March Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The March issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is coming soon. And we’ve got a healthy serving of embedded electronics articles for you. Here’s a sneak peak.

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Here’s a sneak preview of March 2018 Circuit Cellar:

TECHNOLOGY FOR THE INTERNET-OF-THINGS

IoT: From Device to Gateway
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most dynamic areas of embedded systems design today. This feature focuses on the technologies and products from edge IoT devices up to IoT gateways. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines the wireless technologies, sensors, edge devices and IoT gateway technologies at the center of this phenomenon.

Texting and IoT Embedded Devices
Texting has become a huge part of our daily lives. But can texting be leveraged for use in IoT Wi-Fi devices? Jeff Bachiochi lays the groundwork for describing a project that will involve texting. In this part, he gets into out the details for getting started with a look at Espressif System’s ESP8266EX SoC.

Exploring the ESP32’s Peripheral Blocks
What makes an embedded processor suitable as an IoT or home control device? Wi-Fi support is just part of the picture. Brian Millier has done some Wi-Fi projects using the ESP32, so here he shares his insights about the peripherals on the ESP32 and why they’re so powerful.

MICROCONTROLLERS HERE, THERE & EVERYWHERE

Designing a Home Cleaning Robot (Part 4)
In this final part of his four-part article series about building a home cleaning robot, Nishant Mittal discusses the firmware part of the system and gets into the system’s actual operation. The robot is based on Cypress Semiconductor’s PSoC microcontroller.

Apartment Entry System Uses PIC32
Learn how a Cornell undergraduate built a system that enables an apartment resident to enter when keys are lost or to grant access to a guest when there’s no one home. The system consists of a microphone connected to a Microchip PIC32 MCU that controls a push solenoid to actuate the unlock button.

Posture Corrector Leverages Bluetooth
Learn how these Cornell students built a posture corrector that helps remind you to sit up straight. Using vibration and visual cues, this wearable device is paired with a phone app and makes use of Bluetooth and Microchip PIC32 technology.

INTERACTING WITH THE ANALOG WORLD

Product Focus: ADCs and DACs
Makers of analog ICs are constantly evolving their DAC and ADC chips pushing the barriers of resolution and speeds. This new Product Focus section updates readers on this technology and provides a product album of representative ADC and DAC products.

Stepper Motor Waveforms
Using inexpensive microcontrollers, motor drivers, stepper motors and other hardware, columnist Ed Nisley built himself a Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machines. In this article Ed examines how the CNC’s stepper motors perform, then pushes one well beyond its normal limits.

Measuring Acceleration
Sensors are a fundamental part of what make smart machines smart. And accelerometers are one of the most important of these. In this article, George Novacek examines the principles behind accelerometers and how the technology works.

SOFTWARE TOOLS AND PROTOTYPING

Trace and Code Coverage Tools
Today it’s not uncommon for embedded devices to have millions of lines of software code. Trace and code coverage tools have kept pace with these demands making it easier for embedded developers to analyze, debug and verify complex embedded software. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest technology trends and product developments in trace and code coverage tools.

Manual Pick-n-Place Assembly Helper
Prototyping embedded systems is an important part of the development cycle. In this article, Colin O’Flynn presents an open-source tool that helps you assemble prototype devices by making the placement process even easier.

Quantum Leaps

Input Voltage

–Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

JeffHeadShot

Throughout my career, I’ve always been impressed by Intel’s involvement in a wide spectrum of computing and electronics technologies. These range from the mundane and practical on one hand, to forward-looking and disruptive advances on the other. A lot of these weren’t technologies for which Intel ever intended to take direct advantage of over the long term. I think a lot about how Intel facilitated the creation of and early advances in USB. Intel even sold USB chips in the first couple years of USB’s emergence, but stepped aside from that with the knowledge that their main focus was selling processors.

USB made computers and a myriad of consumer electronic devices better and easier to use, and that, Intel knew, advanced the whole industry in which their microprocessors thrived. Today, look around your home, your office and even your car and count the number of USB connectors there are. It’s pretty obvious that USB’s impact has been truly universal.

Aside from mainstream, practical solutions like USB, Intel also continues to participate in the most forward-looking compute technologies. Exemplifying that, in January at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) show in Las Vegas, Intel announced two major milestones in its efforts to develop future computing technologies. In his keynote address, Intel CEO Brian Krzanich announced the successful design, fabrication and delivery of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum test chip. The keynote also focused on the promise of neuromorphic computing.

In his speech, Krzanich explained that, just two months after delivery of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip, Intel that day unveiled “Tangle Lake,” a 49-qubit superconducting quantum test chip. The chip is named after a chain of lakes in Alaska, a nod to the extreme cold temperatures and the entangled state that quantum bits (or “qubits”) require to function.

