Electrical Engineer Crossword (Issue 269)

The answers to Circuit Cellar’s December electronics engineering crossword puzzle are now available.


1.     MOSFET—According to Ed Nisley in his Circuit Cellar 265  2012 article, this type of tester characterizes a transistor’s behavior by computing the drain resistance at each combination of measured voltage and current

5.     LORENTZ—Type of force on a charged particle caused by electromagnetic fields

9.     TWEED—Tests your engineering know-how in every issue of Circuit Cellar

10.   HOMECONTROL—In last month’s “Task Manager,” Circuit Cellar Editor-in-Chief C. J. Abate mentioned that this was one of the hottest topics in the magazine’s earliest issues [two words]

12.   TASK—In his article in this issue, Bob Japenga defines this as an instance of a software program that is utilizing CPU resources to accomplish some purpose

14.   WIRTH—Swiss computer scientist who designed the Pascal programming language

16.   ILLUMINATION—An LED’s purpose

18.   CALLBACK—Enables a lower-level software layer to request a higher-level-defined subroutine

19.   ELECTRICALRESISTANCE—German physicist Georg Ohm 1789 – 6 July 1854 first introduced this concept [two words]


2.     SHANNON—Cryptographer known as the “father of information theory”

3.     AUTONOMOUSROBOT—Does not rely on human interaction [two words]

4.     BODEPLOT—Represents a system’s gain and phase as a frequency function  [two words]

6.     EAGLE—Commonly used for PCB design

7.     TACHOMETER—A device that can help you determine revolutions per minute

8.     PROGRAMMABLELOGIC—These types of projects utilize FPGAs, PLDs, and other chips [two words]

11.   THERMOELECTRIC—Type of cooling that relies on the Peltier effect to alter heat between two types of materials

13.   MAGNETOMETER—Used to measure magnetic fields’ strength and intensity

15.   GREENENERGY—Focus of Renesas’s 2012 design challenge [two words]

17.   NONCE—Available for a limited time


CC269: Break Through Designer’s Block

Are you experiencing designer’s block? Having a hard time starting a new project? You aren’t alone. After more than 11 months of designing and programming (which invariably involved numerous successes and failures), many engineers are simply spent. But don’t worry. Just like every other year, new projects are just around the corner. Sooner or later you’ll regain your energy and find yourself back in action. Plus, we’re here to give you a boost. The December issue (Circuit Cellar 269) is packed with projects that are sure to inspire your next flurry of innovation.

Turn to page 16 to learn how Dan Karmann built the “EBikeMeter” Atmel ATmega328-P-based bicycle computer. He details the hardware and firmware, as well as the assembly process. The monitoring/logging system can acquire and display data such as Speed/Distance, Power, and Recent Log Files.

The Atmel ATmega328-P-based “EBikeMeter” is mounted on the bike’s handlebar.

Another  interesting project is Joe Pfeiffer’s bell ringer system (p. 26). Although the design is intended for generating sound effects in a theater, you can build a similar system for any number of other uses.

You probably don’t have to be coerced into getting excited about a home control project. Most engineers love them. Check out Scott Weber’s garage door control system (p. 34), which features a MikroElektronika RFid Reader. He built it around a Microchip Technology PIC18F2221.

The reader is connected to a breadboard that reads the data and clock signals. It’s built with two chips—the Microchip 28-pin PIC and the eight-pin DS1487 driver shown above it—to connect it to the network for testing. (Source: S. Weber, CC269)

Once considered a hobby part, Arduino is now implemented in countless innovative ways by professional engineers like Ed Nisley. Read Ed’s article before you start your next Arduino-related project (p. 44). He covers the essential, but often overlooked, topic of the Arduino’s built-in power supply.

A heatsink epoxied atop the linear regulator on this Arduino MEGA board helped reduce the operating temperature to a comfortable level. This is certainly not recommended engineering practice, but it’s an acceptable hack. (Source: E. Nisley, CC269)

Need to extract a signal in a noisy environment? Consider a lock-in amplifier. On page 50, Robert Lacoste describes synchronous detection, which is a useful way to extract a signal.

This month, Bob Japenga continues his series, “Concurrency in Embedded Systems” (p. 58). He covers “the mechanisms to create concurrently in your software through processes and threads.”

On page 64, George Novacek presents the second article in his series, “Product Reliability.” He explains the importance of failure rate data and how to use the information.

Jeff Bachiochi wraps up the issue with a article about using heat to power up electronic devices (p. 68). Fire and a Peltier device can save the day when you need to charge a cell phone!

Set aside time to carefully study the prize-winning projects from the Reneas RL78 Green Energy Challenge (p. 30). Among the noteworthy designs are an electrostatic cleaning robot and a solar energy-harvesting system.

