Guitar Video Game Uses PIC32

Realism Revamp

While music-playing video games are fun, their user interfaces tend to leave a lot to be desired. Learn how these two Cornell students designed and built a musical video game that’s interfaced using a custom-built wireless guitar controller. The game is run on a Microchip PIC32 MCU and has a TFT LCD display to show notes that move across the screen toward a strum region.

By Jake Podell and Jonah Wexler

While many popular video games involve playing a musical instrument, the controllers used by the player are not the greatest. These controllers are often made of cheap plastic, and poorly reflect the feeling of playing the real instrument. We have created a fun and competitive musical video game, which is interfaced with using a custom-built wireless guitar controller (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The motivation for the project was to experiment with video game interfaces that simulate the real-world objects that inspired them.

Figure 1
Front of the guitar controller. Note the strings and plectrum.

Figure 2
Back of the guitar controller

The video game is run on a Microchip PIC32 microcontroller [1]. We use a thin-film-transistor LCD display (TFT) to display notes that move across the screen toward a strum region. The user plays notes on a wireless mock guitar, which is built with carbon-impregnated elastic as strings and a conducting plectrum for the guitar pick. The game program running on the PIC32 produces guitar plucks and undertones of the song, while keeping track of the user’s score. The guitar is connected to an Arduino Uno and Bluetooth control center, which communicates wirelessly to the PIC32.

The controller was designed to simulate the natural motion of playing a guitar as closely as possible. We broke down that motion on a real guitar into two parts. First, users select the sound they want to play by holding the appropriate strings down. Second, the users play the sound by strumming the strings. To have a controller that resembled a real guitar, we wanted to abide by those two intuitive motions.

Fret & Strum Circuits

At the top of the guitar controller is the fret board. This is where the users can select the sounds they want to play. Throughout the system, the sound is represented as a nibble (4 bits), so we use 4 strings to select the sound.

Each string works as an active-low push-button. The strings are made of carbon-impregnated elastic, which feels and moves like elastic but is also conductive. Each string was wrapped in 30-gauge copper wire, to ensure solid contact with any conductive surfaces. The strings are each connected to screws that run through the fret board and connect the strings to the fret circuit (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Complete controller circuit schematic (on guitar).

The purpose of the fret circuit is to detect changes in voltage across four lines. Each line is branched off a power rail and connected across a string to an input pin on an Arduino Uno. Current runs from the power rail across each string to its respective input pin, which reads a HIGH signal. To detect a push on the string, we grounded the surface into which the string is pushed. By wrapping the fret board in a grounded conductive pad and pushing the string into the fret board, we are able to ground our signal before it can reach the input pin. When this occurs, the associated pin reads a LOW signal, which is interpreted as a press of the string by our system.

Along with the fret circuit, we needed a way to detect strums. The strum circuit is similar in its use of a copper-wrapped, carbon-impregnated elastic string. The string is connected through the fret board to an input pin on the Arduino, but is not powered. Without any external contact, the pin reads LOW. When voltage is applied to the string, the pin reads HIGH, detecting the strum. To mimic the strumming motion most accurately, we used a guitar pick to apply the voltage to the string. The pick is wrapped in a conductive material (aluminum foil), which is connected to the power rail. Contact of the pick applies voltage to the string, which on a rising edge denotes a strum.

Figure 4
Shown here is a block diagram of the controller signals.

As shown in Figure 4, the direct user interface for the player is the guitar controller. The physical interaction with the guitar is converted to an encoded signal by an Arduino mounted to the back of the guitar. The Arduino Uno polls for a signal that denotes a strum, and then reads the strum pattern across the four strings. The signal is sent over USB serial to a Bluetooth control station, which uses a Python script to broadcast the signal to an Adafruit Bluetooth LE module. The laptop that we used as a Bluetooth control station established a link between the controller and the Bluetooth receiver, and was paramount to the debugging and testing of our system. Finally, the Bluetooth module communicated over UART with the PIC, which interpreted the user’s signal in the context of the game [2].  …

Read the full article in the March 344 issue of Circuit Cellar
(Full article word count: 3271 words; Figure count: 10 Figures.)

Watch the project video here:

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Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

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Embedded Boards.(2/26) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (3/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (3/12) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

March Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The March issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is out next week!. We’ve rounded up an outstanding selection of in-depth embedded electronics articles just for you, and rustled them all into our 84-page magazine.

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Here’s a sneak preview of March 2019 Circuit Cellar:

POWER MAKES IT POSSIBLE

Power Issues for Wearables
Wearable devices put extreme demands on the embedded electronics that make them work—and power is front and center among those demands. Devices spanning across the consumer, fitness and medical markets all need an advanced power source and power management technologies to perform as expected. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines how today’s microcontroller and power electronics are enabling today’s wearable products.

Power Supplies for Medical Systems
Over the past year, there’s been an increasing trend toward new products that have some sort of application or industry focus. That means supplies that include either certifications, special performance specs or tailored packaging intended for a specific application area such as medical. This Product Focus section updates readers on these technology trends and provides a product gallery of representative medical-focused power supplies.

DESIGN RESOURCES, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Flex PCB Design Services
While not exactly a brand-new technology, flexible printed circuit boards are a critical part of many of today’s challenging embedded system applications from wearable devices to mobile healthcare electronics. Circuit Cellar’s Editor-in-Chief, Jeff Child, explores the Flex PCB design capabilities available today and whose providing them.

