The Renesas RL78 for Low-Power Applications

Renesas Technology announced in late March he start of a design challenge for engineers around the world: develop an innovative, low-power application using the RL78 MCU and IAR Systems toolchain. To get started, you need to familiarize yourself with the RL78. Clemens Valens, Editor-in-Chief of Elektor online, introduces the RL78 in a comprehensive “The RL78 Microcontroller: An MCU Family for Low-Power Applications” (Circuit Cellar 261, 2012).

I’ve worked with Valens in various occasions, and had the pleasure of meeting him in 2011. He’s truly “an engineer’s engineer”: extremely embedded tech savvy, well-read, and inquisitive. Furthermore, I edited Circuit Cellar articles Valens wrote about diverse design projects, such as a virtual instrument interface and a scrolling LED message board. Thus, it’s clear to me that Valens understands the importance of designing high-quality, energy-efficient, systems—and doing so within budget. I trust you’ll find his introduction to the RL78 insightful and immediately applicable.

The RL78 Microcontroller: An MCU Family for Low-Power Applications

By Clemens Valens (Circuit Cellar 261, 2012)

The low-power 8/16-bit microcontroller (MCU) market is a bit of a warzone with several MCU manufacturers proposing “the industry’s lowest power solution.” In a YouTube video, Texas Instruments boasts a best active figure of 160 μA/MIPS for their MSP430 family. In application note AN1267, Microchip Technology claims 110 μA at “1 MHz Run” for their PIC16LF72X. And Renesas Electronics announced 70 μA at “1-MHz normal operation” on their RL78 product website.[1, 2, 3] The absence of justification on how exactly these figures were obtained makes comparing them rather useless. But then again, you don’t really have to because, as most low-power developers know from experience, if you don’t get the hardware and software design right, you will never attain the promised 20-year battery lifetime no matter how low the MCU’s active, sleep, or standby current may be. In this article, I will take a closer look at Renesas’s quickly expanding RL78 family to see what they offer that may help you create a low-power design.

Photo 1 - The Renesas RL78

THE RL78 FAMILY

The RL78 family of 16-bit MCUs currently has two branches, “generic” and “application specific,” but a third “display” branch is forthcoming. The generic branch contains the subfamilies G12, G13, and G1A, all based on the 78K core, and the G14, which is based on the R8C core. In the application-specific branch there is the 1A and F12. I am not sure about their core origins as these products are still very new and, at the time of writing, documentation is missing. It doesn’t really matter; from now on it is the new RL78 core for all. Since they share the same core, I will concentrate on the G13 for which I have a nice evaluation board (see Photo 1 and “The Renesas Demonstration Kit for RL78” sidebar).

Sidebar: Renesas Demonstration Kit

RL78/G13

This family comes in a large number of variants (I counted 182), with devices having from 20 up to 128 pins (see Figure 1). Note that the parts themselves are labelled R5F10xx. The differences between all these variants are, besides the package type, the amounts of flash memory (program and data) and RAM. Program flash memory starts at 16 KB and currently ends at 512 KB, data flash sizes can be 0, 4, or 8 KB and RAM is 2 KB for the small devices and up to 32 KB for the big ones.

Figure 1 - Diagram of 128-pin RL78/G13 devices

The CPU is 16-bit, but the internal memory architecture is 8 bit. Its 32 general-purpose registers are organized in four banks of eight and can be used as 8- or 16-bit registers. The memory-mapped special function registers (SFRs) that control the on-chip peripherals can be addressed per bit, per byte, or as 16-bit registers, depending on the register. A second set of SFRs, the extended or second SFRs, are available too, but they need longer instructions to be accessed.

For those who need to squeeze the maximum out of MCU performance, it may be interesting to know that the CPU offers a short addressing mode enabling you to access a page of 256 bytes with a minimum amount of code.