According to Intel, achieving a 49-qubit test chip is an important milestone because it will allow researchers to assess and improve error correction techniques and simulate computational problems.

Krzanich predicts that quantum computing will solve problems that today might take our best supercomputers months or years to resolve, such as drug development, financial modeling and climate forecasting. While quantum computing has the potential to solve problems conventional computers can’t handle, the field is still nascent.

Mike Mayberry, VP and managing director of Intel Labs weighed in on the progress of the efforts. “We expect it will be 5 to 7 years before the industry gets to tackling engineering-scale problems, and it will likely require 1 million or more qubits to achieve commercial relevance,” said Mayberry.

Krzanich said the need to scale to greater numbers of working qubits is why Intel, in addition to investing in superconducting qubits, is also researching another type called spin qubits in silicon. Spin qubits could have a scaling advantage because they are much smaller than superconducting qubits. Spin qubits resemble a single electron transistor, which is similar in many ways to conventional transistors and potentially able to be manufactured with comparable processes. In fact, Intel has already invented a spin qubit fabrication flow on its 300-mm process technology.

At CES, Krzanich also showcased Intel’s research into neuromorphic computing—a new computing paradigm inspired by how the brain works that could unlock exponential gains in performance and power efficiency for the future of artificial intelligence. Intel Labs has developed a neuromorphic research chip, code-named “Loihi,” which includes circuits that mimic the brain’s basic operation.

While the concepts seem futuristic and abstract, Intel is thinking of the technology in terms of real-world uses. Intel says Neuromorphic chips could ultimately be used anywhere real-world data needs to be processed in evolving real-time environments. For example, these chips could enable smarter security cameras and smart-city infrastructure designed for real-time communication with autonomous vehicles. In the first half of this year, Intel plans to share the Loihi test chip with leading university and research institutions while applying it to more complex data sets and problems.

For me to compare quantum and neuromorphic computing to USB is as about as apples and oranges as you can get. But, who knows? When the day comes when quantum or neuromorphic chips are in our everyday devices, maybe my comparison won’t seem far-fetched at all.

This appears in the February (331) issue of Circuit Cellar magazine

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Skylake-Based SBC Runs on 15 Watts

VersaLogic has released the Condor—a high-performance embedded computer that measures only 95 mm x 95 mm x 37 mm and is built around Intel’s 6th generation “Skylake” Core processor. The Condor provides up to six times the processing power of Intel’s Bay Trail processors, while keeping power consumption as low as 15 Watts.The Condor’s on-board TPM security chip can lock out unauthorized hardware and software access. It provides a secure “Root of Trust.” Additional security is provided through built-in AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) instructions.

PR_EPU-4460_HICondor is the latest addition to VersaLogic’s line of EPU (Embedded Processing Unit) format computers. EPUs are designed around COM Express form factors, but are complete board-level computers. They provide all the future flexibility of separate CPU and I/O modules, and are delivered as complete fully assembled and tested units (including heat plate), ready to bolt into a system.

On-board I/O includes two Gbit Ethernet ports with network boot capability, two USB 3.0 ports, four USB 2.0 host ports and two serial ports. One SATA III interface supports high-capacity rotating or solid-state drives. Eight digital I/O lines, I2C and SPI are also available. Two Mini PCIe sockets (one with mSATA capabilities) provide flexible solid-state drive (SSD) options. Systems can be easily enhanced by leveraging the Mini PCIe sockets with plug-in Wi-Fi modems, GPS receivers, MIL-STD-1553, Ethernet, Firewire and other mini cards.

The Condor is designed and tested for industrial temperature (-40° to +85°C) operation and meets MIL-STD-202G specifications to withstand high impact and vibration. For additional reliability, the Condor includes on-board power conditioning which accepts an input of 8 to 30 volts to greatly simplify system power supply design. For additional protection, the conditioner includes Reverse Voltage Protection (RVP) and Over Voltage Protection (OVP) functions.

The Condor, part number VL-EPU-4460, is in stock now. OEM quantity pricing for starts at $1,304 for the Core i3 model with 8 GB RAM.

Versalogic | www.versalogic.com

Op Amp Features Ultra-High Precision

Texas Instruments (TI) has introduced an op amp that combines ultra-high precision with low supply current. The LPV821 zero-drift, nanopower op amp enables engineers to attain the highest DC precision, while consuming 60% less power than competitive zero-drift devices, according to TI. The LPV821 is designed for use in precision applications such as wireless sensing nodes, home and factory automation equipment, and portable electronics.

