Dual-Channel 3G-SDI Video/Audio Capture Card

ADLINK PCIe-2602

ADLINK PCIe-2602 Video/Audio Capture Card

The PCIe-2602 is an SDI video/audio capture card that supports all SD/HD/3G-SDI signals and operates at six times the resolution of regular VGA connections. The card also provides video quality with lossless full color YUV 4:4:4 images for sharp, clean images.

The PCIe-2602 is well suited for medical imaging and intelligent video surveillance and analytics. With up to 12-bit pixel depth, the card  provides extreme image clarity and smoother transitions from color-to-color enhance image detail to support critical medical imaging applications, including picture archiving and communication system (PACS) endoscopy and broadcasting.

The card’s features include low latency uncompressed video streaming, CPU offloading, and support for high-quality live viewing for video analytics of real-time image acquisition, as required in casino and defense environments. PCIe-2602 signals can be transmitted over 100 m when combined with a 75-Ω coaxial cable.

The PCIe-2602 is equipped with RS-485 and digital I/O. It accommodates external devices (e.g., PTZ cameras and sensors) and supports Windows 7/XP OSes. The card comes with ADLINK’s ViewCreator Pro utility to enable setup, configuration, testing, and system debugging without any software programming. All ADLINK drivers are compatible with Microsoft DirectShow.

Contact ADLINK for pricing.

ADLINK Technology, Inc.
www.adlinktech.com

CC269: Break Through Designer’s Block

Are you experiencing designer’s block? Having a hard time starting a new project? You aren’t alone. After more than 11 months of designing and programming (which invariably involved numerous successes and failures), many engineers are simply spent. But don’t worry. Just like every other year, new projects are just around the corner. Sooner or later you’ll regain your energy and find yourself back in action. Plus, we’re here to give you a boost. The December issue (Circuit Cellar 269) is packed with projects that are sure to inspire your next flurry of innovation.

Turn to page 16 to learn how Dan Karmann built the “EBikeMeter” Atmel ATmega328-P-based bicycle computer. He details the hardware and firmware, as well as the assembly process. The monitoring/logging system can acquire and display data such as Speed/Distance, Power, and Recent Log Files.

The Atmel ATmega328-P-based “EBikeMeter” is mounted on the bike’s handlebar.

Another  interesting project is Joe Pfeiffer’s bell ringer system (p. 26). Although the design is intended for generating sound effects in a theater, you can build a similar system for any number of other uses.

You probably don’t have to be coerced into getting excited about a home control project. Most engineers love them. Check out Scott Weber’s garage door control system (p. 34), which features a MikroElektronika RFid Reader. He built it around a Microchip Technology PIC18F2221.

The reader is connected to a breadboard that reads the data and clock signals. It’s built with two chips—the Microchip 28-pin PIC and the eight-pin DS1487 driver shown above it—to connect it to the network for testing. (Source: S. Weber, CC269)

Once considered a hobby part, Arduino is now implemented in countless innovative ways by professional engineers like Ed Nisley. Read Ed’s article before you start your next Arduino-related project (p. 44). He covers the essential, but often overlooked, topic of the Arduino’s built-in power supply.

A heatsink epoxied atop the linear regulator on this Arduino MEGA board helped reduce the operating temperature to a comfortable level. This is certainly not recommended engineering practice, but it’s an acceptable hack. (Source: E. Nisley, CC269)

Need to extract a signal in a noisy environment? Consider a lock-in amplifier. On page 50, Robert Lacoste describes synchronous detection, which is a useful way to extract a signal.

This month, Bob Japenga continues his series, “Concurrency in Embedded Systems” (p. 58). He covers “the mechanisms to create concurrently in your software through processes and threads.”

On page 64, George Novacek presents the second article in his series, “Product Reliability.” He explains the importance of failure rate data and how to use the information.

Jeff Bachiochi wraps up the issue with a article about using heat to power up electronic devices (p. 68). Fire and a Peltier device can save the day when you need to charge a cell phone!

Set aside time to carefully study the prize-winning projects from the Reneas RL78 Green Energy Challenge (p. 30). Among the noteworthy designs are an electrostatic cleaning robot and a solar energy-harvesting system.

Lastly, I want to take the opportunity to thank Steve Ciarcia for bringing the electrical engineering community 25 years of innovative projects, essential content, and industry insight. Since 1988, he’s devoted himself to the pursuit of EE innovation and publishing excellence, and we’re all better off for it. I encourage you to read Steve’s final “Priority Interrupt” editorial on page 80. I’m sure you’ll agree that there’s no better way to begin the next 25 years of innovation than by taking a moment to understand and celebrate our past. Thanks, Steve.

DIY 10.1˝ Touchscreen Home Control System

Domotics (home automation) control systems are among the most innovative and rewarding design projects creative electrical engineers can undertake. Let’s take a look at an innovative Beagle Board-based control system that enables a user to control lights with a 10.1˝ capacitive touchscreen.

