generator’s cycle-to-cycle jitter is clearly visible. I measured it around 620 ps. That’s not much, but it can’t be ignored as compared to the signal’s period, which is 151 ns (i.e., 1/6.6 MHz). In fact, 620 ps is ±0.2% of the clock period. Caution: When you are performing this type of measurement, double check the oscilloscope’s intrinsic jitter as you are measuring the sum of the jitter of the clock and the jitter of the oscilloscope. Here, the latter is far smaller.

TIME INTERVAL ERROR
Cycle-to-cycle is not the only way to measure jitter. In fact, this method is not the one stated by the definition of jitter I presented earlier. Cycle-to-cycle jitter is a measurement of the timing variation from one signal cycle to the next one, not between the signal and its “ideal” version. The jitter measurement closest to that definition is called time interval error (TIE). As its name suggests, this is a measure of a signal’s transitions actual time, as compared to its expected time (see Figure 4).

Figure 4—Time interval error (TIE) is another way to measure jitter. Here, the actual transitions are compared to a reference clock, which is supposed to be “perfect,” providing the TIE. This reference can be either another physical signal or it can be generated using a PLL. The measured signal’s accumulated plot, triggered by the reference clock, also provides the so-called eye diagram.

Figure 4—Time interval error (TIE) is another way to measure jitter. Here, the actual transitions are compared to a reference clock, which is supposed to be “perfect,” providing the TIE. This reference can be either another physical signal or it can be generated using a PLL. The measured signal’s accumulated plot, triggered by the reference clock, also provides the so-called eye diagram.

It’s difficult to know these expected times. If you are lucky, you could have a reference clock elsewhere on your circuit, which would supposedly be “perfect.” In that case, you could use this reference as a trigger source, connect the signal to be measured on the oscilloscope’s input channel, and measure its variation from trigger event to trigger event. This would give you a TIE measurement.

But how do you proceed if you don’t have anything other than your signal to be measured? With my previous example, I wanted to measure the jitter of a lab signal generator’s output, which isn’t correlated to any accessible reference clock. In that case, you could still measure a TIE, but first you would have to generate a “perfect” clock. How can this be accomplished? Generating an “ideal” clock, synchronized with a signal, is a perfect job for a phase-locked loop (PLL). The technique is explained my article, “Are You Locked? A PLL Primer” (Circuit Cellar 209, 2007.) You could design a PLL to lock on your signal frequency and it could be as stable as you want (provided you are willing to pay the expense).

Moreover, this PLL’s bandwidth (which is the bandwidth of its feedback filter) would give you an easy way to zoom in on your jitter of interest. For example, if the PLL bandwidth is 100 Hz, the PLL loop will capture any phase variation slower than 100 Hz. Therefore, you can measure the jitter components faster than this limit. This PLL (often called a carrier recovery circuit) can be either an actual hardware circuit or a software-based implementation.

So, there are at least two ways to measure jitter: Cycle-to-cycle and TIE. (As you may have anticipated, many other measurements exist, but I will limit myself to these two for simplicity.) Are these measurement methods related? Yes, of course, but the relationship is not immediate. If the TIE is not null but remains constant, the cycle-to-cycle jitter is null.  Similarly, if the cycle-to-cycle jitter is constant but not null, the TIE will increase over time. In fact, the TIE is closely linked to the mathematical integral over time of the cycle-to-cycle jitter, but this is a little more complex, as the jitter’s frequency range must be limited.

Editor’s Note: This is an excerpt from an article written by Robert Lacoste, “Analyzing a Case of the Jitters: Tips for Preventing Digital Design Issues,” Circuit Cellar 273, 2013.

A Shed Packed with Projects and EMF Test Equipment

David Bellerose, a retired electronic equipment repairman for the New York State Thruway, has had a variety of careers that have honed the DIY skills he employs in his Lady Lake, FL, workspace.

Bellerose has been a US Navy aviation electronics technician and a computer repairman. “I also ran my own computer/electronic and steel/metal welding fabrication businesses, so I have many talents under my belt,” he says.