LS-First-Page

The LPV821 is a single-channel, nanopower, zero-drift operational amplifier for “Always ON” sensing applications in wireless and wired equipment where low input offset is required. With the combination of low initial offset, low offset drift, and 8 kHz of bandwidth from 650 nA of quiescent current, the LPV821 is the industry’s lowest power zero-drift amplifier that can be used for end equipment that monitor current consumption, temperature, gas, or strain gauges.

The LPV821 zero-drift op amp uses a proprietary auto-calibration technique to simultaneously provide low offset voltage (10 μV, maximum) and minimal drift over time and temperature. In addition to having low offset and ultra-low quiescent current, the LPV821 amplifier has pico-amp bias currents which reduce errors commonly introduced in applications monitoring sensors with high output impedance and amplifier configurations with megaohm feedback resistors.

Engineers can pair the LPV821 op amp with the TLV3691 nanopower comparator or ADS7142 nanopower analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to program a threshold that will automatically wake up a microcontroller (MCU) such as the CC1310 SimpleLink Sub-1 GHz MCU, further reducing system power consumption.

Designers can download the TINA-TI SPICE model to simulate their designs and predict circuit behavior when using the LPV821 op amp. Engineers can also jump-start gas-sensing system designs using the LPV821 op amp with the Always-On Low-Power Gas Sensing with 10+ Year Coin Cell Battery Life Reference Design and Micropower Electrochemical Gas Sensor Amplifier Reference Design.

Pre-production samples of the LPV821 op amp are now available through the TI store and authorized distributors in a 5-pin small-outline transistor (SOT-23) package. Pricing starts at $0.80 in 1,000-unit quantities.

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

The Quest for Extreme Low Power

Input Voltage

–Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

JeffHeadShot

Over the next couple years, power will clearly rank as a major design challenge for the myriad of edge devices deployed in Internet of Things (IoT) implementations. Such IoT devices are wireless units that need to be always on and connected. At the same time, they need low power consumption, while still being capable of doing the processing power needed to enable machine intelligence. The need for extreme low power in these devices goes beyond the need for long battery life. Instead the hope is for perpetually powered solutions providing uninterrupted operation—and, if possible, without any need for battery power. For their part, microcontroller vendors have been doing a lot in recent years within their own labs to craft extreme low power versions of their MCUs. But the appetite for low power at the IoT edge is practically endless.

Offering a fresh take on the topic, I recently spoke with Paul Washkewicz, vice president and co-founder of Eta Compute about the startup’s extreme low power technology for microcontrollers. The company claims to offer the lowest power MCU intellectual property (IP) available today, with voltages as low as 0.3 V. Eta Compute has developed and implemented a unique low power design methodology that delivers up to a 10x improvement in power efficiency. Its IP and custom designs operate over severe variations in conditions such as temperature, process, voltage and power supply variation. Eta Compute’s approach is a self-timed technology supporting dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) that is insensitive to process variations, inaccurate device models and path delay variations.

The technology has been implemented in a variety of chip functions. Among these are M0+ and M3 ARM cores scaling 0.3 V to 1.2 V operation with additional low voltage logic support functions such as real-time clocking (RTC), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and digital signal processing. The technology has also been implemented in an A-D converter sensor interface that consumes less than 5 µW. The company has also crafted an efficient power management device that supports dynamic voltage scaling down to 0.25 V with greater than 80% efficiency.

According to the company, Eta Compute’s technology can be implemented in any standard foundry process with no modifications to the process. This allows ease of adoption of any IP and is immune to delays and changes in process operations. Manufacturing is straightforward with the company’s IP able to port to technology nodes at any foundry. Last fall at ARM TechCon, David Baker, Ph.D. and Fellow at Eta Compute, did a presentation that included a demonstration of a small wireless sensor board that can operate perpetually on a small 1 square inch solar cell.

Attacking the problem from a different direction, another startup, Nikola Labs, is applying its special expertise in antenna design and advanced circuitry to build power harvesting into products ranging from wearables to sensors to battery-extending phone cases. Wi-Fi routers, mobile phones and other connected devices are continually emitting RF waves for communication. According to the company, radio wave power is strongest near the source—but devices transmit in all directions, saturating the surrounding area with stray waves. Nikola Labs’ high-performance, compact antennae capture this stray RF energy. Efficient electronics are then used to convert it into DC electricity that can be used to charge batteries or energize ultra-low power devices.

