Build an Inexpensive Wireless Water Alarm

The best DIY electrical engineering projects are effective, simple, and inexpensive. Devlin Gualtieri’s design of a wireless water alarm, which he describes in Circuit Cellar’s February issue, meets all those requirements.

Like most homeowners, Gualtieri has discovered water leaks in his northern New Jersey home after the damage has already started.

“In all cases, an early warning about water on the floor would have prevented a lot of the resulting damage,” he says.

You can certainly buy water alarm systems that will alert you to everything from a leak in a well-water storage tank to moisture from a cracked boiler. But they typically work with proprietary and expensive home-alarm systems that also charge a monthly “monitoring” fee.

“As an advocate of free and open-source software, it’s not surprising that I object to such schemes,” Gualtieri says.

In February’s Circuit Cellar magazine, now available for membership download or single-issue purchase, Gualtieri describes his battery-operated water alarm. The system, which includes a number of wireless units that signal a single receiver, includes a wireless receiver, audible alarm, and battery monitor to indicate low power.

Photo 1: An interdigital water detection sensor is shown. Alternate rows are lengths of AWG 22 copper wire, which is either bare or has its insulation removed. The sensor is shown mounted to the bottom of the box containing the water alarm circuitry. I attached it with double-stick foam tape, but silicone adhesive should also work.

Photo 1: An interdigital water detection sensor is shown. Alternate rows are lengths of AWG 22 copper wire, which is either bare or has its insulation removed. The sensor is shown mounted to the bottom of the box containing the water alarm circuitry. I attached it with double-stick foam tape, but silicone adhesive should also work.

Because water conducts electricity, Gualtieri sensors are DIY interdigital electrodes that can lie flat on a surface to detect the first presence of water. And their design couldn’t be easier.

“You can simply wind two parallel coils of 22 AWG wire on a perforated board about 2″ by 4″, he says. (See Photo 1.)

He also shares a number of design “tricks,” including one he used to make his low-battery alert work:

“A battery monitor is an important feature of any battery-powered alarm circuit. The Microchip Technology PIC12F675 microcontroller I used in my alarm circuit has 10-bit ADCs that can be optionally assigned to the I/O pins. However, the problem is that the reference voltage for this conversion comes from the battery itself. As the battery drains from 100% downward, so does the voltage reference, so no voltage change would be registered.

Figure 1: This is the portion of the water alarm circuit used for the battery monitor. The series diodes offer a 1.33-V total  drop, which offers a reference voltage so the ADC can see changes in the battery voltage.

Figure 1: This is the portion of the water alarm circuit used for the battery monitor. The series diodes offer a 1.33-V total drop, which offers a reference voltage so the ADC can see changes in the battery voltage.

“I used a simple mathematical trick to enable battery monitoring. Figure 1 shows a portion of the schematic diagram. As you can see, the analog input pin connects to an output pin, which is at the battery voltage when it’s high through a series connection of four small signal diodes (1N4148). The 1-MΩ resistor in series with the diodes limits their current to a few microamps when the output pin is energized. At such low current, the voltage drop across each diode is about 0.35 V. An actual measurement showed the total voltage drop across the four diodes to be 1.33 V.

“This voltage actually presents a new reference value for my analog conversion. The analog conversion now provides the following digital values:

EQ1Table 1 shows the digital values as a function of battery voltage. The nominal voltage of three alkaline cells is 4.75 V. The nominal voltage of three lithium cells is 5.4 V. The PIC12F675 functions from approximately 2 to 6.5 V, but the wireless transmitter needs as much voltage as possible to generate a reliable signal. I arbitrarily coded the battery alarm at 685, or a little above 4 V. That way, there’s still enough power to energize the wireless transmitter at a useful power level.”

Table 1
Battery Voltage ADC Value
5 751
4.75 737
4.5 721
4.24 704
4 683
3.75 661

 

Gaultieri’s wireless transmitter, utilizing lower-frequency bands, is also straightforward.

Photo 2 shows one of the transmitter modules I used in my system,” he says. “The round device is a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator. It just takes a few components to transform this into a low-power transmitter operable over a wide supply voltage range, up to 12 V. The companion receiver module is also shown. My alarm has a 916.5-MHz operating frequency, but 433 MHz is a more popular alarm frequency with many similar modules.”

These transmitter and receiver modules are used in the water alarm. The modules operate at 916.5 MHz, but 433 MHz is a more common alarm frequency with similar modules. The scale is inches.