Bellerose’s Protostation, purchased on eBay, is on top shelf (left). He designed the setup on the right, which includes a voltmeter, a power supply, and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) oscillators. A second protoboard unit is on the middle shelf (left). On the right are various Intersil ICM7216D frequency-counter units and DDS-based signal generator units from eBay. The bottom shelf is used for protoboard storage.

Bellerose’s Protostation, purchased on eBay, is on top shelf (left). He designed the setup on the right, which includes a voltmeter, a power supply, and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) oscillators. A second protoboard unit is on the middle shelf (left). On the right are various Intersil ICM7216D frequency-counter units and DDS-based signal generator units from eBay. The bottom shelf is used for protoboard storage.

Bellerose’s project interests include model rockets, video security, solar panels, and computer systems. “My present project involves Intersil ICM7216D-based frequency counter modules to companion with various frequency generator modules, which I am also designing for a frequency range of 1 Hz to 12 GHz,” he says.

His workspace is an 8′-by-15′ shed lined with shelves and foldable tables. He describes how he tries to make the best use of the space available:

“My main bench is a 4′-by-6’ table with a 2’-by-6’ table to hold my storage drawers. A center rack holds my prototype units—one bought on eBay and two others I designed and built myself. My Tektronix 200-MHz oscilloscope bought on eBay sits on the main rack on the left, along with a video monitor. On the right is my laptop, a Heathkit oscilloscope from eBay, a 2.4-GHz frequency counter and more storage units. All the units are labeled.

“I try to keep all projects on paper and computer with plenty of storage space. My network-attached storage (NAS) totals about 23 terabytes of space.

“I get almost all of my test equipment from eBay along with parts that I can’t get from my distributors, such as the ICM7216D chips, which are obsolete. I try to cover the full EMF spectrum with my test equipment, so I have photometers, EMF testers, lasers, etc.”

The main workbench has a 4′-by-6′ center rack and parts storage units on the left and right. The main bench includes an OWON 25-MHz oscilloscope, storage drawers for lithium-ion (Li-on) batteries (center), voltage converter modules, various project modules on right, a Dremel drill press, and a PC monitor.

The main workbench has a 4′-by-6′ center rack and parts storage units on the left and right. The main bench includes an OWON 25-MHz oscilloscope, storage drawers for lithium-ion (Li-on) batteries (center), voltage converter modules, various project modules on the right, a Dremel drill press, and a PC monitor.

Photo 3: This full-room view shows the main bench (center), storage racks (left), and an auxiliary folding bench to work on large repairs. The area on right includes network-attached storage (NAS) storage and two PCs with a range extender and 24-port network switch.

Photo 3: This full-room view shows the main bench (center), storage racks (left), and an auxiliary folding bench to work on large repairs. The area on right includes network-attached storage (NAS) and two PCs with a range extender and 24-port network switch.

Photo 4: Various versions of Bellerose’s present project are shown. The plug-in units are for eight-digit displays. They are based on the 28-pin Intersil ICM 7216D chip with a 10-MHz time base oscillator, a 74HC132 input buffer, and a 74HC390 prescaler to bring the range to 60 MHz. The units’ eight-digit displays vary from  1″ to 0.56″ and 0.36″.

Various versions of Bellerose’s present project are shown. The plug-in units are for eight-digit displays. They are based on the 28-pin Intersil ICM 7216D chip with a 10-MHz time base oscillator, a 74HC132 input buffer, and a 74HC390 prescaler to bring the range to 60 MHz. The units’ eight-digit displays vary from 1″ to 0.56″ and 0.36″.

Photo 5: This is a smaller version of Bellerose’s project with a 0.36″ display mounted over an ICM chip with 74hc132 and 74hc390 chips and 5-V regulators. Bellerose is still working on the final PCB layout. “With regulators, I can use a 9-V adapter,” he says.  “Otherwise, I use 5 V for increased sensitivity. I use monolithic microwave (MMIC) amplifiers (MSA-0486) for input.”

This is a smaller version of Bellerose’s project with a 0.36″ display mounted over an ICM chip with 74HC132 and 74HC390 chips and 5-V regulators. Bellerose is still working on the final PCB layout. “With regulators, I can use a 9-V adapter,” he says. “Otherwise, I use 5 V for increased sensitivity. I use monolithic microwave (MMIC) amplifiers (MSA-0486) for input.”