Nikola’s technology can derive usable energy from a wide band of frequencies, ranging from LTE (910 MHz) to Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) and beyond (up to 6 GHz). Microwatts of power can be harvested in an active ambient RF area and this can rise to milliwatts for harvesters placed directly on transmitting sources. Nikola Labs has demonstrated energy harvesting from a common source of RF communication waves: an iPhone. Nikola engineers designed a case for iPhone 6 that captures waste RF transmissions, producing up to 30 mW of power to extend battery life by as much as 16% without impacting the phone’s ability to send and receive data.

Whether you address the challenge of extreme low power from the inside out or the outside in—or by advancing battery capabilities—there’s no doubt that the demand for such technologies will only grow within the coming years. With all that in mind, I look forward to covering developments on this topic in Circuit Cellar throughout 2018.

This appears in the January (330) issue of Circuit Cellar magazine

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January Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The January issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is coming soon. And it’s got a robust selection of embedded electronics articles for you. Here’s a sneak peak.

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Here’s a sneak preview of January 2018 Circuit Cellar:

 

                                     IMPROVING EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGNS

Special Feature: Powering Commercial Drones
The amount of power a commercial drone can draw on has a direct effect on how long it can stay flying as well as on what tasks it can perform. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines solar cells, fuel cells and other technology options for powering commercial drones.

CC 330 CoverFPGA Design: A Fresh Take
Although FPGAs are well established technology, many embedded systems developers—particularly those used the microcontroller realm—have never used them before. In this article, Faiz Rahman takes a fresh look a FPGAs for those new to designing them into their embedded systems.

Product Focus: COM Express boards
COM Express boards provide a complete computing core that can be upgraded when needed, leaving the application-specific I/O on the baseboard. This brand new Product Focus section updates readers on this technology and provides a product album of representative COM Express products.

TESTING, TESTING, 1, 2, 3

LF Resonator Filter
In Ed Nisley’s November column he described how an Arduino-based tester automatically measures a resonator’s frequency response to produce data defining its electrical parameters. This time he examines the resultsand explains a tester modification to measure the resonator’s response with a variable series capacitance.

Technology Spotlight: 5G Technology and Testing
The technologies that are enabling 5G communications are creating new challenges for embedded system developers. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest digital and analog ICs aimed at 5G and at the test equipment designed to work with 5G technology.

                                     MICROCONTROLLERS IN EVERYTHING

MCU-based Platform Stabilizer
Using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), two 180-degree rotation servos and a Microchip PCI MCU, three Cornell students implemented a microcontroller-based platform stabilizer. Learn how they used a pre-programmed sensor fusion algorithm and I2C to get the most out of their design.

Designing a Home Cleaning Robot (Part 2)
Continuing on with this four-part article series about building a home cleaning robot, Nishant Mittal this time discusses the mechanical aspect of the design. The robot is based on Cypress Semiconductor’s PSoC microcontroller.

Massage Vest Uses PIC32 MCU
Microcontrollers are being used for all kinds of things these days. Learn how three Cornell graduates designed a low-cost massage vest that pairs seamlessly with a custom iOS app. Using the Microchip PIC32 for its brains, the massage vest has sixteen vibration motors that the user can control to create the best massage possible.

AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS:

Five Fault Injection Attacks
Colin O’Flynn returns to the topic of fault injection security attacks. To kick off 2018, he summarizes information about five different fault injection attack stories from 2017—attacks you should be thinking about as an embedded designer.

Money Sorting Machines (Part 2)
In part 1, Jeff Bachiochi delved into the interesting world of money sort machines and their evolution. In part 2, he discusses more details about his coin sorting project. He then looks at a typical bill validator implementation used in vending systems.

Overstress Protection
Last month George Novacek reviewed the causes and results of electrical overstress (EOS). Picking up where that left off, in this article he looks at how to prevent EOS/ESD induced damage—starting with choosing properly rated components.

Wearables Drive Low Power Demands

320 Wearablese Lead Image for Web

MCUs & Analog ICs Meet Needs

Wearable devices put extreme demands on the embedded electronics that make them work. Devices spanning across the consumer, fitness and medical markets all need a mix of low-power, low-cost and high-speed processing.

By Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

Designers of new wearable, connected devices are struggling to extend battery life for next-generation products, while at the same time increasing functionality and performance in smaller form factors. These devices include a variety of products such as smartwatches, physical activity monitors, heart rate monitors, smart headphones and more. The microcontrollers embedded in these devices must blend extreme low power with high integration. Meanwhile, analog and power solutions for wearables must likewise be highly integrated while serving up low quiescent currents.

Modern wearable electronic devices all share some common requirements. They have an extremely low budget for power consumption,. They tend not to be suited for replaceable batteries and therefore must be rechargeable. They also usually require some kind of wireless connectivity. To meet those needs chip vendors—primarily from the microcontroller and analog markets—keep advancing solutions that consume extremely low levels of power and manage that power. This technology vendors are tasked to keep up with a wearable device market that IDC forecasts will experience a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.4% in 2020.

