The Future of Monolithically Integrated LED Arrays

LEDs are ubiquitous in our electronic lives. They are widely used in notification lighting, flash photography, and light bulbs, to name a few. For displays, LEDs have been commercialized as backlights in televisions and projectors. However, their use in image formation has been limited.

A prototype emissive LED display chip is shown. The chip includes an emissive compass pattern ready to embed into new applications.

A prototype emissive LED display chip is shown. The chip includes an emissive compass pattern ready to embed into new applications.

The developing arena of monolithically integrated LED arrays, which involves fabricating millions of LEDs with corresponding transistors on a single chip, provides many new applications not possible with current technologies, as the LEDs can simultaneously act as the backlight and the image source.

The common method of creating images is to first generate light (using LEDs) and then filter that light using a spatial light modulator. The filter could be an LCD, liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), or a digital micromirror device (DMD) such as a Digital Light Processing (DLP) projector. The filtering processes cause significant loss of light in these systems, despite the brightness available from LEDs. For example, a typical LCD uses only 1% to 5% of the light generated.

Two pieces are essential to a display: a light source and a light controller. In most display technologies, the light source and light control functionalities are served by two separate components (e.g., an LED backlight and an LCD). However, in emissive displays, both functionalities are combined into a single component, enabling light to be directly controlled without the inherent inefficiencies and losses associated with filtering. Because each light-emitting pixel is individually controlled, light can be generated and emitted exactly where and when needed.

Emissive displays have been developed in all sizes. Very-large-format “Times Square” and stadium displays are powered by large arrays of individual conventional LEDs, while new organic LED (OLED) materials are found in televisions, mobile phones, and other micro-size applications. However, there is still a void. Emissive “Times Square” displays cannot be scaled to small sizes and emissive OLEDs do not have the brightness available for outdoor environments and newer envisioned applications. An emissive display with high brightness but in a micro format is required for applications such as embedded cell phone projectors or displays on see-through glasses.

We know that optimization by the entire LED industry has made LEDs the brightest controllable light source available. We also know that a display requires a light source and a method of controlling the light. So, why not make an array of LEDs and control individual LEDs with a matching array of transistors?

The marrying of LED materials (light source) to transistors (light control) has long been researched. There are three approaches to this problem: fabricate the LEDs and transistors separately, then bond them together; fabricate transistors first, then integrate LEDs on top; and fabricate LEDs first, then integrate transistors on top. The first method is not monolithic. Two fabricated chips are electrically and mechanically bonded, limiting integration density and thus final display resolutions. The second method, starting with transistors and then growing LEDs, offers some advantages in monolithic (single-wafer) processing, but growth of high-quality, high-efficiency LEDs on transistors has proven difficult.

My start-up company, Lumiode (, is developing the third method, starting with optimized LEDs and then fabricating silicon transistors on top. This leverages existing LED materials for efficient light output. It also requires careful fabrication of the integrated transistor layer as to not damage the underlying LED structures. The core technology uses a laser method to provide extremely local high temperatures to the silicon while preventing thermal damage to the LED. This overcomes typical process incompatibilities, which have previously held back development of monolithically integrated LED arrays. In the end, there is an array of LEDs (light source) and corresponding transistors to control each individual LED (light control), which can reach the brightness and density requirements of future microdisplays.

Regardless of the specific integration method employed, a monolithically integrated LED and transistor structure creates a new range of applications requiring higher efficiency and brightness. The brightness available from integrated LED arrays can enable projection on truly see-through glass, even in outdoor daylight environments. The efficiency of an emissive display enables extended battery lifetimes and device portability. Perhaps we can soon achieve the types of displays dreamed up in movies.

Energy-Measurement AFEs

Microchip_MCP3913The MCP3913 and the MCP3914 are Microchip Technology’s next-generation family of energy-measurement analog front ends (AFEs). The AFEs integrate six and eight 24-bit, delta-sigma ADCs, respectively, with 94.5-dB SINAD, –106.5-dB THD, and 112-dB Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) for high-accuracy signal acquisition and higher-performing end products.

The MCP3914’s two extra ADCs enable the monitoring of more sensors with one chip, reducing its cost and size. The programmable data rate of up to 125 ksps with low-power modes enables designers to scale down for better power consumption or to use higher data rates for advanced signal analysis (e.g., calculating harmonic content).

The MCP3913 and the MCP3914 improve application performance and provide flexibility to adjust the data rate to optimize each application’s rate of performance vs power consumption. The AFEs feature a CRC-16 checksum and register-map lock, for increased robustness. Both AFEs are offered in 40-pin uQFN packages. The MCP3913 adds a 28-pin SSOP package option.

The MCP3913 and the MCP3914 AFEs cost $3.04 each in 5,000-unit quantities. Microchip Technology also announced the MCP3913 Evaluation Board and the MCP3914 Evaluation Board, two new tools to aid in the development of energy systems using these AFEs. Both evaluation boards cost $99.99.

Microchip Technology, Inc.

Desoldering Components (EE Tip #118)

Every engineer and technician sooner or later faces the challenge of having to desolder a component. Sometimes the component can be a large transformer with 10 pins or a power chip with many connections, and desoldering tools are typically around the $1,000 mark and above.