Design Flow Ensures Automotive Safety
Fault analysis has been around for years, and many methods have been created to optimize evaluation of hundreds of concurrent faults in specialized simulators. However, there are many challenges in running a fault campaign. Mentor’s Doug Smith presents an improved formal verification flow that reduces the number of faults while simultaneously providing much higher quality of results.

Cooling Electronic Systems
Any good embedded system engineer knows that heat is the enemy of reliability. As new systems cram more functionality at higher speeds into ever smaller packages, it’s no wonder an increasing amount of engineering mindshare is focusing on cooling electronic systems. In this article, George Novacek reviews some of the essential math and science around cooling and looks are several cooling technologies—from cold pates to heat pipes.

MICROCONTROLLER PROJECTS WITH ALL THE DETAILS

MCU-Based Solution Links USB to Legacy PC I/O
In PCs, serial interfaces have now been just about completely replaced by USB. But many of those interfaces are still used in control and monitoring embedded systems. In this project article, Hossam Abdelbaki describes his ATSTAMP design. ATSTAMP is an MCS-51 (8051) compatible microcontroller chip that can be connected to the USB port of any PC via any USB-to-serial bridge currently available in the market.

Pet Collar Uses GPS and Wi-Fi
The PIC32 has proven effective for a myriad of applications, so why not a dog collar? Learn how Cornell graduates Vidya Ramesh and Vaidehi Garg built a GPS-enabled pet collar prototype. The article discusses the hardware peripherals used in the project, the setup, and the software. It also describes the motivation behind the project, and possibilities to expand the project in the future.

Guitar Video Game Uses PIC32
While music-playing video games are fun, their user interfaces tend leave a lot to be desired. Learn how Cornell students Jake Podell and Jonah Wexler designed and built a musical video game that’s interfaced with using a custom-built wireless guitar controller. The game is run on a Microchip PIC32 MCU and uses a TFT LCD display to show notes that move across the screen towards a strum region.

… AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS

Non-Evasive Current Sensor
Gone are the days when you could do most of your own maintenance on your car’s engine. Today they’re sophisticated electronic systems. But there are some things you can do with the right tools. In his article, By Jeff Bachiochi talks about how using the timing light on his car engine introduced him to non-contact sensor technology. He talks about the types of probes available and how to use them to read the magnitude of alternating current (AC

Impedance Spectroscopy using the AD5933
Impedance spectroscopy is the measurement of a device’s impedance (or resistance) over a range of frequencies. Brian Millier has designed many voltammographs and conductivity meters over the years. But he recently came across the Analog Devices AD5933 chip made by which performs most all the functions needed to do impedance spectroscopy. In this article, explores the technology, circuit design and software that serve these efforts.

Side-Channel Power Analysis
Side-channel power analysis is a method of breaking security on embedded systems, and something Colin O’Flynn has covered extensively in his column. This time Colin shows how you can prove some of the fundamental assumptions that underpin side-channel power analysis. He uses the open-source ChipWhisperer project with Jupyter notebooks for easy interactive evaluation.

Firms Team Up to Provide End-to-End LoRa Security Solution

Microchip Technology, in partnership with The Things Industries, has announced the what it claims is industry’s first end-to-end security solution that adds secure, trusted and managed authentication to LoRaWAN devices at a global scale. The solution brings hardware-based security to the LoRa ecosystem, combining the MCU- and radio-agnostic ATECC608A-MAHTN-T CryptoAuthentication device with The Things Industries’ managed join servers and Microchip’s secure provisioning service.

The joint solution significantly simplifies provisioning LoRaWAN devices and addresses the inherent logistical challenges that come with managing LoRaWAN authentication keys from inception and throughout the life of a device. Traditionally, network and application server keys are unprotected in the edge node, and unmonitored, as LoRaWAN devices pass through various supply chain steps and are installed in the field.

The Common Criteria Joint Interpretation Library (JIL) “high”-rated ATECC608A comes pre-configured with secure key storage, keeping a device’s LoRaWAN secret keys isolated from the system so that sensitive keys are never exposed throughout the supply chain nor when the device is deployed. Microchip’s secure manufacturing facilities safely provision keys, eliminating the risk of exposure during manufacturing. Combined with The Things Industries’ agnostic secure join server service to the LoRaWAN network and application server providers, the solution decreases the risk of device identity corruption by establishing a trusted authentication when a device connects to a network.

Similar to how a prepaid data plan works for a mobile device, each purchase of an ATECC608A-MAHTN-T device comes with one year of managed LoRaWAN join server service through The Things Industries. Once a device identifies itself to join a LoRaWAN network, the network contacts The Things Industries join server to verify that the identity comes from a trusted device and not a fraudulent one. The temporary session keys are then sent securely to the network server and application server of choice. The Things Industries’ join server supports any LoRaWAN network, from commercially operated networks to private networks built on open-source components. After the one-year period, The Things Industries provides the option to extend the service.