MCU and BLE Combo

Following all those trends at once is Cypress Semiconductor’s PSoC 6 BLE. In September the company made its public release of the PSoC 6 BLE Pioneer Kit and PSoC Creator Integrated Design Environment (IDE) software version 4.2 that enable designers to begin developing with the PSoC 6. The PSoC 6 BLE is has built-in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) wireless connectivity and integrated hardware-based security.

Photo 1 The PSoC BLE Pioneer Kit features a PSoC 63 MCU with BLE connectivity. The kit enables development of modern touch and gesture-based interfaces that are robust and reliable with a linear slider, touch buttons and proximity sensors based using Cypress’ CapSense capacitive-sensing technology.

Photo 1
The PSoC BLE Pioneer Kit features a PSoC 63 MCU with BLE connectivity. The kit enables development of modern touch and gesture-based interfaces that are robust and reliable with a linear slider, touch buttons and proximity sensors based using Cypress’ CapSense capacitive-sensing technology.

According to Cypress, the company had more than 2,500 embedded engineer customers registering for the PSoC 6 BLE early adopter program in just a few months. Early adopters are using the flexible dual-core architecture of PSoC 6, using the ARM Cortex-M4 core as a host processor and the Cortex-M0+ core to manage peripheral functions such as capacitive sensing, BLE connectivity and sensor aggregation. Early adopter applications include wearables, personal medical devices, wireless speakers and more. Designers are also using the built-in security features in PSoC 6 to help guard against unwanted access to data.  …

Read the full article in the December 329 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

December Circuit Cellar: A Sneak Preview

The December issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is coming soon. Want a sneak peak? We’ve got a great selection of excellent embedded electronics articles for you.

Not a Circuit Cellar subscriber?  Don’t be left out! Sign up today:

 Here’s a sneak preview of December Circuit Cellar:

MICROCONTROLLERS IN MOTION

Special Feature: Electronics for Wearable Devices
Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines how today’s microcontrollers, sensors and power electronics enable today’s wearable products.

329 Cover Screen CapSimulating a Hammond Tonewheel Organ
(Part 2)

Brian Millier continues this two-part series about simulating the Hammond tonewheel organ using a microcontrollers and DACs. This time he examines a Leslie speaker emulation.

Money Sorting Machines (Part 1)
In this new article series, Jeff Bachiochi looks the science, mechanics and electronics that are key to sorting everything from coins to paper money. This month he discusses a project that uses microcontroller technology to sort coins.

Designing a Home Cleaning Robot (Part 1)
This four-part article series about building a home cleaning robot starts with Nishant Mittal discussing his motivations behind to his design concept, some market analysis and the materials needed.

SPECIAL SECTION: GRAPHICS AND VISION

Designing High Performance GUI
It’s critical to understand the types of performance problems a typical end-user might encounter and the performance metrics relevant to user interface (UI) design. Phil Brumby of Mentor’s Embedded Systems Division examines these and other important UI design challenges.

Building a Robotic Candy Sorter
Learn how a pair of Cornell graduates designed and constructed a robotic candy sort. It includes a three degree of freedom robot arm and a vision system using a Microchip PIC32 and Raspberry Pi module.

Raster Laser Projector Uses FPGA
Two Cornell graduates describe a raster laser projector they designed that’s able to project images in 320 x 240 in monochrome red. The laser’s brightness and mirrors positions are controlled by an FPGA and analog circuitry.

ELECTRICITY UNDER CONTROL

Technology Spotlight: Power-over-Ethernet Solutions
Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) enables the delivery of electric power alongside data on twisted pair Ethernet cabling. Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest chips, modules and other gear for building PoE systems.

Component Overstress
When an electronic component starts to work improperly, Two likely culprits are electrical overstress (EOS) and electrostatic discharge (ESD). In his article, George Novacek breaks down the important differences between the two and how to avoid their effects.

AND MORE FROM OUR EXPERT COLUMNISTS:

Writing the Proposal
In this conclusion to his “Building an Embedded Systems Consulting Company” article series, Bob Japenga takes a detailed look at how to craft a Statement of Work (SOW) that will lead to success and provide clarity for all stakeholders.

Information Theory in a Nutshell
Claude Shannon is credited as one of the pioneers of computer science thanks to his work on Information Theory, informing how data flows in electronic systems. In this article, Robert Lacoste provides a useful exploration of Information Theory in an easily digestible way.