The maximum clock frequency of the processor is 32 MHz, but the hardware user’s manual, which is almost 1,100 pages, interestingly also boasts about the ultra-low-speed capabilities of the processor as it can run from a 32.768-kHz clock.

The RL78 core features 15 I/O ports, most of which are 8-bit wide. Port 13 is 2-bit wide and ports 10 and 15 are 7-bit wide. The port pins that are actually available depend on the device. Inputs and outputs are highly configurable. Inputs can be analog, CMOS, or TTL. Outputs can be CMOS or N-channel open drain. Pull-up resistors are available too. The exact configuration possibilities depend on the port pin, so consult the datasheet. Because of the many configuration options, it is possible to use the MCU in multi-voltage systems without level-shifting circuitry except for the occasional external pull-up resistor. The chip can be powered from 1.6 V to 5.5 V, the core itself runs from 1.8 V provided by an internal voltage regulator.

TIME MANAGEMENT

Several options are available for the MCU clock. When clock precision is not too important, the MCU can be run from its internal clock, up to 32 MHz, otherwise it is possible to connect an external crystal, resonator, or oscillator. An internal low-speed clock (15 kHz) is also available, but not for the CPU, only for the watchdog timer (WDT), the real-time clock (RTC), and the interval timer.

The timers of the RL78 are flexible and offer many functions. Depending on the pin size of the device, you can have up to 16 16-bit timers, grouped in two arrays of eight. Each timer (called a “channel”) can function as an interval timer, square-wave generator, event counter, frequency divider, pulse-interval timer, pulse-duration timer, and delay counter. For even more possibilities, timers can be combined to create monostable multivibrators or to do pulse-width modulation (PWM). This way, up to seven PWM signals can be generated from one master timer. If you need more timers but resolution is less important, you can split some 16-bit timers in two 8-bit timers (this is not possible with all timers). Timer 7 of array 0 is extra special as it features local interconnect network (LIN) network support (see below).

Aside from date and time keeping with alarms, the RTC also provides constant period interrupts at 2 Hz and 1 Hz and also every minute, hour, day, or month. A 1-Hz output is available on devices with 40 or more pins. For extra precision, the RTC offers a correction register for fine tuning the 32,768-kHz clock. Unsurprisingly, the RTC continues operation when the MCU is stopped.

Now that I mentioned Stop mode, a special interval timer peripheral enables wakeup from this mode at periodic intervals. This timer is also used for the analog-to-digital converter’s (ADC’s) Snooze mode. More on that later. With a clock frequency of 32,768 Hz, the lowest interval rate is 8 Hz (0.125 ms).

Yet another time-related peripheral on the RL78 is the buzzer controller (not available on 20-pin devices). This is a clock output destined at IR comms carrier generation, to clock other chips in a system or to produce sound from a buzzer. A gate bit enables modulation of this output in such a way that pulses always have the same width.

Finally, a WDT completes the timing peripherals. It has a special Window mode that limits the time frame during which you can reset the watchdog to a fraction of the watchdog interval (50%, 75%, or 100%). Resetting the watchdog counter outside the window results in a reset. The window is open in the second part of the interval. An interrupt can be generated when the WDT reaches 75% of its time-out value, (i.e., when the watchdog reset window is known to be open in all cases). Figure 2 illustrates the mechanism.

Figure 2 - Trying to reset the watchdog counter when the window is closed results in an internal reset signal

ADC

The ADC is of the 10-bit successive approximation type and can have up to 26 inputs. Several triggering options are provided, hardware and software, where hardware triggering means triggering by a timer module (timer channel 1 end of count or capture, interval timer, or RTC). The time it takes to do a conversion depends partly on the triggering mode. When input stabilization is not too much of an issue (i.e., when you don’t switch inputs) you can achieve conversion times of just over 2 μs.