Domotics control system

The design features the following modules:

• An I/O board for testing purposes
• An LED strip board for controlling an RGB LED strip
• A relay board for switching 230-VAC devices
• An energy meter for measuring on/off (and also for logging)

ELektor editor and engineer Clemens Valens recently interviewed Koen van Dongen about the design. Van Dongen describes the system’s electronics and then demonstrates how to use the touchscreen to control a light and LED strip.

As Valens explains suggests, it would be a worthwhile endeavor to incorporate a Wi-Fi connection to enable cellphone and tablet control. If you build such system, be sure to share it with our staff. Good luck!

CircuitCellar.com is an Elektor International Media website.

DIY Solar-Powered, Gas-Detecting Mobile Robot

German engineer Jens Altenburg’s solar-powered hidden observing vehicle system (SOPHECLES) is an innovative gas-detecting mobile robot. When the Texas Instruments MSP430-based mobile robot detects noxious gas, it transmits a notification alert to a PC, Altenburg explains in his article, “SOPHOCLES: A Solar-Powered MSP430 Robot.”  The MCU controls an on-board CMOS camera and can wirelessly transmit images to the “Robot Control Center” user interface.

Take a look at the complete SOPHOCLES design. The CMOS camera is located on top of the robot. Radio modem is hidden behind the camera so only the antenna is visible. A flexible cable connects the camera with the MSP430 microcontroller.

Altenburg writes:

The MSP430 microcontroller controls SOPHOCLES. Why did I need an MSP430? There are lots of other micros, some of which have more power than the MSP430, but the word “power” shows you the right way. SOPHOCLES is the first robot (with the exception of space robots like Sojourner and Lunakhod) that I know of that’s powered by a single lithium battery and a solar cell for long missions.

The SOPHOCLES includes a transceiver, sensors, power supply, motor
drivers, and an MSP430. Some block functions (i.e., the motor driver or radio modems) are represented by software modules.

How is this possible? The magic mantra is, “Save power, save power, save power.” In this case, the most important feature of the MSP430 is its low power consumption. It needs less than 1 mA in Operating mode and even less in Sleep mode because the main function of the robot is sleeping (my main function, too). From time to time the robot wakes up, checks the sensor, takes pictures of its surroundings, and then falls back to sleep. Nice job, not only for robots, I think.

The power for the active time comes from the solar cell. High-efficiency cells provide electric energy for a minimum of approximately two minutes of active time per hour. Good lighting conditions (e.g., direct sunlight or a light beam from a lamp) activate the robot permanently. The robot needs only about 25 mA for actions such as driving its wheel, communicating via radio, or takes pictures with its built in camera. Isn’t that impossible? No! …

The robot has two power sources. One source is a 3-V lithium battery with a 600-mAh capacity. The battery supplies the CPU in Sleep mode, during which all other loads are turned off. The other source of power comes from a solar cell. The solar cell charges a special 2.2-F capacitor. A step-up converter changes the unregulated input voltage into 5-V main power. The LTC3401 changes the voltage with an efficiency of about 96% …

Because of the changing light conditions, a step-up voltage converter is needed for generating stabilized VCC voltage. The LTC3401 is a high-efficiency converter that starts up from an input voltage as low as 1 V.

If the input voltage increases to about 3.5 V (at the capacitor), the robot will wake up, changing into Standby mode. Now the robot can work.

The approximate lifetime with a full-charged capacitor depends on its tasks. With maximum activity, the charging is used after one or two minutes and then the robot goes into Sleep mode. Under poor conditions (e.g., low light for a long time), the robot has an Emergency mode, during which the robot charges the capacitor from its lithium cell. Therefore, the robot has a chance to leave the bad area or contact the PC…

The control software runs on a normal PC, and all you need is a small radio box to get the signals from the robot.

The Robot Control Center serves as an interface to control the robot. Its main feature is to display the transmitted pictures and measurement values of the sensors.

Various buttons and throttles give you full control of the robot when power is available or sunlight hits the solar cells. In addition, it’s easy to make short slide shows from the pictures captured by the robot. Each session can be saved on a disk and played in the Robot Control Center…

The entire article appears in Circuit Cellar 147 2002. Type “solarrobot”  to access the password-protected article.

Propeller Games (P2): Game Logic

In the first part of this article series on Parallax Propeller-based gaming projects, I hooked up the hardware for the Hi/Lo game on a breadboard. Now I’ll write the game logic. The finished code is available here.

The power of the Propeller chip is in its multiple CPU cores. But you can do just fine with one processor, especially for a simple game like Hi/Lo. You program each of the processors in assembly or in the Parallax-invented SPIN high-level language. Assembly programs run blazingly fast directly in the CPU core. SPIN compiles to a binary format that is interpreted by the SPIN interpreter (written in assembly). The interpreter runs in the CPU core.