 

 

A Workspace for “Engineering Magic”

Brandsma_workspace2

Photo 1—Brandsma describes his workspace as his “little corner where the engineering magic happens.”

Sjoerd Brandsma, an R&D manager at CycloMedia, enjoys designing with cameras, GPS receivers, and transceivers. His creates his projects in a small workspace in Kerkwijk, The Netherlands (see Photo 1). He also designs in his garage, where he uses a mill and a lathe for some small and medium metal work (see Photo 2).

Brandsma_lathe_mill

Photo 2—Brandsma uses this Weiler lathe for metal work.

The Weiler lathe has served me and the previous owners for many years, but is still healthy and precise. The black and red mill does an acceptable job and is still on my list to be converted to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine.

Brandsma described some of his projects.

Brandsma_cool_projects

Photo 3—Some of Brandsma’s projects include an mbed-based camera project (left), a camera with an 8-bit parallel databus interface (center), and an MP3 player that uses a decoder chip that is connected to an mbed module (right).

I built a COMedia C328 UART camera with a 100° lens placed on a 360° servomotor (see Photo 3, left).  Both are connected to an mbed module. When the system starts, the camera takes a full-circle picture every 90°. The four images are stored on an SD card and can be stitched into a panoramic image. I built this project for the NXP mbed design challenge 2010 but never finished the project because the initial idea involved doing some stitching on the mbed module itself. This seemed to be a bit too complicated due to memory limitations.

I built this project built around a 16-MB framebuffer for the Aptina MT9D131 camera (see Photo 3, center). This camera has an 8-bit parallel databus interface that operates on 6 to 80 MHz. This is way too fast for most microcontrollers (e.g., Arduino, Atmel AVR, Microchip Technology PIC, etc.). With this framebuffer, it’s possible to capture still images and store/process the image data at a later point.

This project involves an MP3 player that uses a VLSI VS1053 decoder chip that is connected to an mbed module (see Photo 3, right). The great thing about the mbed platform is that there’s plenty of library code available. This is also the case for the VS1053. With that, it’s a piece of cake to build your own MP3 player. The green button is a Skip button. But beware! If you press that button it will play a song you don’t like and you cannot skip that song.

He continued by describing his test equipment.

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Photo 4—Brandsma’s test equipment collection includes a Tektronix TDS220 oscilloscope (top), a Total Phase Beagle protocol analyzer (second from top), a Seeed Technology Open Workbench Logic Sniffer (second from bottom), and a Cypress Semiconductor CY7C68013A USB microcontroller (bottom).

Most of the time, I’ll use my good old Tektronix TDS220 oscilloscope. It still works fine for the basic stuff I’m doing (see Photo 4, top). The Total Phase Beagle I2C/SPI protocol analyzer Beagle/SPI is a great tool to monitor and analyze I2C/SPI traffic (see Photo 4, second from top).

The red PCB is a Seeed Technology 16-channel Open Workbench Logic Sniffer (see Photo 4, second from bottom). This is actually a really cool low-budget open-source USB logic analyzer that’s quite handy once in a while when I need to analyze some data bus issues.

The board on the bottom is a Cypress CY7C68013A USB microcontroller high-speed USB peripheral controller that can be used as an eight-channel logic analyzer or as any other high-speed data-capture device (see Photo 4, bottom). It’s still on my “to-do” list to connect it to the Aptina MT9D131 camera and do some video streaming.

Brandsma believes that “books tell a lot about a person.” Photo 5 shows some books he uses when designing and or programming his projects.

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Photo 5—A few of Brandsma’s “go-to” books are shown.

The technical difficulty of the books differs a lot. Electronica echt niet moeilijk (Electronics Made Easy) is an entry-level book that helped me understand the basics of electronics. On the other hand, the books about operating systems and the C++ programming language are certainly of a different level.

An article about Brandsma’s Sun Chaser GPS Reference Station is scheduled to appear in Circuit Cellar’s June issue.

