Microsoft currently uses Infineon Technologies OPTIGA Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) in its newest personal computing devices, including the Surface Pro 4 tablet and the Surface Book. The dedicated security chips store sensitive data, including keys, certificates, and passwords and keeps them separated from the main processor, which further secures the system from unauthorized access, manipulation, and data theft. For example, the Microsoft BitLocker Drive Encryption application’s key and password are stored in the TPM.
Microsoft’s personal computing devices rely on the OPTIGA TPM SLB 9665, which is the first certified security controller based on TPM 2.0. This standard was defined by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG).
Intel, Microsoft, and Circuit Co. have teamed up to produce a development board designed for the production of software and drivers used on mobile devices such as phones, tablets and similar System on a Chip (SoC) platforms running Windows and Android operating systems with Intel processors.
The 6″ × 4″ Sharks Cove board and features a number of interfaces including GPIO, I2C, I2S, UART, SDIO, mini USB, USB, and MIPI for display and camera.
Its main features include:
Intel ATOM Processor Z3735G , 2M Cache, 4 Core, 1.33 GHz up
to 1.88 GHz
James Kim—a biomedical student at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada—recently submitted an update on the status of an interesting prosthetic arm design project. The design features a Freescale 9S12 microcontroller and a Microsoft Kinect, which tracks arm movements that are then reproduced on the prosthetic arm.
He also submitted a block diagram.
Overview of the prosthetic arm system (Source: J. Kim)
The 9S12 microcontroller board we use is Arduino form-factor compatible and was coded in C using Codewarrior. The Kinect was coded in C# using Visual Studio using the latest version of Microsoft Kinect SDK 1.5. In the article, I plan to discuss how the microcontroller was set up to do deterministic control of the motors (including the timer setup and the PID code used), how the control was implemented to compensate for gravitational effects on the arm, and how we interfaced the microcontroller to the PC. This last part will involve a discussion of data logging as well as interfacing with the Kinect.
The Kinect tracks a user’s movement and the prosthetic arm replicates it. (Source: J. Kim, YouTube)
Microsoft announced on March 8 the availability of Robotics Developer Studio 4 (RDS 4) software for robotics applications. RDS 4 was designed to work with the Kinect for Windows SDK. To demonstrate the capabilities of RDS 4, the Microsoft robotics team built the Follow Me Robot with a Parallax Eddie robot, laptop running Windows 7, and the Kinect.
In the following short video, Microsoft software developer Harsha Kikkeri demonstrates Follow Me Robot.
Circuit Cellar readers are already experimenting Kinect and developing embedded system to work with it n interesting ways. In an upcoming article about a Kinect-based project, designer Miguel Sanchez describes a interesting Kinect-based 3-D imaging system.
My project started as a simple enterprise that later became a bit more challenging. The idea of capturing the silhouette of an individual standing in front of the Kinect was based on isolating those points that are between two distance thresholds from the camera. As depth image already provides the distance measurement, all the pixels of the subject will be between a range of distances, while other objects in the scene will be outside of this small range. But I wanted to have just the contour line of a person and not all the pixels that belong to that person’s body. OpenCV is a powerful computer vision library. I used it for my project because of function blobs. This function extracts the contour of the different isolated objects of a scene. As my image would only contain one object—the person standing in front of the camera—function blobs would return the exact list of coordinates of the contour of the person, which was what I needed. Please note that this function is a heavy image processing made easy for the user. It provides not just one, but a list of all the different objects that have been detected in the image. It can also specify is holes inside a blob are permitted. It can also specify the minimum and maximum areas of detected blobs. But for my project, I am only interested in detecting the biggest blob returned, which will be the one with index zero, as they are stored in decreasing order of blob area in the array returned by the blobs function.
Though it is not a fault of blobs function, I quickly realized that I was getting more detail than I needed and that there was a bit of noise in the edges of the contour. Filtering out on a bit map can be easily accomplished with a blur function, but smoothing out a contour did not sound so obvious to me.
A contour line can be simplified by removing certain points. A clever algorithm can do this by removing those points that are close enough to the overall contour line. One of these algorithms is the Douglas-Peucker recursive contour simplification algorithm. The algorithm starts with the two endpoints and it accepts one point in between whose orthogonal distance from the line connecting the two first points is larger than a given threshold. Only the point with the largest distance is selected (or none if the threshold is not met). The process is repeated recursively, as new points are added, to create the list of accepted points (those that are contributing the most to the general contour given a user-provided threshold). The larger the threshold, the rougher the resulting contour will be.
By simplifying a contour, now human silhouettes look better and noise is gone, but they look a bit synthetic. The last step I did was to perform a cubic-spline interpolation so contour becomes a set of curves between the different original points of the simplified contour. It seems a bit twisted to simplify first to later add back more points because of the spline interpolation, but this way it creates a more visually pleasant and curvy result, which was my goal.
(Source: Miguel Sanchez)
(Source: Miguel Sanchez)
The nearby images show aspects of the process Sanchez describes in his article, where an offset between the human figure and the drawn silhouette is apparent.
The entire article is slated to appear in the June or July edition of Circuit Cellar.