Microchip and The Things Industries have also partnered to make the onboarding process of LoRaWAN devices seamless and secure. LoRaWAN device identities are claimed by The Things Industries’ join server with minimal intervention, relieving developers from needing expertise in security. Customers can not only choose any LoRaWAN network but can also migrate to any other LoRaWAN join server by rekeying the device. This means there is not a vendor lock-in and customers have full control over where and how the device keys are stored.

The ATECC608A is agnostic and can be paired with any MCU and LoRa radio. Developers can deploy secure LoRaWAN devices by combining the ATECC608A with the SAM L21 MCU, supported by the Arm Mbed OS LoRaWAN stack, or the recently-announced SAM R34 System-in-Package with Microchip’s LoRaWAN stack. For rapid prototyping, designers can use the CryptoAuthoXPRO socket board and The Things Industries provisioned parts in samples with the SAM L21 Xplained Pro (atsamd21-xpro) or SAM R34 Xplained Pro (DM320111).

The ATECC608A-MAHTN-T device for The Things Industries, including the initial year of prepaid TTN service, is available in volume production for $0.81 each in 10,000-unit quantities.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

 

Tuesday’s Newsletter: Microcontroller Watch

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Microcontroller Watch newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

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IoT Technology Focus. (2/19) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(2/26) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (3/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Tuesday’s Newsletter: Analog & Power

Coming to your inbox on Tuesday: Circuit Cellar’s Analog & Power newsletter. This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including ADCs, DACs, DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Microcontroller Watch. (2/12) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (2/19) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(2/26) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Next Newsletter: ICs for Consumer Electronics

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s ICs for Consumer Electronics newsletter. Today’;s consumer electronic product designs demand ICs that enable low-power, high-functionality and cutthroat costs. Today’s microcontroller, analog IC and power chip vendors are laser-focused on this lucrative, high-stakes market. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in for consumer electronics ICs.

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ICs for Consumer Electronics newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (2/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (2/12) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (2/19) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Infineon and TTTech Team Up for Automated Driving Solution

Infineon Technologies and TTTech Auto have released the second generation of their fully integrated automotive-grade safety solution for automated driving use cases. It is based on Infineon’s AURIX TC397XM microcontroller and TTTech Auto’s MotionWise safety software platform. It delivers full support and scalability for level 2+ solutions up to the advanced levels 4 and 5 of automated driving. It helps embedded systems developers achieve faster time-to-market, improved software integration and validation thus reducing overall cost.

The first generation of Infineon’s AURIX microcontroller and TTTech Auto’s safety software platform MotionWise are integral part of zFAS, Audi’s centerpiece for piloted driving, that premiered in the Audi A8. TTTech Auto optimized its series-proven product MotionWise for the new and even more powerful second generation of Infineon’s AURIX microcontroller called TC397XM. The MotionWise safety software platform and underlying hardware are powerful enough to match the requirements of up to level 5 automated driving functions.

Residing on an ASIL-D safety hardware, the second generation of the solution is optimized for safety-critical applications. It is offering an increased ISO 26262 ASIL-D computing performance capability, a richer set of peripherals and advanced security measures. MotionWise enables fail-operational performance, freedom from interference and safety by design with highest ASIL levels for the whole platform. Each application hosted by MotionWise will run encapsulated from its peers, resulting in a safe environment where applications with different safety and real-time requirements can coexist and interact. This allows for seamless integration of applications.

Both companies gained extensive experience through close collaboration with key automotive industry players in long-term series production projects. As a key-component in more than 25 car models with production start since 2017, the first generation of this solution creates valuable synergies for series production. Several customers have already evaluated the second generation of this software/hardware combination and decided to use it in their ADAS series production programs with start of production in 2019.

Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com

TTTech Auto | www.tttech-auto.com

 

MCUs Serve Up Solutions for Car Infotainment

Dashboard Dazzle

As automotive dashboard displays get more sophisticated, information and entertainment are merging into so-called infotainment systems. The new systems are driving a need for powerful MCU solutions that support the connectivity, computing and interfacing requirements particular to these designs.

(Caption for lead image Figure 1: The Cypress Wi-Fi and Bluetooth combo solution uses Real Simultaneous Dual Band (RSDB) technology so that Apple CarPlay (shown) and Android Auto can operate concurrently without degradation caused by switching back and forth between bands.).

By Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

Microcontroller (MCU) vendors have a rich legacy of providing key technologies for nearly every aspect of an automobile’s electronics—everything from the powertrain to the braking system to dashboard displays. In recent years, they’ve taken on a new set of challenges as demands rise for ever more sophisticated “infotainment” systems. Advanced touchscreen, processing, networking, voice recognition and more are parts of these subsystems tasked with providing drivers with information and entertainment suited to today’s demands—demands that must rival or exceed what’s possible in a modern smartphone or tablet. And, as driverless cars inch toward mainstream reality, that hunger for rich infotainment functionality will only increase.

In order to meet those system design needs, MCU vendors are keeping pace with highly integrated chip-level solutions and embedded software tailored specifically to address various aspects of the automotive infotainment challenge. Over the past 12 months, MCU companies have announced products aimed at everything from advanced dashboard graphics to connectivity solutions to security technologies. At the same time, many have announced milestone design wins that illustrate their engagement with this dynamic sub-segment of automotive system development.

