Multiband 4G LTE-Only Modules

The TOBY-L1 series is u-blox’s latest line of ultra-compact long-term evolution (LTE) modules. The TOBY-L100 and its European version, the TOBY-L110, are suitable for tablets, mobile routers, set-top boxes, and high-speed machine-to-machine (M2M) applications (e.g., digital signage, mobile health, and security systems).

Compared with multi-mode modules, LTE-only modules offer cost advantages. Therefore, the TOBY-L1 works well in networks with advanced LTE deployment applications.

The LTE modules are available in two versions: the TOBY-L100 for the US (bands 4 and 13 for Verizon) and the TOBY-L110 for Europe (bands 3, 7, and 20 for EU operators). Contained in a compact 152-pin LGA module, the TOBY-L1 series is layout-compatible with u-blox’s SARA Global System for Mobile (GSM) and LISA Universal Mobile Telecommunications System/Code Division Multiple Access (UMTS/CDMA) module series to facilitate easy product migration and low-cost regional end-device adaptation.

The TOBY-L1 modules are based on u-blox’s LTE protocol stack. The modules support smooth migration between 2G, 3G, and 4G technologies and feature small packaging and comprehensive support tools. The TOBY-L1 LGA modules measure 2.8 mm × 24.8 mm × 35.6 mm, which enables them to easily mount on any application board.

The modules support USB 2.0 and firmware update over the air (FOTA) technology. The TOBY-L1 series delivers ultra-fast data rates and operates from –40°C to 85°C. USB drivers for Windows XP and 7 plus Radio Interface Layer (RIL) software for Android 4.0 and 4.2 are available free of charge.

Contact u-blox for pricing.

u-blox
www.u-blox.com

Great Plains Super Launch 2013

 

Pella, IA — Spectators, visitors and participants alike all erupted into cheerful applause and exclamation after watching the weather balloons launch successfully from the launch site at Vermeer on Saturday. The onlookers observed these hydrogen/helium filled balloons rising into the air until they faded from sight, approaching extremely high altitudes.  The launch was the start of an hour and a half that the balloon spent ascending, all the way into the Earth’s ozone layer.  Another thirty five or forty minutes later the balloon popped and parachutes back to Earth.

The balloons enable us to explore the region of the atmosphere called “near space”, which is above 60,000 ft., but below the accepted altitude of space- 328,000 ft. Cosmic radiation of near space is 100 times greater than it is at sea level. The large balloons are attached to a payload, which contains GPS tracking and various sensors. The payloads contain beacons which emit radio signals. Many of the payloads in this year’s super launch were made by students dedicated to exploring near space.

This sort of active involvement is what PENS strives for. PENS is Pella’s Exploring Near Space program. Mike Morgan, the president of PENS, enjoys and commits to getting kids involved and interested in science and technologies.

“The only thing that goes higher than our balloons are astronauts and satellites. The launch of a radio balloon isn’t something you see or do every day,” Morgan said.
The payload of the balloon also includes a camera so that you can get the view from the edge of space, along with other valuable information that the payload and sensors give. They are used to test things such as barometer, pressure, temperature, UV radiation and humidity. All of these are important factors in the study of aero science.

Bill Brown, founding father of Amateur Radio, participated in the Great Plains Super Launch on Saturday. From Alabama, Brown flew the first high altitude balloon with an amateur radio and video camera in 1987. Brown has flown 400 balloons in 20 states, but each launch presents new information and stimulating challenges. Brown explains that from the edge of space, “You can see the black sky and the curve of the Earth”.

For Nick Stich, the balloon that he launched was his 188th balloon. Balloons from all over the country were launched last Saturday, including radio balloons from Nebraska Stratospheric Amateur Radio, Edge of Space Sciences, DePauw University, and Iowa High Altitude Balloon. PENS, coordinated by Jim Emmert, hosted the conference for near space explorers and enthusiasts.

