Wireless Data Links (Part 1)

In Circuit Cellar’s February issue, the Consummate Engineer column launches a multi-part series on wireless data links.

“Over the last two decades, wireless data communication devices have been entering the realm of embedded control,” columnist George Novacek says in Part 1 of the series. “The technology to produce reasonably priced, reliable, wireless data links is now available off the shelf and no longer requires specialized knowledge, experience, and exotic, expensive test equipment. Nevertheless, to use wireless devices effectively, an engineer should understand the principles involved.”

Radio communicationsPart 1 focuses on radio communications, in particular low-power, data-carrying wireless links used in control systems.

“Even with this limitation, it is a vast subject, the surface of which can merely be scratched,” Novacek says. “Today, we can purchase ready-made, low-power, reliable radio interface modules with excellent performance for an incredibly low price. These devices were originally developed for noncritical applications (e.g., garage door openers, security systems, keyless entry, etc.). Now they are making inroads into control systems, mostly for remote sensing and computer network data exchange. Wireless devices are already present in safety-related systems (e.g., remote tire pressure monitoring), to say nothing about their bigger and older siblings in remote control of space and military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).”

An engineering audience will find Novacek’s article a helpful overview of fundamental wireless communications principles and topics, including RF circuitry (e.g., inductor/capacitor, or LC, circuits), ceramic surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, frequency response, bandwidth, sensitivity, noise issues, and more.

Here is an article excerpt about bandwidth and achieving its ideal, rectangular shape:

“The bandwidth affects receiver selectivity and/or a transmitter output spectral purity. The selectivity is the ability of a radio receiver to reject all but the desired signal. Narrowing the bandwidth makes it possible to place more transmitters within the available frequency band. It also lowers the received noise level and increases the selectivity due to its higher Q. On the other hand, transmission of every signal but a non-modulated, pure sinusoid carrier—which, therefore, contains no information—requires a certain minimum bandwidth. The required bandwidth is determined by the type of modulation and the maximum modulating frequency.

“For example, AM radios carry maximum 5-kHz audio and, consequently, need 10-kHz bandwidth to accommodate the carrier with its two 5-kHz sidebands. Therefore, AM broadcast stations have to be spaced a minimum of 20 kHz apart. However, narrowing the bandwidth will lead to the loss of parts of the transmitted information. In a data-carrying systems, it will cause a gradual increase of the bit error rate (BER) until the data becomes useless. At that point, the bandwidth must be increased or the baud rate must be decreased to maintain reliable communications.

“An ideal bandwidth would have a shape of a rectangle, as shown in Figure 1 by the blue trace. Achieving this to a high degree with LC circuits can get quite complicated, but ceramic resonators used in modern receivers can deliver excellent, near ideal results.”

Figure 1: This is the frequency response and bandwidth of a parallel resonant LC circuit. A series circuit graph would be inverted.

Figure 1: This is the frequency response and bandwidth of a parallel resonant LC circuit. A series circuit graph would be inverted.

To learn more about control-system wireless links, check out the February issue now available for membership download or single-issue purchase. Part 2 in Novacek’s series discusses transmitters and antennas and will appear in our March issue.

CC279: What’s Ahead in the October Issue

Although we’re still in September, it’s not too early to be looking forward to the October issue already available online.

The theme of the issue is signal processing, and contributor Devlin Gualtieri offers an interesting take on that topic.

Gualtieiri, who writes a science and technology blog, looks at how to improve Improvig Microprocessor Audio microprocessor audio.

“We’re immersed in a world of beeps and boops,” Gualtieri says. “Every digital knick-knack we own, from cell phones to microwave ovens, seeks to attract our attention.”

“Many simple microprocessor circuits need to generate one, or several, audio alert signals,” he adds. “The designer usually uses an easily programmed square wave voltage as an output pin that feeds a simple piezoelectric speaker element. It works, but it sounds awful. How can microprocessor audio be improved in some simple ways?”

Gualtieri’s article explains how analog circuitry and sine waves are often a better option than digital circuitry and square waves for audio alert signals.

Another article that touches on signal processing is columnist Colin Flynn’s look at advanced methods of debugging an FPGA design. It’s the debut of his new column Programmable Logic in Practice.

“This first article introduces the use of integrated logic analyzers, which provide an internal view of your running hardware,” O’Flynn says. “My next article will continue this topic and show you how hardware co-simulation enables you to seamlessly split the verification between real hardware interfacing to external devices and simulated hardware on your computer.”

You can find videos and other material that complement Colin’s articles on his website.