Chip Quik is a solder-based alloy that stays molten for up to 30 seconds and makes desoldering any component very easy. The only drawback is that the cost of a 2´ length of Chip Quik is around $20. But a little experience can make this go a long way. Having some Chip Quik lying around in the workshop is reassuring for when that urgent job comes in.

Editor’s Note: This EE Tip was written by Fergus Dixon of Sydney, Australia. Dixon, who has written two articles and an essay for Circuit Cellar, runs Electronic System Design, a website set up to promote easy to use and inexpensive development kits. Click here to read his essay “The Future of Open-Source Hardware for Medical Devices.”

High-Speed Laser Range Finder Board with IMU


The NavRanger-OEM

The NavRanger-OEM combines a 20,000 samples per second laser range finder with a nine-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) on a single 3“ × 6“ (7.7 × 15.3 cm) circuit board. The board features I/O resources and processing capability for application-specific control solutions.

The NavRanger‘s laser range finder measures the time of flight of a short light pulse from an IR laser. The time to digital converter has a 65-ps resolution (i.e., approximately 1 cm). The Class 1M laser has a 10-ns pulse width, a 0.8 mW average power, and a 9° × 25° divergence without optics. The detector comprises an avalanche photo diode with a two-point variable-gain amplifier and variable threshold digitizer. These features enable a 10-cm × 10-cm piece of white paper to be detected at 30 m with a laser collimator and 25-mm receiver optics.

The range finder includes I/O to build a robot or scan a solution. The wide range 9-to-28-V input supply voltage enables operation in 12- and 24-V battery environments. The NavRanger‘s IMU is an InvenSense nine-axis MPU-9150, which combines an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and a magnetometer on one chip. A 32-bit Freescale ColdFire MCF52255 microcontroller provides the processing the power and additional I/O. USB and CAN buses provide the board’s high-speed interfaces. The board also has connectors and power to mount a Digi International XBee wireless module and a TTL GPS.

The board comes with embedded software and a client application that runs on a Windows PC or Mac OS X. It also includes modifiable source code for the embedded and client applications. The NavRanger-OEM costs $495.

Integrated Knowledge Systems, Inc.

Multi-GNSS Platform Supports Concurrent Positioning


UBX-48030 core-positioning platform

The u-blox M8 core-positioning platform is based on the UBX-M8030 concurrent multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receiver IC, which can track US GPS, European Galileo, Japanese QZSS, Russian GLONASS, and Chinese BeiDou satellites. The platform simultaneously uses multiple satellite systems and forms the basis of u-blox’s upcoming line of positioning modules that can concurrently acquire and track different satellite systems to achieve higher accuracy and reliability.

The u-blox M8 platform features low power consumption in concurrent reception mode via a single-die architecture combined with sophisticated software algorithms. The extended supply voltage supply range and 1.8-/3-V I/O compliance supports a variety of system architectures.

UBX-M8030 chips are available in miniature WL-CSP (2.99-mm × 3.21-mm × 0.36-mm) and QFN (5-mm × 5-mm × 0.59-mm) packages. The chip is also available in automotive-grade quality that complies with the Automotive Electronics Council’s AEC-Q100.The new platform maintains backward compatibility with u-blox 7 modules and QFP chip products.

Contact u-blox for pricing.


ZigBee PRO Communication Controller Chip


The GP490 controller chip

The GP490 is an ultra-low-power ZigBee PRO communication controller. It supports the ZigBee PRO chip features, including bidirectional commissioning, bidirectional communication, and full security mode.

The controller is specifically designed for low-power smart home applications including door, window, and temperature sensors and light switches. Equipped with the energy-optimized GP490, these low-power, low-data rate smart home applications can operate on a coin cell battery for more than 10 years.

The GP490 development kit with reference design and software can help device manufacturers build low-cost, low-power sensor nodes, optimized for standard battery and coin-cell battery operation. Guidelines and tools are provided to ensure an efficient ZigBee certification for a cost-optimized feature set of the ZigBee Home Automation (HA 1.2) Application Profile.

The low-cost GP490 enables developers and manufacturers to supply ZigBee Smart Home sensor solutions starting at $5 each. Contact GreenPeak Technologies for specific pricing.

GreenPeak Technologies

Client Profile: Parallax, Inc.

Parallax P8X32A Propeller chips

Parallax, Inc.
599 Menlo Drive
Rocklin, CA 95765

Contact: Emily Kurze

Embedded Products/Services: Parallax P8X32A Propeller chip (Part #P8X32A-Q44), Propeller family. The P8X32A Propeller chip is Parallax’s 8-core, 32-bit, 80-MHz microcontroller. P8X32A Quickstart (Part #40000), Quickstart family. The P8X32A Quickstart board, featuring the Propeller chip, is everything you need to begin designing Propeller-based applications.

Product Information: The P8X32A Propeller chip is a modern, easy-to-use and a powerful multicore microcontroller that has the flexibility to propel your design to the next tier of performance and reliability. With eight independent cores at your disposal, developers can easily instantiate any number of custom soft-peripherals from Parallax’s Object Exchange library to enable the chip to fill nearly any role. From generating graphics for a control system’s VGA display to managing fly-by-wire avionics equipment, the 80-MHz Propeller chip makes short work of embedded applications that require real-time execution.

Parallax Propeller QuickStart Board #40000