Two registers enable comparing the ADC’s output to maximum and minimum values, producing an interrupt when the new value is either in or out of bounds. This function is also available in Snooze mode. In this mode, the processor itself is stopped and consumes very little power, but ADC conversions continue under control of the hardware trigger. When a conversion triggers an ADC interrupt, the processor can then wake up from Snooze mode and resume normal operation.

COMMUNICATIONS

The RL78 features multifunction serial units. The devices with 25 pins or less have one such unit, the others have two. Only serial unit 2 provides LIN bus support.

A serial unit can function in asynchronous UART mode, in synchronous CSI mode (three-wire bus with clock, data in and data out signals, master and slave mode supported), and in simplified (master-only) I²C mode. Again, depending on the device, you can have up to four UARTs or eight CSI and/or simplified I²C ports. Of course a mix is also possible. Full I²C is possible with the specialized I²C unit.

UART0 and UART2, CSI00 and CSI20 provide Snooze mode functionality similar to the ADC. In Snooze mode, these ports can be made to wake up on the arrival of incoming data without waking up the CPU. If the received data is interesting enough, it is also possible to wake up the CPU.

LIN communications are possible with UART2 together with Timer 7 of Array 0. The LIN bus is an inexpensive alternative to the CAN bus in automotive systems to control simple devices like switches, sensors, and actuators. LIN only uses one wire and is rather low speed (20 Kbps maximum). The timer takes care of the LIN synchronization issues and the UART performs the (de)serialisation of the data.

Full blown I²C communication is possible with the specialized I²C peripheral IICA. The 80-pin and more devices have two channels, the others only one. Communication speeds up to 20 MHz are permitted to enable I²C “fast mode” (3.5 MHz) and “fast mode plus” (10 MHz). This module is capable of waking up the CPU from Stop mode.

MATH ACCELERATORS

Of interest is the hardware multiplier and divider module intended for filtering and FFT functions. This module is capable of 16 × 16 bits signed and unsigned multiplications and divisions producing 32-bit results. It can also do 16 × 16 bit multiply-accumulate. We are talking about a module here, not an instruction, meaning that you have to load the operands yourself in special registers and get the result from yet another. The multiplication itself is done in one clock cycle, a division takes 16. The accumulate operation adds another cycle.

Another special math function is the binary-coded decimals (BCD) correction register that enables you to easily transform binary calculation results into BCD results.

DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS

To speed up data transport without loading the CPU, the RL78 core features direct memory access (DMA), up to four channels. DMA transfers up to 1,024 words of data (8 or 16 bit) to and from SFRs and RAM and they can be started by a range of interrupts (e.g., ADC, serial, timer). Although DMA transfers are done in parallel with normal CPU operation, it does slow down the CPU. For time-critical situations, it is possible to put a DMA transfer on hold for a number of clock cycles and let the CPU finish its job first.

INTERRUPTS

Interrupts are pretty standard on the RL78 and many sources are available. The “key interrupt” function on the other hand is less common. It provides up to eight (depending on the device, you guessed it) key or push button inputs that are ORed together to generate an interrupt on a key press (active low).

OPERATING MODES & SECURITY

Besides the aforementioned Stop and Snooze modes, the RL78 also provides a Halt mode. In this mode, the CPU is stopped but the clocks keep running, making a fast resume possible. In Stop mode, the clocks are stopped too reducing power consumption more than in Halt mode. Snooze mode is like Stop mode, but with one or more peripherals in a snoozing state, ready to wake up when something interesting happens. Interrupts can be used to wake up from Snooze, Stop, or Halt mode. A reset usually works too.

Reset, by the way, can have seven origins, three of which are related to safety functions: illegal instruction, RAM parity, and illegal memory access. Two others involve the power supply: power-on reset (POR) and low-voltage detection (LVD). All these reset options are needed to conform to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60730-1 (“Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use; Part 1: General Requirements”) and IEC 61508-SER (“Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems”) safety standards. Since the RL78 is compliant, it also implements flash memory CRC checking, protections to prevent RAM and SFRs to be modified when the CPU stops functioning, an oscillator frequency-detection circuit, and an ADC self-test function.