Another October issue highlight is a real prize-winner. The issue features the first installment of a two-part series on the SunSeeker Solar Array Tracker, which won third SunSeekerplace in the 2012 DesignSpark chipKit challenge overseen by Circuit Cellar.

The SunSeeker, designed by Canadian Graig Pearen, uses a Microchip Technology chipKIT Max32 and tracks, monitors, and adjusts PV arrays based on weather and sky conditions. It measures PV and air temperature, compiles statistics, and communicates with a local server that enables the SunSeeker to facilitate software algorithm development. Diagnostic software monitors the design’s motors to show both movement and position.

Pearen, semi-retired from the telecommunications industry and a part-time solar technician, is still refining his original design.

“Over the next two to three years of development and field testing, I plan for it to evolve into a full-featured ‘bells-and-whistles’ solar array tracker,” Pearen says. “I added a few enhancements as the software evolved, but I will develop most of the additional features later.”

Walter Krawec, a PhD student studying Computer Science at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, wraps up his two-part series on “Experiments in Developmental Robotics.”

In Part 1, he introduced readers to the basics of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in robots and outlined an architecture for a robot’s evolving neural network, short-term memory system, and simple reflexes and instincts. In Part 2, Krawec discusses the reflex and instinct system that rewards an ENN.

“I’ll also explain the ‘decision path’ system, which rewards/penalizes chains of actions,” he says. “Finally, I’ll describe the experiments we’ve run demonstrating this architecture in a simulated environment.”

Videos of some of Krawec’s robot simulations can be found on his website.

Speaking of robotics, in this issue columnist Jeff Bachiochi introduces readers to the free robot control programming language RobotBASIC and explains how to use it with an integrated simulator for robot communication.

Other columnists also take on a number of very practical subjects. Robert Lacoste explains how inexpensive bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) can be helpful in many designs and outlines how to use one to build an amplifier.

George Novacek, who has found that the cost of battery packs account for half the DIY Battery Chargerpurchase price of his equipment, explains how to build a back-up power source with a lead-acid battery and a charger.

“Building a good battery charger is easy these days because there are many ICs specifically designed for battery chargers,” he says.

Columnist Bob Japenga begins a new series looking at file systems available on Linux for embedded systems.

“Although you could build a Linux system without a file system, most Linux systems will have some sort of file system,” Japenga says. “And there are various types. There are files systems that do not retain their data (volatile) across power outages (i.e., RAM drives). There are nonvolatile read-only file systems that cannot be changed (e.g., CRAMFS). And there are nonvolatile read/write file systems.”

Linux provides all three types of file systems, Japenga says, and his series will address all of them.

Finally, the magazine offers some special features, including an interview with Alenka Zajić, who teaches signal processing and electromagnetics at Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Also, two North Carolina State University researchers write about advances in 3-D liquid metal printing and possible applications such as electrical wires that can “heal” themselves after being severed.

For more, check out the Circuit Cellar’s October issue.



Build a Simple Dedicated Tester

Whether you’re planning a small controller for your own use or an electronic device for mass production, you need to keep “testability” in mind. So, it’s a good idea to make a dedicated tester for your product part of its initial design.

Such a tester can ensure your device is functioning smoothly in your workshop—before it ships to a customer.

A dedicated tester (with the white panel) simulates inputs and loads for an embedded controller. A breakout box (with the red terminals on the panel) allows access to every interface line.

In the upcoming May issue of Circuit Cellar, columnist and engineer George Novacek discusses how to build a simple and inexpensive dedicated tester for a product.

“According to old engineering wisdom, every new project should begin with test design,” Novacek says in his column. “If you don’t follow this advice, your product may have features that are too awkward, too time-consuming, or impossible to test. You always need to keep testability in mind. Ultimately, it improves reliability, reduces manufacturing cost, minimizes field returns, speeds up production, and reduces the cost of repairs.”

Engineers certainly have access to a broad range of general testing equipment, from oscilloscopes to signal generators and analyzers.

“While these instruments are sufficient for testing, working with them solely may be slow and cumbersome,” Novacek says. “Imagine an embedded controller with a number of input and output devices, all of which need to be monitored while different signals are injected for the test. That’s where the dedicated tester comes in. Companies with deep pockets can purchase various types of automatic test equipment (ATE), but this may be too expensive for a small operation. Or, it may not be practical because of the complex setup for a low-volume production. Building a dedicated, inexpensive tester can solve the problem by ensuring an efficient and repeatable test.”

Check out the May issue of Circuit Cellar for more of Novacek’s guidance on why and how you should build a dedicated tester.

Novacek plans to continue examining product testability in upcoming issues, addressing topics that include the design of hardware and software that enables a product to be efficiently tested.