The CPU core is designed for speed, but it only has room for 512 instructions. The SPIN interpreter fetches your program byte by byte from shared RAM. Your code runs more slowly, but you have 32K of space to work with. I’ll use assembly in future projects, but SPIN is perfect for Hi/Lo.

A SPIN file is a collection of functions and data (shared by all functions in the file). The functions use local variables kept on a call stack. You break up your programming task into smaller functions that build on one another and call each other. You pass parameters to the functions and use the return values. It is all very similar to C programming though the syntax is different. The interpreter begins with the first function in your file no matter what you name it.

I started the project with a test “main” and the functions to control the Hi/Lo speaker, LEDs, and switches. 

This function plays a tone on the speaker (Source: C. Cantrell)

The “playTone” function generates a square wave on the speaker pin. The “cnt” register is a built-in 32-bit value that increments with every system clock. I run the prop stick full out with an 80-MHz clock configuration (5M-Hz crystal with a *16 internal multiplier). The “waitcnt” instruction puts the CPU to sleep until the system clock reaches the requested value. There are two waits in the loop that generates one clock cycle. Thus the generated frequency is roughly 40 MHz/freq. I say “roughly” because each instruction takes a little time to execute. The actual generated frequency is slightly less. There are much better ways to generate a precise square wave with the propeller hardware, but this is function is easy to understand, and it works fine for the simple Hi/Lo game.

The LED display is a collection of 14 segments and two dots that are turned on or off by writing a 1 or 0 to the Propeller port pins. The program use a look-up table that defines the various segment patterns to be shown.

The output pin bit patterns for numeric digits (Source: C. Cantrell)

The look-up table is defined in a data (DAT) section in the program. The SPIN language allows you to define binary constants with a “%” prefix. You can use the underscore (“_”) anywhere in any numeric constant to make it easier to read. The comment line just above the table shows how the segments map to bit positions in the propeller’s output register.

The “drawNumber” function displays a two digit value on the display. The function first divides the value by 10. The whole part (value/10) is the digit in the 10s place. The remainder (value//10) is the digit in the 1s place. The function looks up the separate patterns, ORs them together, and writes to the “outa” output register to toggle the lights.

I wrote LED functions to “drawBlank” (blank the display) and “drawHi” (show “Hi”) and “drawLo” (show “Lo”). These one-line functions are easy enough to code inline where they are used. But having the functions in distinct blocks makes the using code easier to understand and modify.

The functions to read the buttons return Boolean values: true if the switch is pressed or false if it is not. When a button is pressed, the corresponding input bit in “ina” goes to “1.” There are five buttons and five functions—one for each. There is also an “isAny” function to detect if any button is pressed.

The function returns "true" if a button is pressed. (Source: C. Cantrell)

The game itself has two distinct modes. The “splash” mode flashes “Hi/Lo” and waits for a player to press a button. This is an “attract” mode that draws players to the game. The “splash” function returns when a button has been pressed. The “playGame” function is the game logic. The function returns when the game is over. Thus the main loop simply calls the two functions in an infinite loop.

???????????. (Source: C. Cantrell)

The “splash” function calls “drawHi” and “drawLo” with a pause between.

The function attracts a player to the game. (Source: C. Cantrell)

The “pauseStopOnAnyButton” function counts up the delay and watches for “isAny”. It aborts the pause and returns true if a button is pressed. The “SPLASH_DELAY” is defined in the constant (“CON”) area of the program. I keep all “magic numbers” like delay counts and tone values in the CON area for easy tweaking.

The “playGame” function uses three helper functions: “getPlayerGuess,” “showWin,” and “showHint.” The “showWin” and “showHint” functions are just a couple of lines each and could be coded inline. Having them separate allows you to enhance the visual effects without changing the game logic code.

The “getPlayerGuess” does the real work of the game. It watches the buttons and changes the displayed number accordingly.

The function takes the player input. (Source: C. Cantrell)

The “getPlayerGuess” function is an infinite loop with five IF checks for each button. When the middle button is pressed the function returns with the global “playerGuess” variable holding the input value. The other buttons increment or decrement the digits on the display. Each IF block checks for overflow and plays a feedback tone.

There you have it: a simple Hi Lo game. The visual and input effects are in separate functions ready to be spruced up. I bet your solution has many more bells and whistles! I look forward to reading your ideas in the comments of this blog.

Next time I’ll wrap up the Hi Lo game with a little multitasking. I’ll write parallel programs to run in two new CPU cogs to manage sound effects and the LED display.

Chris Cantrell earned an MSEE from the University of Alabama. He writes Java and Flex for Emerson Network Power in Huntsville, Alabama. Circuit Cellar published 10 of his articles between 2002 and 2012: Issue 145, Issue 152, Issue 161, Issue 184, Issue 187, Issue 193, Issue 205, Issue 209, Issue 139, and Issue 260.