Smartphone Support

Exemplifying these trends, in July Cypress Semiconductor announced that Pioneer integrated Cypress’ Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Combo solution into its flagship in-dash navigation AV receiver. The solution enables passengers to display and use their smartphone’s apps on the receiver’s screen via Apple CarPlay (Figure 1–lead image above) or Android Auto, which provide the ability to use smartphone voice recognition to search for information or respond to text messages. The Cypress Wi-Fi and Bluetooth combo solution uses Real Simultaneous Dual Band (RSDB) technology so that Apple CarPlay and Android Auto can operate concurrently without degradation caused by switching back and forth between bands.

The Pioneer AVH-W8400NEX receiver uses Cypress’ CYW89359 combo solution, which includes an advanced coexistence engine that enables optimal performance for dual-band 2.4- and 5-GHz 802.11ac Wi-Fi and dual-mode Bluetooth/Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) simultaneously for advanced multimedia experiences. The CYW89359’s RSDB architecture enables two unique data streams to run at full throughput simultaneously by integrating two complete Wi-Fi subsystems into a single chip. The CYW89359 is fully automotive qualified with AECQ-100 grade-3 validation and is being designed in by numerous top-tier car OEMs and automotive suppliers as a full in-vehicle connectivity solution, supporting infotainment and telematics applications such as smartphone screen-mirroring, content streaming and Bluetooth voice connectivity in car kits.

In October, Cypress announced another infotainment-related design win with Yazaki North America implementing Cypress’ instrument cluster solution to drive the advanced graphics in Yazaki’s instrument cluster for a leading American car manufacturer. According to Cypress, Yazaki selected the solution based on its unique offering of five chips that combine to drive dual displays and provide instant-on memory performance with automotive-grade, ASIL-B safety compliance. The Cypress solution is based on a Traveo MCU, along with two high-bandwidth HyperBus memories in a multi-chip package (MCP), an analog power management IC (PMIC) for safe electrical operation, and a PSoC MCU for system management support. The Traveo devices in the Yazaki instrument cluster were the industry’s first 3D-capable Arm Cortex-R5 cluster MCUs.

Virtualization Embraced

The complexity of automotive infotainment systems has pushed system developers to embrace advanced operating system approaches such as virtualization. Feeding those needs, last June Renesas Electronics rolled out its “R-Car virtualization support package” designed to enable easier development of hypervisors for the Renesas R-Car automotive system-on-chip (SoC). The R-Car virtualization support package includes, at no charge, both the R-Car hypervisor development guide document and sample software for use as reference in such development for software vendors who develop the embedded hypervisors that are required for integrated cockpits and connected car applications.

A hypervisor is a virtualization operating system (OS) that allows multiple guest OSs— such as Linux, Android and various real-time OSs (RTOS)—to run completely independently on a single chip. Renesas announced the R-Car hypervisor in April of 2017 and the new R-Car virtualization Support Package was developed to help software vendors accelerate their development of R-Car hypervisors.

The company’s third-generation R-Car SoCs were designed assuming that they would be used with a hypervisor. The Arm CPU cores, graphics cores, video/audio IP and other functions include virtualization functions. Originally, for software vendors to make use of these functions, they would have had to understand both the R-Car hardware manuals and the R-Car virtualization functions and start by looking into how to implement a hypervisor. Now, by following development guides in the R-Car virtualization support package, not only can software vendors easily take advantage of these functions, they will be able to take full advantage of the advanced features of R-Car. Also, by providing sample software that can be used as a reference, this package supports rapid development.

Technology partnerships have been playing a key role in automotive infotainment trends. Along just those lines, in September Renesas and OpenSynergy, a supplier of automotive hypervisors, announced that the Renesas’ SoC R-Car H3 and OpenSynergy’s COQOS Hypervisor SDK were adopted on Parrot Faurecia’s automotive safe multi-display cockpit. The latest version of Android is the guest OS of the COQOS Hypervisor, which executes both the instrument cluster functionality, including safety-relevant display elements based on Linux, and the Android-based in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) on a single R-Car H3 SoC chip (Figure 2). The COQOS Hypervisor SDK shares the R-Car H3 GPU with Android and Linux allowing applications to be presented on multiple displays, realizing a powerful and flexible cockpit system.

Figure 2
With Android as the guest OS of the COQOS Hypervisor, it executes both the instrument cluster functionality, including safety-relevant display elements based on Linux, and the Android-based in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) on a single R-Car H3 SoC chip.

According to OpenSynergy’s CEO Stefaan Sonck Thiebaut, the COQOS Hypervisor SDK takes full advantage of the hardware and software virtualization extensions provided by Renesas. The OpenSynergy solution includes key features, such as shared display, which allows several virtual machines to use multiple displays flexibly and safely. The R-Car H3 GPU and video/audio IP incorporates virtualization functions, making virtualization by the hypervisor possible and allowing for multiple OSs to operate independently and safely. OpenSynergy’s COQOS Hypervisor SDK is built around a safe and efficient hypervisor that can run software from multipurpose OSs such as Linux or Android, RTOS and AUTOSAR-compliant software simultaneously on one SoC.

Large Touchscreen Support

As the content provided by automotive infotainment systems gets more sophisticated, so too must the displays and user interface technologies that interact with that content. With that in mind, MCU vendors are offering more advanced touchscreen control solutions. Dashboard screens have unique design challenges. Screens in automobiles need to meet stringent head impact and vibration tests. That means thicker cover lenses that potentially impact the touch interface performance. Meanwhile, as screens get larger, they are also more likely to interfere with other frequencies such as AM radio and car access systems. All of these factors become a major challenge in the design of modern automotive capacitive touch systems.