Compact Power Management ICs Boast Low Standby Power

Maxim Integrated Products.offers a pair of power management ICs (PMICs) aimed at designers of Bluetooth headphones, activity monitors, smart garments, smartwatches, and other size-constrained devices where battery life and efficiency are priorities.

Maxim 9065

The MAX77650 and MAX77651 feature single inductor multiple output (SIMO) buck-boost regulators that provide three independently programmable power rails from a single inductor, 150mA LDO, and three current sink drivers to reduce overall component count and maximize available board space. For design flexibility, the MAX77650 operates up to 3.3V and the MAX77651 operates up to 5V—both include an analog multiplexer (MUX) output for safe battery monitoring, making them ideal for low-power designs.

Size is critical for hearables and wearables as they continue moving to smaller form factors. Most PMICs for these small, lithium-ion battery-operated devices require additional components, such as boost, buck, and low dropout (LDO) regulators; a charger; and current regulators for LED indicators. For space-savings and efficiency, Maxim has integrated all these functions into a complete power solution that is only 19.2mm2—less than 1/2 the size of existing component combinations.

Key Advantages

  • Lowest Standby Power: 0.3µA; 5.6µA operating current
  • High Efficiency: 3-output SIMO channels plus LDO extend Li+ battery life
  • Small Size: Multi-channel SIMO regulator reduces component count

Availability and Pricing

  • MAX77650/MAX77651 are available from stock and priced at $1.99 (1,000-up, FOB USA)
  • MAX77650EVKIT# and MAX77651EVKIT# are available from stock and priced at $193.63 each

Maxim Integrated Products.| www.maximintegrated.com

Zero-Drift Op Amp Consumes Only 1.3 μAmps

Analog Devices,  which recently acquired Linear Technology, has announced the LTC2063 zero-drift op amp which draws just 1.3μA typ (2μA max) on a 1.8V supply. This micropower amplifier maintains high precision: maximum input offset voltage is 5μV at 25°C, maximum drift is 0.06μV/°C from –40°C to 125°C. Maximum input bias current is 15pA at 25°C, and 100pA from –40°C to 125°C. These high precision input characteristics allow the use of large value feedback network resistors, keeping power consumption low without compromising accuracy, even at elevated temperature.

LTC2063

Rail-to-rail inputs and outputs simplify single supply use and enhance dynamic range. An integrated EMI filter provides 114dB electromagnetic interference rejection at 1.8GHz. With low 1/f noise inherent to its zero-drift architecture the LTC2063 is well suited for amplifying and conditioning low frequency sensor signals in high temperature industrial and automotive systems as well as portable and wireless sensor network applications.

The LTC2063 is available in SOT-23 and SC70 packages. The SC70 version includes a shutdown mode which reduces current consumption to just 90nA when the amplifier is not in use. This enables ultralow power duty cycled sensor applications. For example, a precision low duty cycle oxygen sensor circuit shown in the data sheet consumes less than 200nA average current.

The LTC2063 works well with Dust Networks’ SmartMesh wireless sensor networks, expanding the reach of precision measurements to places previously not practical. An example is the DC2369A wireless current sense reference board which uses the LTC2063 and LTP5901-IPM SmartMesh IP module and other micropower components to create an isolated floating current sense measurement platform which operates for years on small batteries.

The LTC2063 operates on supply voltages from 1.7V to 5.25V and is fully specified from –40°C to 125°C. Pricing starts at $1.50 each in 1,000-piece quantities.

Linear Technology | www.linear.com

Low Power NXP i.MX7 CPU Rides SMARC 2.0 Card

Kontron has introduced a new, extremely energy-efficient SMARC 2.0 module. Thanks to the use of low power NXP i.MX7 CPUs in both dual-core and single-core configurations the SMARC-sAMX7 is suitable for the development of smart devices in a very compact and fanless design. This approach, which balances processor and graphics performance while retaining a very low energy footprint, is especially useful in Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0 applications. The presence of two Ethernet ports directly on the board facilitates networking.

Kontron smarc-samx7_front_per

The SMARC-sAMX7 features a 2×1 GHz ARM Cortex A7 processor with an additional 200 MHz M4 processor in dual-core configuration, the single-core version runs at 800 MHz. It comes with up to 2 Gbytes DDR3 memory, a dual channel LVDS interface, up to two Gbit Ethernet, three PCI-Express (PCIe) and four USB 4.0 ports. A 64 Gbyte eMMC 5.0 is used as onboard storage. The SMARC-sAMX7 utilizes the Uboot bootloader and supports Yocto Linux as operating system. It is fully operational in an extended temperature range from -20°C up to +85°C.