The hardware used for the flash memory CRC check is also available as a general-purpose CRC module for user programs. It implements the standard CCITT CRC-16 polynomial (X^16 + X^12 + X^5 + 1).

The RAM guard function protects only up to 512 bytes, so be careful where you put your sensitive data.

FLASH & FUSES

Those familiar with the fuse bytes of PIC and AVR processors will be happy to know that the RL78 contains four of them, the option bytes that configure such things as the WDT, low-voltage detection, flash memory modes, clock frequencies, and debugging modes.

Flash memory is divided into two parts, program memory and data memory, and it can be programmed in-circuit over a serial interface. A boot partition is available too. This partition uses a kind of ping-pong mechanism called “boot swapping” to ensure that a valid bootloader is always programmed into the boot partition so that even power failures during bootloader programming will not harm the boot partition. A flash window function protects the memory against unintentionally reprogramming parts of it.

SOUNDING OFF

This concludes our voyage through the Renesas RL78 core. As you have seen, the RL78 offers many interesting peripherals all combined in a flexible low-power optimized design. Thanks to the integrated oscillator and other functions, an RL78 MCU can be used with very little external hardware, enabling inexpensive and compact designs. Once you master its Snooze mode and your low-power design skills, you can use this MCU family in battery-operated metering applications, for instance, but I am sure you can think of something more surprising.

Clemens Valens (c.valens@elektor.fr) is Editor-in-Chief of Elektor Online. He has more than 15 years of experience in embedded systems design. Clemens is currently interested in sound synthesis techniques, rapid prototyping, and the popularization of technology.

REFERENCES

[1] Texas Instruments, Inc., “Ultra-Low Power MSP430 – The World’s Lowest Power MCU,” 201.

[2] Microchip Technology, Inc., “AN1267: nanoWatt and nanoWatt XLP Technologies: An Introduction to Microchip’s Low-Power Devices,” 2009.

[3] Renesas Electronics Corp., “RL78 Family,” www.renesas.com/pr/mcu/rl78/index.html.

RESOURCES

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), “60730-1, Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use; Part 1: General Requirements,” 2002.

———, “61508-SER, Functional Safety of Electrical/

Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems,” 2010.

Renesas Electronics Corp., Renesas Rulz, “RL78/G13 Demonstration Kit,” www.renesasrulz.com/community/demoboards/rdkrl78g13.

For more information about the RL78 Family of microcontrollers, visit www.renesas.com.

For information about the 2012 Renesas RL78 Green Energy Challenge (in association with Elektor & Circuit Cellar), go to www.circuitcellar.com/RenesasRL78Challenge.

This article appears in Circuit Cellar 261 (April 2012).

 

 

Issue 261: The Deeply Embedded 8-Bit MCU

The 8 bit debate continues. Last week at Design West in San Jose, CA, the topic came up more than once, and I reported on Microchip Technology’s expanded 8-bit PIC16F(LF)178X midrange core MCU family.

Over the years, Circuit Cellar has published several articles on the topic. Back in Circuit Cellar 8 (1989) Tom Cantrell tackled the topic in an article titled “HD647180X: A New 8-Bit Microcontroller Embedded Controllers Get Respect.” In 2010 in Circuit Cellar 143 he tackled the topic again in an article titled “Live for Today: The 8-Bit MCU Still Matters.” This month in an editorial titled “8-Bit Control Is Dead – No Way!” (Circuit Cellar 261), Steve Ciarcia weighs in on the long-debated topic.

For years tech pundits have been predicting the end of 8-bit micros. Apparently, with the prices of 16- and 32-bit MCUs constantly dropping, and presuming you always want your application to do more stuff, there is no reason not to replace a less powerful MCU, right? In my opinion, it was a false assumption then, and it still is today.