Lastly, I want to take the opportunity to thank Steve Ciarcia for bringing the electrical engineering community 25 years of innovative projects, essential content, and industry insight. Since 1988, he’s devoted himself to the pursuit of EE innovation and publishing excellence, and we’re all better off for it. I encourage you to read Steve’s final “Priority Interrupt” editorial on page 80. I’m sure you’ll agree that there’s no better way to begin the next 25 years of innovation than by taking a moment to understand and celebrate our past. Thanks, Steve.

Onward & Upward: A History of Circuit Cellar

At the end of our conversations, longtime Circuit Cellar columnist Ed Nisley always says, “Onward and upward.” To this day, I’m not quite sure what that means, but it seems like a useful exit line. Of course, leaving a conversation and leaving a career are two completely different things. Both involve some strategy. With a conversation, one expects you’ll talk later and not everything has to be resolved by the conversation’s end. With a career, there is more finality. You want to know you have accomplished some goals, left the world a better place, and placed your legacy in the hands of people who will properly transition it.

An early Ciarcia project

These days, I’m not sure whether to laugh or cringe when I get an e-mail or meet a Circuit Cellar reader who starts a conversation by saying they have been reading my stuff and following me since BYTE magazine. Certainly, I take it as a compliment, but it also means we are both over the proverbial hill. True, the BYTE days and the seeds that generated Circuit Cellar magazine began 35 years ago. That’s a long time for any of us.

When you read the 25th Anniversary issue, you’ll find my article describing the history of how this all started. I’d like to say I had a grand plan from the very beginning, but my career path had a far simpler strategy: To create a product that would be in demand for a long time, to stay under the radar (away from lawyers and competitive vultures), and find good people with similar beliefs who would help me accomplish these goals.

I’d like to say I intuitively knew what to do as a boss, but remember, I was trained as an engineer, not an MBA. A wise person once told me there were two ways to learn things in life: through trial and error or through someone telling you. I just took to heart a business article I read in college and religiously applied it to my career path. It said the majority of small businesses fail for one of four reasons: Too little business, too much business, insufficient capital, or no plan for succession. Since I wasn’t having much fun in corporate America back then (five jobs in five years), succeeding in business had more of a “do or die” imperative than the average job.

Let me warn any budding entrepreneurs that these four events test your gambling tactics more than your business acumen. In my case, Ciarcia’s Circuit Cellar was the product 30 years ago, along with the supporting manufacturing company. It grew quickly and afforded certain luxuries (e.g., Porsches, BMWs, Ferraris, etc.) typically necessary in our culture to designate achievement. Too little business was not an issue.

The “too much business” event happened right after the introduction of the IBM PC. Circuit Cellar was the third company in the country to market an IBM PC clone. I thought it was a good idea. Everybody who couldn’t get a real IBM PC started banging on our door for an MPX-16. We got $1 million in orders in just a few weeks! What was I supposed to do? Certainly not what 99% of you would have done—I stopped taking orders!

Remember, I didn’t want to work for anybody and I don’t like doing “reports.” Delivering thousands of PCs might have made us into another Apple, but it also meant using lots of outside money, no more BYTE magazine, and no more fun monthly projects. It really meant venture capitalists and lawyers, ugh. Was it the right decision? You decide. Circuit Cellar is still here, and every early PC clone maker from back then is gone.

In 1988 we started Circuit Cellar magazine. While our money came from manufacturing projects and kits, we knew the real product was Circuit Cellar itself. It was time to launch the magazine as a unique product. Back in 1988, it typically cost about $2 million for a big publisher to start a magazine like Circuit Cellar. We pulled that off without any other sources.

Finally, there comes the toughest decision for any entrepreneur—when to hang it up. I have to admit, I wasn’t quite sure about this one. It’s not because I planned to hang in until the bitter end. It was because I didn’t immediately see any company that would appreciate Circuit Cellar enough to properly continue it. Over the years, the four major U.S. technical trade publishers had sniffed around Circuit Cellar with acquisition in mind. I never got a good feeling about them, and I’m sure they knew I wasn’t going to be a happy indentured servant in any deal they proposed.

Why it takes a European publisher to appreciate an American magazine and its readers, I’ll never know. From day one, I felt Elektor would treat Circuit Cellar properly. It’s been three years since that transition, and I feel I made the correct decision. The collective benefits of being part of a larger publishing company will prolong Circuit Cellar’s existence and enable it to expand into new markets I was too complacent to tackle. The loyal Circuit Cellar employees deserve a career path beyond my short-term ambitions, and now they have it.

As for me, I plan on spending time stringing more wires for my HCS and I’m ecstatic about having zero responsibilities anymore. I’m around if needed, but plan on taking a four-wheel drive out to the beach to find me. So, until then, I’ll just close with “onward and upward,” and see where that takes me.