By Renee Van Roekel
The Chronicle

For more information on the super launch or radio ballooning, visit www.superlaunch.org .

This article was originally published by The Pella Chronicle on June 22, 2013, and is posted here with the permission of its publisher.

Embedded Sensor Innovation at MIT

During his June 5 keynote address at they 2013 Sensors Expo in Chicago, Joseph Paradiso presented details about some of the innovative embedded sensor-related projects at the MIT Media Lab, where he is the  Director of the Responsive Environments Group. The projects he described ranged from innovative ubiquitous computing installations for monitoring building utilities to a small sensor network that transmits real-time data from a peat bog in rural Massachusetts. Below I detail a few of the projects Paradiso covered in his speech.

DoppleLab

Managed by the Responsive Enviroments group, the DoppelLab is a virtual environment that uses Unity 3D to present real-time data from numerous sensors in MIT Media Lab complex.

The MIT Responsive Environments Group’s DoppleLab

Paradiso explained that the system gathers real-time information and presents it via an interactive browser. Users can monitor room temperature, humidity data, RFID badge movement, and even someone’s Tweets has he moves throughout the complex.

Living Observatory

Paradiso demoed the Living Observatory project, which comprises numerous sensor nodes installed in a peat bog near Plymouth, MA. In addition to transmitting audio from the bog, the installation also logs data such as temperature, humidity, light, barometric pressure, and radio signal strength. The data logs are posted on the project site, where you can also listen to the audio transmission.

The Living Observatory (Source: http://tidmarsh.media.mit.edu/)

GesturesEverywhere

The GesturesEverywhere project provides a real-time data stream about human activity levels within the MIT Media Lab. It provides the following data and more:

  • Activity Level: you can see the Media Labs activity level over a seven-day period.
  • Presence Data: you can see the location of ID tags as people move in the building

The following video is a tracking demo posted on the project site.

The aforementioned projects are just a few of the many cutting-edge developments at the MIT Media Lab. Paradiso said the projects show how far ubiquitous computing technology has come. And they provide a glimpse into the future. For instance, these technologies lend themselves to a variety of building-, environment-, and comfort-related applications.

“In the early days of ubiquitous computing, it was all healthcare,” Paradiso said. “The next frontier is obviously energy.”

Embedded Wireless Made Simple

Last week at the 2013 Sensors Expo in Chicago, Anaren had interesting wireless embedded control systems on display. The message was straightforward: add an Anaren Integrated Radio (AIR) module to an embedded system and you’re ready to go wireless.

Bob Frankel demos embedded mobile control

Bob Frankel of Emmoco provided a embedded mobile control demonstration. By adding an AIR module to a light control system, he was able to use a tablet as a user interface.

The Anaren 2530 module in a light control system (Source: Anaren)

In a separate demonstration, Anaren electrical engineer Mihir Dani showed me how to achieve effective light control with an Anaren 2530 module and TI technology. The module is embedded within the light and compact remote enables him to manipulate variables such as light color and saturation.

Visit Anaren’s website for more information.

Microcontroller-Based Heating System Monitor

Checking a heating system’s consumption is simple enough.

Heating system monitor

Determining a heating system’s output can be much more difficult, unless you have this nifty design. This Atmel ATmega microcontroller-based project enables you to measure heat output as well as control a circulation pump.

Heating bills often present unpleasant surprises. Despite your best efforts to economise on heating, they list tidy sums for electricity or gas consumption. In this article we describe a relatively easy way to check these values and monitor your consumption almost continuously. All you need in order to determine how much heat your system delivers is four temperature sensors, a bit of wiring, and a microcontroller. There’s no need to delve into the electrical or hydraulic components of your system or modify any of them.