We can’t look at this as a zero-sum game. Yes, 32-bitters open up all kinds of new opportunities for embedded processing, especially in the area of network-connected personal entertainment and information devices. But this doesn’t mean they’re a better fit in the low-end control and text-based applications that the 8-bitters have occupied for so long. The boundaries are certainly “fuzzy,” but consider how we tend to generally categorize MCUs.

At the low end, we have the 8-bit controllers which typically have 8-bit data and registers along with 16-bit address paths. This is a sweet spot for all kinds of control and text-based functions that simply don’t need to handle more than 64 KB of data at a time. The price/performance of the 8-bit chip should win this fight every time.

In the midrange, we have the 16-bit MCUs and lower-end 16-bit DSP chips. These chips can do a bunch more because they handle 16-bit data and have at least 24-bit address paths. There is often a hardware multiplier as well, which makes this class of chip ideal for many types of signal processing and audio applications.

At the high end, there is the 32-bit MCU/MPU (and higher-end DSPs) that have 32-bit data and address paths. These are the chips that have the power to drive an interactive graphical user interface and process video signals in real time.

It’s clear that chip manufacturers believe in the future of all three classes of MCU; just look at the innovations they continue to introduce at all levels. Fundamentally, as the silicon improves in terms of transistor density, more memory fits onto a smaller chip, and there’s more room for on-chip peripherals. Also, clock and power management has become a lot more flexible than ever before. The lower-end and midrange MCUs are all available with some combination of hardware timers (e.g., PWM, pulse capture, and motor control), communications (e.g., UART, SPI, I2C, CAN, USB, etc.), and analog interface (e.g., ADC, DAC, and touch). Some include hardware controllers for multiplexed LCDs or Ethernet interfaces.

At the higher end, in addition to all of that, we also see options like on-chip SDRAM controllers, SD memory and I/O controllers, Ethernet MAC (and sometimes PHY), mass storage (ATAPI, SATA) and video support, including in some cases a separate GPU core. Basically, everything you need to run a full-up operating system like Windows, MacOS, or Android.

Probably the greatest result of across-the-board lower MCU costs is that we will be seeing multiple chips where just one was used before. This has been the situation with automobiles for years where reliability has increased with lots of “smart”-control modules all networked together. Certainly, this make senses in a $30,000 car, but the concept is moving down the cost spectrum as well. Take your typical household washing machine or dryer that has a motor or two and a control panel. Instead of one chip handling all of the control functions and user interface I/O, there will be one (or two) motor controller chip with a communications interface (e.g, SPI, I2C, CAN, etc.) and a second chip with a communications interface along with an LCD controller and touch sensor support.

If the system designers are forward-thinking when they define the protocol by which these subsystems communicate, they’ll end up with intelligent building blocks (e.g., “smart motor,” “smart valve,” “smart sensor”) that can be easily reused in other products, keeping manufacturing costs low. The modules themselves will be reliable and energy-efficient, contributing substantially to end-user satisfaction and low recurring costs. The key is to make each module just smart enough without going overboard on processing power or overloading it with a top-heavy protocol.

And, that’s where the lowly 8-bit MCU shines. A smart valve that just needs to sit on a LIN or 1-wire bus, operate a solenoid, and verify that it opened or closed doesn’t need a lot of CPU cycles or 32-bit addressing to do the job. One of the tiny 8-bitters in a six- or eight-pin package will do nicely, and might even cost less than the manufacturing cost and testing of the dedicated wiring harness needed to do the job in the traditional way. There’s no way a 16-bit or 32-bit MCU makes sense in this context. But more importantly, these lowly control tasks aren’t going to go away. In fact, I think you’ll be seeing a lot more of them and they’ll all need MCUs. So, although it will be less visible, the 8-bit MCU will still be deeply embedded in increasingly subtle, but important, parts of your life, working hard so you don’t have to.