Along just those lines, Microchip in December announced its maXTouch family of single-chip touchscreen controllers designed to address these issues for screens up to 20 inches in size (Figure 3). The MXT2912TD-A, with nearly 3,000 touch sensing nodes, and MXT2113TD-A, supporting more than 2,000 nodes, bring consumers the touchscreen user experience they expect in vehicles. These new devices build upon Microchip’s existing maXTouch touchscreen technology that is widely adopted by manufacturers worldwide. Microchip’s latest solutions offer superior signal-to-noise capability to address the requirements of thick lenses, even supporting multiple finger touches through thick gloves and in the presence of moisture.

Figure 3
The maXTouch family of single-chip touchscreen controllers is designed for screens up to 20 inches in size, and supports up to 3,000 touch sensing nodes. The devices even support multiple finger touches through thick gloves and in the presence of moisture.

As automakers use screens to replace mechanical switches on the dash for sleeker interior designs, safe and reliable operation becomes even more critical. The MXT2912TD and MXT2113TD devices incorporate self- and sensor-diagnostic functions, which constantly monitor the integrity of the touch system. These smart diagnostic features support the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) classification index as defined by the ISO 26262 Functional Safety Specification for Passenger Vehicles.

The new devices feature technology that enables adaptive touch utilizing self-capacitance and mutual-capacitance measurements, so all touches are recognized and false touch detections are avoided. They also feature Microchip’s proprietary new signal shaping technology that significantly lowers emissions to help large touchscreens using maXTouch controllers meet CISPR-25 Level 5 requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) in automobiles. The new touch controllers also meet automotive temperature grade 3 (-40°C to +85°C) and grade 2 (-40°C to +105°C) operating ranges and are AEC-Q100 qualified.

3D Gesture Control

Aside from the touchscreen display side of automotive infotainment, Microchip for its part has also put its efforts toward innovations in 3D human interface technology. With that in mind, in July the company announced a new 3D gesture recognition controller that offers the lowest system cost in the automotive industry, providing a durable single-chip solution for advanced automotive HMI designs, according to Microchip. The MGC3140 joins the company’s family of easy-to-use 3D gesture controllers as the first qualified for automotive use (Figure 4).

Figure 4
The MGC3140 3D gesture controller is Microchip’s first qualified for automotive use. It’s suited for a range for applications such as navigating infotainment systems, sun shade operation, interior lighting and more.

Suited for a range for applications that limit driver distraction and add convenience to vehicles, Microchip’s new capacitive technology-based air gesture controller is ideal for navigating infotainment systems, sun shade operation, interior lighting and other applications. The technology also supports the opening of foot-activated rear liftgates and any other features a manufacturer wishes to incorporate with a simple gesture action.

The MGC3140 is Automotive Electronics Council AEC-Q100 qualified with an operating temperature range of -40°C to +125°C, and it meets the strict EMI and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of automotive system designs. Each 3D gesture system consists of a sensor that can be constructed from any conductive material, as well as the Microchip gesture controller tuned for each individual application.

While existing solutions such as infrared and time-of-flight technologies can be costly and operate poorly in bright or direct sunlight, the MGC3140 offers reliable sensing in full sunlight and harsh environments. Other solutions on the market also come with physical constraints and require significant infrastructure and space to be integrated in a vehicle. The MGC3140 is compatible with ergonomic interior designs and enables HMI designers to innovate with fewer physical constraints, because the sensor can be any conductive material and hidden from view.

Vehicle Networking

While applicable to areas beyond infotainment, an automobile’s ability to network with the outside world has become ever more important. As critical vehicle powertrain, body, chassis, and infotainment features increasingly become defined by software, securely delivering updates such as fixes and option packs over the air (OTA) enhances cost efficiency and customer convenience. Serving those needs, in October STMicroelectronics released its latest Chorus automotive MCU that provides a gateway/domain-controller solution capable of handling major OTA updates securely.

With three high-performance processor cores, more than 1.2 MB RAM and powerful on-chip peripherals, ST’s new flagship SPC58 H Line joins the Chorus Series of automotive MCUs and can run multiple applications concurrently to allow more flexible and cost-effective vehicle-electronics architectures (Figure 5). Two independent Ethernet ports provide high-speed connectivity between multiple Chorus chips throughout the vehicle and enable responsive in-vehicle diagnostics. Also featuring 16 CAN-FD and 24 LINFlex interfaces, Chorus can act as a gateway for multiple ECUs (electronic control units) and support smart-gateway functionality via the two Ethernet interfaces on-chip.

Figure 5
The SPC58 H Line of MCUs can run multiple applications concurrently to allow more flexible and cost-effective vehicle-electronics architectures. Two independent Ethernet ports provide high-speed connectivity between multiple Chorus chips throughout the vehicle.

To protect connected-car functionalities and allow OTA updates to be applied safely, the new Chorus chip contains a Hardware Security Module (HSM) capable of asymmetric cryptography. Being EVITA Full compliant, it implements industry-leading attack prevention, detection and containment techniques.