Kontron | www.kontron.com

Small, Self-Contained GNSS Receiver

TM Series GNSS modules are self-contained, high-performance global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers designed for navigation, asset tracking, and positioning applications. Based on the MediaTek chipset, the receivers can simultaneously acquire and track several satellite constellations, including the US GPS, Europe’s GALILEO, Russia’s GLONASS, and Japan’s QZSS.

LinxThe 10-mm × 10-mm receivers are capable of better than 2.5-m position accuracy. Hybrid ephemeris prediction can be used to achieve less than 15-s cold start times. The receiver can operate down to 3 V and has a 20-mA low tracking current. To save power, the TM Series GNSS modules have built-in receiver duty cycling that can be configured to periodically turn off. This feature, combined with the module’s low power consumption, helps maximize battery life in battery-powered systems.

The receiver modules are easy to integrate, since they don’t require software setup or configuration to power up and output position data. The TM Series GNSS receivers use a standard UART serial interface to send and receive NMEA messages in ASCII format. A serial command set can be used to configure optional features. Using a USB or RS-232 converter chip, the modules’ UART can be directly connected to a microcontroller or a PC’s UART.

The GPS Master Development System connects a TM Series Evaluation Module to a prototyping board with a color display that shows coordinates, a speedometer, and a compass for mobile evaluation. A USB interface enables simple viewing of satellite data and Internet mapping and custom software application development.
Contact Linx Technologies for pricing.

Linx Technologies
www.linxtechnologies.com

Q&A: Marilyn Wolf, Embedded Computing Expert

Marilyn Wolf has created embedded computing techniques, co-founded two companies, and received several Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) distinctions. She is currently teaching at Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and researching smart-energy grids.—Nan Price, Associate Editor

NAN: Do you remember your first computer engineering project?

MARILYN: My dad is an inventor. One of his stories was about using copper sewer pipe as a drum memory. In elementary school, my friend and I tried to build a computer and bought a PCB fabrication kit from RadioShack. We carefully made the switch features using masking tape and etched the board. Then we tried to solder it and found that our patterning technology outpaced our soldering technology.

NAN: You have developed many embedded computing techniques—from hardware/software co-design algorithms and real-time scheduling algorithms to distributed smart cameras and code compression. Can you provide some information about these techniques?

Marilyn Wolf

Marilyn Wolf

MARILYN: I was inspired to work on co-design by my boss at Bell Labs, Al Dunlop. I was working on very-large-scale integration (VLSI) CAD at the time and he brought in someone who designed consumer telephones. Those designers didn’t care a bit about our fancy VLSI because it was too expensive. They wanted help designing software for microprocessors.

Microprocessors in the 1980s were pretty small, so I started on simple problems, such as partitioning a specification into software plus a hardware accelerator. Around the turn of the millennium, we started to see some very powerful processors (e.g., the Philips Trimedia). I decided to pick up on one of my earliest interests, photography, and look at smart cameras for real-time computer vision.

That work eventually led us to form Verificon, which developed smart camera systems. We closed the company because the market for surveillance systems is very competitive.
We have started a new company, SVT Analytics, to pursue customer analytics for retail using smart camera technologies. I also continued to look at methodologies and tools for bigger software systems, yet another interest I inherited from my dad.

NAN: Tell us a little more about SVT Analytics. What services does the company provide and how does it utilize smart-camera technology?

MARILYN: We started SVT Analytics to develop customer analytics for software. Our goal is to do for bricks-and-mortar retailers what web retailers can do to learn about their customers.

On the web, retailers can track the pages customers visit, how long they stay at a page, what page they visit next, and all sorts of other statistics. Retailers use that information to suggest other things to buy, for example.

Bricks-and-mortar stores know what sells but they don’t know why. Using computer vision, we can determine how long people stay in a particular area of the store, where they came from, where they go to, or whether employees are interacting with customers.

Our experience with embedded computer vision helps us develop algorithms that are accurate but also run on inexpensive platforms. Bad data leads to bad decisions, but these systems need to be inexpensive enough to be sprinkled all around the store so they can capture a lot of data.

NAN: Can you provide a more detailed overview of the impact of IC technology on surveillance in recent years? What do you see as the most active areas for research and advancements in this field?

MARILYN: Moore’s law has advanced to the point that we can provide a huge amount of computational power on a single chip. We explored two different architectures: an FPGA accelerator with a CPU and a programmable video processor.

We were able to provide highly accurate computer vision on inexpensive platforms, about $500 per channel. Even so, we had to design our algorithms very carefully to make the best use of the compute horsepower available to us.

Computer vision can soak up as much computation as you can throw at it. Over the years, we have developed some secret sauce for reducing computational cost while maintaining sufficient accuracy.