 

Q&A: Dave Jones (Engineer, EEVBlog)

Are you an electrical engineer, hacker, or maker looking for a steady dose of reliable product reviews, technical insight, and EE musings? If so, Dave Jones is your man. The Sydney, Australia-based engineer’s video blog (EEVblog) and podcast (The Amp Hour, which he co-hosts with Chris Gammell) are quickly becoming must-subscribe feeds for plugged-in inquisitive electronics enthusiasts around the world.

Dave Jones: engineer, video blogger, and podcaster

The April issue of Circuit Cellar features an interview with Jones, who describes his passion for electronics, reviewing various technologies, and his unscripted approach to video blogging and podcasting. Below is an abridged version of the interview.

David L. Jones is a risk taker. In addition to jumping off cliffs in the name of product testing, the long-time engineer recently switched to full-time blogging. In February 2012, Dave and I discussed his passion for electronics, his product review process, and what it means to be a full-time video blogger.—Nan Price, Associate Editor

NAN: When did you first start working with electronics?

DAVE: The video story can be found at “EEVblog #54 – Electronics – When I was a boy…” www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpayYlJdbJk. I was very young, maybe six or so, when I was taking apart stuff to see how it worked, so my parents got me a 50-in-1Tandy (RadioShack) electronics kit and that was it, I was hooked, electronics became my life. And indeed, this seems to be fairly typical of how many engineers of the era got started.

By the time I was eight, I already had my own lab and was working on my own projects. All my pocket money went into tools, parts, and magazines.

The electronics magazine industry was everything back then before the Internet and communications revolution. I would eagerly await every issue of the Australian electronics magazines like Electronics Australia, Electronics Today International (ETI), Applied and Australian Electronics Monthly (AEM), Talking Electronics, and later Silicon Chip.

NAN: Tell us about some of your early projects.

DAVE: Given that it was over 30 years ago, it’s hard to recall I’m afraid. Unfortunately, I just didn’t think to use a (film) camera back then to record stuff, it just wasn’t something that you did as a kid. The family camera only came out on special occasions. So those projects have been lost in the annals of time.

My first big published magazine project was a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) adapter for PCs, in a 1993 issue of Electronics Australia. I originally designed this in the late 1980s. (See “electronics.alternatezone.com, http://alternatezone.com/electronics/dsoa.ht.)

NAN: You have many interests and talents. What made you choose engineering as your full-time gig?

DAVE: There was no choice, electronics has been my main hobby since I can remember, so electronics engineering was all I ever wanted to do to. I’ve branched out into a few other hobbies over the years, but electronics has always remained what I’ve wanted to do.

NAN: The Electronics Engineering Video Blog—EEVBlog—is touted as “an off-the-cuff video blog for electronics engineers, hobbyists, hackers, and makers.” Tell us about EEVBlog and what inspired you to begin it.

DAVE: I’ve always been into sharing my electronics, either through magazines, via my website, or on newsgroups, so I guess it’s natural that I’d end up doing something like this.

In early 2009 I saw that (WordPress-type) blogs were really taking off for all sorts of topics and some people were even doing “video blogs” on YouTube. I wondered if there were any blogs for electronics, and after a search I found a lot of text-based blogs, but it seemed like no one was doing a video blog about electronics, like a weekly show that people could watch … So I thought it’d be fun to do an electronics video blog and blaze a new trail and see what happened.

Being fairly impulsive, I didn’t think about it much; I just dusted off a horrible old 320 × 240 webcam, sat down in front of my computer, and recorded 10 minutes (the YouTube limit back then) of whatever came into my head. I figured a product review, a book review, a chip review, and some industry news was a good mix … I’ve had constant linear growth since then, and now have a regular weekly audience of over 10,000 viewers and over 4 million views on YouTube. Not to mention that it’s now my full-time job.

The complete April issue of Circuit Cellar is now available. For more information about Dave Jones, his video blog, and podcast, visit www.eevblog.com and www.theamphour.com.