Working with its large on-chip 10 MB flash, the SPC58NH92x’s context-swap mechanism allows current application code to run continuously even while an update is downloaded and made ready to be applied later at a safe time. The older software can be retained, giving the option to roll-back to the previous version in an emergency. Hyperbus and eMMC/SDIO high-speed interfaces to off-chip memory are also integrated, enabling further storage expansion if needed.

Single Cable Solution

Today’s automotive infotainment systems comprise mobile services, cross-domain communication and autonomous driving applications as part of in-vehicle networking. As a result, these systems require a more flexible solution for transporting packet, stream and control content. Existing implementations are either costly and cumbersome, or too limited in bandwidth and packet data capabilities to support system updates and internetworking requirements.

To address this need, Microchip Technology in November announced an automotive infotainment networking solution that supports all data types—including audio, video control and Ethernet—over a single cable. Intelligent Network Interface Controller networking (INICnet) technology is a synchronous, scalable solution that significantly simplifies building audio and infotainment systems, offering seamless implementation in vehicles that have Ethernet-oriented system architectures (Figure 6).

Figure 6
INICnet technology is a synchronous, scalable solution that significantly simplifies building audio and infotainment systems, offering seamless implementation in vehicles that have Ethernet-oriented system architectures.

Audio is a key infotainment feature in vehicles, and INICnet technology provides full flexibility through supporting a variety of digital audio formats with multiple sources and sinks. INICnet technology also provides high-speed packet-data communications with support for file transfers, OTA software updates and system diagnostics via standard Ethernet frames. In this way, INICnet technology supports seamless integration of Internet Protocol (IP)-based system management and data communications, along with very efficient transport of stream data. INICnet technology does not require the development and licensing of additional protocols or software stacks, reducing development costs, effort and time.

INICnet technology provides a standardized solution that works with both Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) at 50 Mbps and coaxial cable at 150 Mbps. With low and deterministic latency, INICnet technology supports deployment of complex audio and acoustics applications. Integrated network management supports networks ranging from two to 50 nodes, as well as processor-less or slim modules where the node is remotely configured and managed. The solution’s Power over Data Line (PoDL) capability saves costs on power management for microphones and other slim modules. Nodes can be arranged in any order with the same result, and any node in the system can directly communicate with any other node in the system.

Security for Connected Cars

As cars become more network-connected, the issue of security takes on new dimensions. In October, Infineon Technologies announced a key effort in cybersecurity for the connected car by introducing a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) specifically for automotive applications—the first on the market, according to the company. The new OPTIGA TPM 2.0 protects communication between the car manufacturer and the car, which increasingly turns into a computer on wheels. A number of car manufacturers already designed in Infineon’s OPTIGA TPM.

The TPM is a hardware-based security solution that has proven its worth in IT security. By using it, car manufacturers can incorporate sensitive security keys for assigning access rights, authentication and data encryption in the car in a protected way. The TPM can also be updated so that the level of security can be kept up to date throughout the vehicle’s service life.

Cars send real-time traffic information to the cloud or receive updates from the manufacturer “over the air,” for example to update software quickly and in a cost-effective manner. The senders and recipients of that data—whether car makers or individual components in the car—require cryptographic security keys to authenticate themselves. These critical keys are particularly protected against logical and physical attacks in the OPTIGA TPM as if they were in a safe.

Early Phase Critical

Incorporating the first or initial key into the vehicle is a particularly sensitive moment for car makers. When the TPM is used, this step can be carried out in Infineon’s certified production environment. After that, the keys are protected against unauthorized access; there is no need for further special security precautions. The TPM likewise generates, stores and administers further security keys for communication within the vehicle. And it is also used to detect faulty or manipulated software and components in the vehicle and initiate troubleshooting by the manufacturer in such a case.

Figure 7
The SLI 9670 consists of an attack-resistant security chip (shown) and high-performance firmware developed in accordance with the latest security standard. The firmware enables immediate use of security features, such as encryption, decryption, signing and verification.

The SLI 9670 consists of an attack-resistant security chip and high-performance firmware developed in accordance with the latest security standard (Figure 7). The firmware enables immediate use of security features, such as encryption, decryption, signing and verification. The TPM can be integrated quickly and easily in the system thanks to the open source software stack (TSS stack) for the host processor, which is also provided by Infineon. It has an SPI interface, an extended temperature range from -40°C to 105°C and the advanced encryption algorithms RSA-2048, ECC-256 and SHA-256. The new TPM complies with the internationally acknowledged Trusted Computing Group TPM 2.0 standard, is certified for security according to Common Criteria and is qualified in accordance with the automotive standard AEC-Q100.

Side by side with driverless vehicle innovations, there’s no doubt that infotainment systems represent one of the most dynamic subsets of today’s automotive systems design. MCU vendors offer a variety of chip and software solutions addressing all the different pieces of car infotainment requirements from display interfacing to connectivity to security. Circuit Cellar will continue to follow these developments. And later this year, we’ll take a look specifically at MCU solutions aimed at enabling driverless vehicles and assisted driving technologies.