Traveling With a “Portable Workspace”

As a freelance engineer, Raul Alvarez spends a lot of time on the go. He says the last four or five years he has been traveling due to work and family reasons, therefore he never stays in one place long enough to set up a proper workspace. “Whenever I need to move again, I just pack whatever I can: boards, modules, components, cables, and so forth, and then I’m good to go,” he explains.

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Alvarez sits at his “current” workstation.

He continued by saying:

In my case, there’s not much of a workspace to show because my workspace is whichever desk I have at hand in a given location. My tools are all the tools that I can fit into my traveling backpack, along with my software tools that are installed in my laptop.

Because in my personal projects I mostly work with microcontroller boards, modular components, and firmware, until now I think it didn’t bother me not having more fancy (and useful) tools such as a bench oscilloscope, a logic analyzer, or a spectrum analyzer. I just try to work with whatever I have at hand because, well, I don’t have much choice.

Given my circumstances, probably the most useful tools I have for debugging embedded hardware and firmware are a good-old UART port, a multimeter, and a bunch of LEDs. For the UART interface I use a Future Technology Devices International FT232-based UART-to-USB interface board and Tera Term serial terminal software.

Currently, I’m working mostly with Microchip Technology PIC and ARM microcontrollers. So for my PIC projects my tiny Microchip Technology PICkit 3 Programmer/Debugger usually saves the day.

Regarding ARM, I generally use some of the new low-cost ARM development boards that include programming/debugging interfaces. I carry an LPC1769 LPCXpresso board, an mbed board, three STMicroelectronics Discovery boards (Cortex-M0, Cortex-M3, and Cortex-M4), my STMicroelectronics STM32 Primer2, three Texas Instruments LaunchPads (the MSP430, the Piccolo, and the Stellaris), and the following Linux boards: two BeagleBoard.org BeagleBones (the gray one and a BeagleBone Black), a Cubieboard, an Odroid-X2, and a Raspberry Pi Model B.

Additionally, I always carry an Arduino UNO, a Digilent chipKIT Max 32 Arduino-compatible board (which I mostly use with MPLAB X IDE and “regular” C language), and a self-made Parallax Propeller microcontroller board. I also have a Wi-Fi 3G TP-LINK TL-WR703N mini router flashed   with OpenWRT that enables me to experiment with Wi-Fi and Ethernet and to tinker with their embedded Linux environment. It also provides me Internet access with the use of a 3G modem.

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Not a bad set up for someone on the go. Alvarez’s “portable workstation” includes ICs, resistors, and capacitors, among other things. He says his most useful tools are a UART port, a multimeter, and some LEDs.

In three or four small boxes I carry a lot of sensors, modules, ICs, resistors, capacitors, crystals, jumper cables, breadboard strips, and some DC-DC converter/regulator boards for supplying power to my circuits. I also carry a small video camera for shooting my video tutorials, which I publish from time to time at my website (www.raulalvarez.net). I have installed in my laptop TechSmith’s Camtasia for screen capture and Sony Vegas for editing the final video and audio.

Some IDEs that I have currently installed in my laptop are: LPCXpresso, Texas Instruments’s Code Composer Studio, IAR EW for Renesas RL78 and 8051, Ride7, Keil uVision for ARM, MPLAB X, and the Arduino IDE, among others. For PC coding I have installed Eclipse, MS Visual Studio, GNAT Programming Studio (I like to tinker with Ada from time to time), QT Creator, Python IDLE, MATLAB, and Octave. For schematics and PCB design I mostly use CadSoft’s EAGLE, ExpressPCB, DesignSpark PCB, and sometimes KiCad.

Traveling with my portable rig isn’t particularly pleasant for me. I always get delayed at security and customs checkpoints in airports. I get questioned a lot especially about my circuit boards and prototypes and I almost always have to buy a new set of screwdrivers after arriving at my destination. Luckily for me, my nomad lifestyle is about to come to an end soon and finally I will be able to settle down in my hometown in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The first two things I’m planning to do are to buy a really big workbench and a decent digital oscilloscope.

Alvarez’s article “The Home Energy Gateway: Remotely Control and Monitor Household Devices” appeared in Circuit Cellar’s February issue. For more information about Alvarez, visit his website or follow him on Twitter @RaulAlvarezT.