Electronics Engineering Crossword (Issue 261)

The answers to the crossword puzzle published in rCircuit Cellar 261, April 2012.

ACROSS

7. MANCHESTERENCODING—A form of BPSK [two words]

10. REBOOT—Restart

13. HASHTAG—The # label

15. DIRECTORY—File index

17. DAEMON—Takes place behind the scenes

18. FREEBASIC—Open-source programming language compiler

19. MALWARE—Bad code

DOWN

1. PHASESHIFTKEYING—Transports data by altering a reference signal’s phase [three words]

2. FOURIERTRANSFORM—Changes a signal from the time domain to the frequency domain [two words]

3. ATTENUATON—Used to measure signal loss in dB

4. SHANNONTHEOREM—AKA, the noisy-channel coding theorem [two words]

5. BOOLEAN—Logic system named after George Boole

6. FREQUENCYMODULATION—Opposite of AM [two words]

8. COULOMBCOUNTER—Measures battery current [two words]

9. FOURTHGENERATION—4G [two words]

11. FIRSTQUARTILE—25th percentile [two words]

12. NORTONAMPLIFIER—Converts a current to a voltage. [two words]

14. HBRIDGE—Four switching components with the load in center

16. CODIFY—A way to organize

Issue 261: Cap-Touch Amp Design, RL78 Intro, Embedded Linux, & More

The April issue is now available. As usual, it comprises a wide variety of content: a capacitive-touch amplifier design, an intro to using the Renesas RL78 for low-power apps, info on sigma-delta modulators, Linux software development tools, mesh networking tips, an interview with Dave Jones (of The Amp Hour and EEVblog) and more.

One of Dave Jones's old projects from the '80s. It's a Veroboard construction with items from his junk bin (Source: D. Jones, CC261)

A portion of the PIC-based PodAmp schematic (Source: C. Denninger & J. Lichtenfeld, CC261)

You’ll also notice some changes this month to Circuit Cellar magazine and our website. They’re all for the better.

The magazine has an updated layout. We haven’t changed fonts or style, but we did add the imprint you can see on pages 6–7. Its purpose is to show you that we are an ever-growing international company dedicated to bringing you essential information on a variety of important advanced electronics topics.

I added our editorial calendar, as well as a brief summary of the content we have in queue, to page 2. The idea is to give you a clear idea of what we will cover and when you can expect it. Members frequently ask for this information, so it makes sense to make it easily accessible for everyone.

As for CircuitCellar.com, well, you’ve likely watched it change slowly over the past few months. We did this purposely. We developed the site in stages so readers wouldn’t be burdened with dead links and redirects. So, what’s new about the site?

The layout is a bit different. A few things are quickly apparent. One, the site is markedly brighter and easy on the eyes. Two, we created three distinct columns that provide you with easy access to handy articles, digital downloads, and more (see below). Three, we’re tagging and categorizing all the content on our site. Thus, you’ll find targeting specific information to be uncomplicated and immediately gratifying.

What sorts of content can you expect? The old site was fairly static. We’d make several changes each month and we’d run a few viewable articles. Now we’re constantly posting relevant content of all sorts. This means you can rely on CircuitCellar.com for all of your electronics engineering needs: DIY articles, engineering tips, industry news, product reviews, vendor information, issue previews, links to source code, and even job openings in electronics engineering and embedded design.

If you are constantly plugged in, you’ll find our website makes accessing your digital membership a cinch: just point and click to log in and download each issue! Plus, you can add our site to your RSS reader and read our content at your convenience (www.circuitcellar.com/feed/rss).

We are not finished building CircuitCellar.com. In the coming weeks and months, we’ll enable more social interaction, post more videos, and broaden our areas of coverage. I suggest you visit our site each day to get your fix of embedded technology news and info. And please recommend the site to colleagues, friends, and others who have a passion for microcontrollers, programming, and everything else that’s “inside the box.”