RESOURCES

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Microchip | www.microchip.com
OpenSynergy | www.opensynergy.com
Renesas Electronics America | www.renesas.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

Read the February 343 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

January has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
ICs for Consumer Electronics (1/28)  Today’;s consumer electronic product designs demand ICs that enable low-power, high-functionality and cutthroat costs. Today’;s microcontroller, analog IC and power chip vendors are laser-focused on this lucrative, high-stakes market. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in for consumer electronics ICs.

Analog & Power. (2/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (2/12) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (2/19) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

February Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The February issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is coming soon. We’ve raised up a bumper crop of in-depth embedded electronics articles just for you, and packed ’em into our 84-page magazine.

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Here’s a sneak preview of February 2019 Circuit Cellar:

MCUs ARE EVERYWHERE, DOING EVERYTHING

Electronics for Automotive Infotainment
As automotive dashboard displays get more sophisticated, information and entertainment are merging into so-called infotainment systems. That’s driving a need for powerful MCU- and MPU-based solutions that support the connectivity, computing and interfacing needs particular to these system designs. In this article, Circuit Cellar’s Editor-in-Chief, Jeff Child, looks at the technology and trends feuling automotive infotainment.

Inductive Sensing with PSoC MCUs
Inductive sensing is shaping up to be the next big thing for touch technology. It’s suited for applications involving metal-over-touch situations in automotive, industrial and other similar systems. In his article, Nishant Mittal explores the science and technology of inductive sensing. He then describes a complete system design, along with firmware, for an inductive sensing solution based on Cypress Semiconductor’s PSoC microcontroller.

Build a Self-Correcting LED Clock
In North America, most radio-controlled clocks use WWVB’s transmissions to set the correct time. WWVB is a Colorado-based time signal radio station near. Learn how Cornell graduates Eldar Slobodyan and Jason Ben Nathan designed and built a prototype of a Digital WWVB Clock. The project’s main components include a Microchip PIC32 MCU, an external oscillator and a display.

WE’VE GOT THE POWER

Product Focus: ADCs and DACs
Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are two of the key IC components that enable digital systems to interact with the real world. Makers of analog ICs are constantly evolving their DAC and ADC chips pushing the barriers of resolution and speeds. This new Product Focus section updates readers on this technology and provides a product album of representative ADC and DAC products.

Building a Generator Control System
Three phase electrical power is a critical technology for heavy machinery. Learn how US Coast Guard Academy students Kent Altobelli and Caleb Stewart built a physical generator set model capable of producing three phase electricity. The article steps through the power sensors, master controller and DC-DC conversion design choices they faced with this project.

EMBEDDED COMPUTING FOR YOUR SYSTEM DESIGN

Non-Standard Single Board Computers
Although standard-form factor embedded computers provide a lot of value, many applications demand that form take priority over function. That’s where non-standard boards shine. The majority of non-standard boards tend to be extremely compact, and well suited for size-constrained system designs. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest technology trends and product developments in non-standard SBCs.

Thermal Management in machine learning
Artificial intelligence and machine learning continue to move toward center stage. But the powerful processing they require is tied to high power dissipation that results in a lot of heat to manage. In his article, Tom Gregory from 6SigmaET explores the alternatives available today with a special look at cooling Google’s Tensor Processor Unit 3.0 (TPUv3) which was designed with machine learning in mind.

… AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS

Bluetooth Mesh (Part 1)
Wireless mesh networks are being widely deployed in a wide variety of settings. In this article, Bob Japenga begins his series on Bluetooth mesh. He starts with defining what a mesh network is, then looks at two alternatives available to you as embedded systems designers.

Implementing Time Technology
Many embedded systems need to make use of synchronized time information. In this article, Jeff Bachiochi explores the history of time measurement and how it’s led to NTP and other modern technologies for coordinating universal date and time. Using Arduino and the Espressif System’s ESP32, Jeff then goes through the steps needed to enable your embedded system to request, retrieve and display the synchronized date and time to a display.

Infrared Sensors
Infrared sensing technology has broad application ranging from motion detection in security systems to proximity switches in consumer devices. In this article, George Novacek looks at the science, technology and circuitry of infrared sensors. He also discusses the various types of infrared sensing technologies and how to use them.

The Art of Voltage Probing
Using the right tool for the right job is a basic tenant of electronics engineering. In this article, Robert Lacoste explores one of the most common tools on an engineer’s bench: oscilloscope probes, and in particular the voltage measurement probe. He looks and the different types of voltage probes as well as the techniques to use them effectively and safely.

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

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You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(1/22) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

January has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
ICs for Consumer Electronics (1/28)  Today’;s consumer electronic product designs demand ICs that enable low-power, high-functionality and cutthroat costs. Today’;s microcontroller, analog IC and power chip vendors are laser-focused on this lucrative, high-stakes market. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in for consumer electronics ICs

Analog & Power. (2/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (2/12) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Tool Extension Enables Neural Networking on STM32 MCUs

STMicroelectronics has extended its STM32CubeMX ecosystem by adding advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) features.  AI uses trained artificial neural networks to classify data signals from motion and vibration sensors, environmental sensors, microphones and image sensors, more quickly and efficiently than conventional handcrafted signal processing. With STM32Cube.AI, developers can now convert pre-trained neural networks into C-code that calls functions in optimized libraries that can run on STM32 MCUs.
STM32Cube.AI comes together with ready-to-use software function packs that include example code for human activity recognition and audio scene classification. These code examples are immediately usable with the ST SensorTile reference board and the ST BLE Sensor mobile app. Additional support such as engineering services is available for developers through qualified partners inside the ST Partner Program and the dedicated AI and Machine Learning (ML) STM32 online community. ST will demonstrate applications developed using STM32Cube.AI running on STM32 MCUs this week in a private suite at CES, the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 8-12.