A bit of theory
As many readers probably remember from their physics lessons, it’s easy to calculate the amount of heat transferred to a medium such as water. It is given by the product of the temperature change ΔT, the volume V of the medium, and the specific heat capacity CV of the medium. The power P, which is amount of energy transferred per unit time, is:

P= ΔT × CV × V // Δt

With a fluid medium, the term V // Δt can be interpreted as a volumetric flow Vt. This value can be calculated directly from the flow velocity v of the medium and the inner diameter r of the pipe. In a central heating system, the temperature difference ΔT is simply the difference between the supply (S) and return (R) temperatures. This yields the formula:

P = (TS – TR) × CV × v × pr2

The temperatures can easily be measured with suitable sensors. Flow transducers are available for measuring the flow velocity, but installing a flow transducer always requires drilling a hole in a pipe or opening up the piping to insert a fitting.

Measuring principle
Here we used a different method to determine the flow velocity. We make use of the fact that the supply and return temperatures always vary by at least one to two degrees due to the operation of the control system. If pairs of temperature sensors separated by a few metres are mounted on the supply and return lines, the flow velocity can be determined from the time offset of the variations measured by the two sensors…

As the water flows through the pipe with a speed of only a few metres per second, the temperature at sensor position S2 rises somewhat later than the temperature at sensor position S, which is closer to the boiler.

An ATmega microcontroller constantly acquires temperature data from the two sensors. The time delay between the signals from a pair of sensors is determined by a correlation algorithm in the signal processing software, which shifts the signal waveforms from the two supply line sensors relative to each other until they virtually overlap.The temperature signals from the sensors on the return line are correlated in the same manner, and ideally the time offsets obtained for the supply and return lines should be the same.

To increase the sensitivity of the system, the return line sensor signals are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier, and the resulting difference signal is amplified. This difference signal is also logged as a function of time. The area under the curve of the difference signal is a measure of the time offset of the temperature variations…

Hot water please
If the heating system is also used to supply hot water for domestic use, additional pipes are used for this purpose. For this reason, the PCB designed by the author includes inputs for additional temperature sensors. It also has a switched output for driving a relay that can control a circulation pump.

Under certain conditions, controlling the circulation pump can save you a lot of money and significantly reduce CO2 emissions. This is because some systems have constant hot water circulation so users can draw hot water from the tap immediately. This costs electricity to power the pump, and energy is also lost through the pipe walls. This can be remedied by the author’s circuit, which switches on the circulation pump for only a short time after the hot water tap is opened. This is detected by the temperature difference between the hot water and cold water supply lines…

Circuit description
The easiest way to understand the schematic diagram is to follow the signal path. It starts at the temperature sensors connected to the circuit board, which are NTC silicon devices.

Heating system monitor schematic

Their resistance varies by around 0.7–0.8% per degree K change in temperature. For example, the resistance of a KT110 sensor is approximately 1.7 kΩ at 5 °C and approximately 2.8 kΩ at 70 °C.

The sensor for supply temperature S forms a voltage divider with resistor R37. This is followed by a simple low-pass filter formed by R36 and C20, which filters out induced AC hum. U4a amplifies the sensor signal by a factor of approximately 8. The TL2264 used here is a rail-to-rail opamp, so the output voltage can assume almost any value within the supply voltage range. This increases the absolute measurement accuracy, since the full output signal amplitude is used. U4a naturally needs a reference voltage on its inverting input. This is provided by the combination of R20, R26 and R27. U5b acts as an impedance converter to minimise the load on the voltage divider…

Thermal power

PC connection
The circuit does not have its own display unit, but instead delivers its readings to a PC via an RS485 bus. Its functions can also be controlled from the PC. IC U8 looks after signal level conversion between the TTL transmit and receive lines of the ATmega microcontroller’s integrated UART and the differential RS485 bus. As the bus protocol allows several connected (peer) devices to transmit data on the bus, transmit mode must be selected actively via pin 3. Jumper JP3 must be fitted if the circuit is connected to the end of the RS485 bus. This causes the bus to be terminated in 120 Ω, which matches the characteristic impedance of a twisted-pair line…

[Via Elektor-Projects.com]