NAN: You wrote several books, including Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design and Embedded Software Design and Programming of Multiprocessor System-on-Chip: Simulink and System C Case Studies. What can readers expect to gain from reading your books?

MARILYN: Computers as Components is an undergraduate text. I tried to hit the fundamentals (e.g., real-time scheduling theory, software performance analysis, and low-power computing) but wrap around real-world examples and systems.

Embedded Software Design is a research monograph that primarily came out of Katalin Popovici’s work in Ahmed Jerraya’s group. Ahmed is an old friend and collaborator.

NAN: When did you transition from engineering to teaching? What prompted this change?

MARILYN: Actually, being a professor and teaching in a classroom have surprisingly little to do with each other. I spend a lot of time funding research, writing proposals, and dealing with students.

I spent five years at Bell Labs before moving to Princeton, NJ. I thought moving to a new environment would challenge me, which is always good. And although we were very well supported at Bell Labs, ultimately we had only one customer for our ideas. At a university, you can shop around to find someone interested in what you want to do.

NAN: How long have you been at Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering? What courses do you currently teach and what do you enjoy most about instructing?

MARILYN: I recently designed a new course, Physics of Computing, which is a very different take on an introduction to computer engineering. Instead of directly focusing on logic design and computer organization, we discuss the physical basis of delay and energy consumption.

You can talk about an amazingly large number of problems involving just inverters and RC circuits. We relate these basic physical phenomena to systems. For example, we figure out why dynamic RAM (DRAM) gets bigger but not faster, then see how that has driven computer architecture as DRAM has hit the memory wall.

NAN: As an engineering professor, you have some insight into what excites future engineers. With respect to electrical engineering and embedded design/programming, what are some “hot topics” your students are currently attracted to?

MARILYN: Embedded software—real-time, low-power—is everywhere. The more general term today is “cyber-physical systems,” which are systems that interact with the physical world. I am moving slowly into control-oriented software from signal/image processing. Closing the loop in a control system makes things very interesting.

My Georgia Tech colleague Eric Feron and I have a small project on jet engine control. His engine test room has a 6” thick blast window. You don’t get much more exciting than that.

NAN: That does sound exciting. Tell us more about the project and what you are exploring with it in terms of embedded software and closed-loop control systems.

MARILYN: Jet engine designers are under the same pressures now that have faced car engine designers for years: better fuel efficiency, lower emissions, lower maintenance cost, and lower noise. In the car world, CPU-based engine controllers were the critical factor that enabled car manufacturers to simultaneously improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

Jet engines need to incorporate more sensors and more computers to use those sensors to crunch the data in real time and figure out how to control the engine. Jet engine designers are also looking at more complex engine designs with more flaps and controls to make the best use of that sensor data.

One challenge of jet engines is the high temperatures. Jet engines are so hot that some parts of the engine would melt without careful design. We need to provide more computational power while living with the restrictions of high-temperature electronics.

NAN: Your research interests include embedded computing, smart devices, VLSI systems, and biochips. What types of projects are you currently working on?

MARILYN: I’m working on with Santiago Grivalga of Georgia Tech on smart-energy grids, which are really huge systems that would span entire countries or continents. I continue to work on VLSI-related topics, such as the work on error-aware computing that I pursued with Saibal Mukopodhyay.

I also work with my friend Shuvra Bhattacharyya on architectures for signal-processing systems. As for more unusual things, I’m working on a medical device project that is at the early stages, so I can’t say too much specifically about it.

NAN: Can you provide more specifics about your research into smart energy grids?

MARILYN: Smart-energy grids are also driven by the push for greater efficiency. In addition, renewable energy sources have different characteristics than traditional coal-fired generators. For example, because winds are so variable, the energy produced by wind generators can quickly change.

The uses of electricity are also more complex, and we see increasing opportunities to shift demand to level out generation needs. For example, electric cars need to be recharged, but that can happen during off-peak hours. But energy systems are huge. A single grid covers the eastern US from Florida to Minnesota.

To make all these improvements requires sophisticated software and careful design to ensure that the grid is highly reliable. Smart-energy grids are a prime example of Internet-based control.

We have so many devices on the grid that need to coordinate that the Internet is the only way to connect them. But the Internet isn’t very good at real-time control, so we have to be careful.

We also have to worry about security Internet-enabled devices enable smart grid operations but they also provide opportunities for tampering.

NAN: You’ve earned several distinctions. You were the recipient of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Circuits and Systems Society Education Award and the IEEE Computer Society Golden Core Award. Tell us about these experiences.

MARILYN: These awards are presented at conferences. The presentation is a very warm, happy experience. Everyone is happy. These things are time to celebrate the field and the many friends I’ve made through my work.

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