The STM32Cube.AI extension pack can be downloaded inside ST’s STM32CubeMX MCU configuration and software code-generation ecosystem. Today, the tool supports Caffe, Keras (with TensorFlow backend), Lasagne, ConvnetJS frameworks and IDEs including those from Keil, IAR and System Workbench.

The FP-AI-SENSING1 software function pack provides examples of code to support end-to-end motion (human-activity recognition) and audio (audio-scene classification) applications based on neural networks. This function pack leverages ST’s SensorTile reference board to capture and label the sensor data before the training process. The board can then run inferences of the optimized neural network. The ST BLE Sensor mobile app acts as the SensorTile’s remote control and display.

The comprehensive toolbox consisting of the STM32Cube.AI mapping tool, application software examples running on small-form-factor, battery-powered SensorTile hardware, together with the partner program and dedicated community support offers a fast and easy path to neural-network implementation on STM32 devices.

STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

 

Tuesday’s Newsletter: Microcontroller Watch

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Microcontroller Watch newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

IoT Technology Focus. (1/15) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(1/22) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

January has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
ICs for Consumer Electronics (1/28)  Today’;s consumer electronic product designs demand ICs that enable low-power, high-functionality and cutthroat costs. Today’;s microcontroller, analog IC and power chip vendors are laser-focused on this lucrative, high-stakes market. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in for consumer electronics ICs.

Analog & Power. (2/5) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

32-bit MCUs Optimized for Motor Control in Robotics and More

Renesas Electronics has unveiled the RX66T Group of microcontrollers (MCUs). The chips are the first members of Renesas’ flagship 32-bit RX MCU family based on the new third-generation RXv3 CPU core. The new MCUs leverage advanced CPU core technology to achieve substantially improved performance, as much as 2.5 times better than previous RX family MCUs.

Combining the powerful new RXv3 core with the strengths of the current RX62T and RX63T MCUs, the new RX66T MCUs address the real-time performance and enhanced stability required by inverter control. The new MCUs are ideal for use in industrial applications in next-generation smart factory equipment, such as industrial motors, power conditioners and robots, as well as smart home appliances, including air conditioners and washing machines.
When operating at 160 MHz, the RX66T MCUs achieve best-in-class performance of 928 CoreMark 2, enabling more precise inverter control. The MCUs can control up to four motors simultaneously, making them well-suited for conventional motor control and applications requiring multi-axis motor control, such as compact industrial robots and personal robots, which are quickly growing in popularity.

In addition, the RX66T’s extra processing capacity allows developers to add programs utilizing embedded AI (e-AI) for motor fault detection. Such programs can detect motor faults and identify fault location in real time based on the motor’s current or vibration characteristics. Providing this capability offers developers the significant value-add of productivity, safety, and quality. The RX66T MCUs also integrate a 5V power supply that delivers excellent noise tolerance.

With more and more devices ranging from robots and power conditioners to washers and dryers joining the Internet of Things, motorized devices in the field will require online firmware updates throughout their life cycles. Applying e-AI for predictive failure diagnostics requires endpoint MCUs to be securely updated with learning results generated in the cloud. The RX66T MCU Group incorporates Renesas’ Trusted Secure IP (TSIP), which has a track record of CAVP certification3 and provides secure firmware updates and encrypted communication.

Key Features of the RX66T MCU Group:

  • Supports inverter control with a maximum operating frequency of 160 MHz, 928 CoreMark, on-chip floating point-unit (FPU), and 5V power supply
  • High-speed flash memory with 120 MHz maximum read operation to reduce speed differential with the CPU and realize both high performance and a consistent execution
  • Reduces footprint and component count by generating three-phase complementary pulse width modulation (PWM) output for up to four motors using 112-pin and 144-pin package MCUs, and up to three motors using 64-pin, 80-pin and 100-pin package MCUs
  • Configurations available with 16 KB of error correction code (ECC) SRAM, and up to 128 KB of SRAM with single-cycle access and single-bit error detection (parity checking) for high reliability
  • Ability to generate high-resolution PWM signals with a minimum state change duration of 195 picoseconds (1.6 times better than existing RX products) for power conditioner or digital power supply control applications
  • Renesas’ Trusted Secure IP (TSIP) provides secure firmware updates and encrypted communication with a track record of CAVP certification

The Renesas Motor Workbench 2.0 supports 20kHz real-time debugging and adds 10 new functions and an RX66T CPU card for the 24V Motor Control Evaluation Kit are available now.

The new RX66T Group comprises 80 MCUs with pin counts ranging from 64 to 144 pins and on-chip flash memory sizes of 256 KB to 1,024 KB. Mass production starts today for the widely used 100-pin package MCU with 256 KB or 512 KB of program flash and 64 KB of SRAM. Other MCU versions will release over time. Pricing for the RX66T MCU Group starts at $3.25 per unit in 10,000-unit quantities.

Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com