Photo 2: These transmitter and receiver modules are used in the water alarm. The modules operate at 916.5 MHz, but 433 MHz is a more common alarm frequency with similar modules. The scale is inches.

Gualtieri goes on to describe the alarm circuitry (see Photo 3) and receiver circuit (see Photo 4.)

For more details on this easy and affordable early-warning water alarm, check out the February issue.

Photo 3: This is the water alarm’s interior. The transmitter module with its antenna can be seen in the upper right. The battery holder was harvested from a $1 LED flashlight. The box is 2.25“ × 3.5“, excluding the tabs.

Photo 3: This is the water alarm’s interior. The transmitter module with its antenna can be seen in the upper right. The battery holder was harvested from a $1 LED flashlight. The box is 2.25“ × 3.5“, excluding the tabs.

Photo 4: Here is my receiver circuit. One connector was used to monitor the signal strength voltage during development. The other connector feeds an input on a home alarm system. The short antenna reveals its 916.5-MHz operating frequency. Modules with a 433-MHz frequency will have a longer antenna.

Photo 4: Here is my receiver circuit. One connector was used to monitor the signal strength voltage during development. The other connector feeds an input on a home alarm system. The short antenna reveals its 916.5-MHz operating frequency. Modules with a 433-MHz frequency will have a longer antenna.

 

Multi-Zone Home Audio System

Dave Erickson built his first multi-zone audio system in the early 1990s using C microprocessor code he developed on Freescale MC68HC11 microprocessors. The system has been an important part of his home.

“I used this system for more than 15 years and was satisfied with its ability to send different sounds to the different rooms in my house as well as the basement and the deck,” he says. “But the system needed an upgrade.”

In Circuit Cellar’s January and February issues, Erickson describes how he upgraded the eight-zone system, which uses microprocessor-controlled analog circuitry. In the end, his project not only improved his home audio experience, it also won second place in a 2011 STMicroelectronics design contest.

Several system components needed updating, including the IR remote, graphic LCD, and microprocessor. “IR remotes went obsolete, so the IR codes needed to change,” Erickson says. “The system was 90% hand-wired and pretty messy. The LCD and several other parts became obsolete and the C development tools had expired. Processors had evolved to include flash memory and development tools evolved beyond the old burn-and-pray method.”

“My goal was to build a modern, smaller, cleaner, and more efficient system,” he says. “I decided to upgrade it with a recent processor and LCD and to use real PC boards.”

Photo 1: Clockwise from the upper left, the whole-house system includes the crosspoint board, two quad preamplifiers, two two-zone stereo amplifiers, an AC transformer, power supplies, and the CPU board with the STMicroelectronics STM32VLDISCOVERY board.

Photo 1: Clockwise from the upper left, the whole-house system includes the crosspoint board, two quad preamplifiers, two two-zone stereo amplifiers, an AC transformer, power supplies, and the CPU board with the STMicroelectronics STM32VLDISCOVERY board.

Erickson chose the STMicroelectronics STM32F100 microprocessor and the work incentive of a design contest deadline (see Photo 1).

“STMicroelectronics’s excellent libraries and examples helped me get the complex ARM Cortex-M3 peripherals working quickly,” he says. “Choosing the STM32F100 processor was a bit of overkill, but I hoped to later use it to add future capabilities (e.g., a web page and Ethernet control) and possibly even a simple music server and audio streaming.”

In Part 1 of the series, Erickson explains the design’s audio sections, including the crosspoint board, quad preamplifiers, modular audio amplifiers, and packaging. He also addresses challenges along the way.

Erickson’s Part 1 provides the following overview of the system, including its “analog heart”—the crosspoint board:

Figure 1 shows the system design including the power supplies, front-panel controls, and the audio and CPU boards. The system is modular, so there is flexibility in the front-panel controls and the number of channels and amplifiers. My goal was to fit it all into one 19”, 2U (3.5”) high rack enclosure.

The CPU board is based on a STM32F100 module containing a Cortex-M3-based processor and a USB programming interface. The CPU receives commands from a front-panel keypad, an IR remote control, an encoder knob, RS-232, and external keypads for each zone. It displays its status on a graphic LCD and controls the audio circuitry on the crosspoint and two quad preamplifier boards.

The system block diagram shows the boards, controls, amplifiers, and power supplies.

The system block diagram shows the boards, controls, amplifiers, and power supplies.


Photo 2 shows the crosspoint board, which is the analog heart of the system. It receives line-level audio signals from up to eight stereo sources via RCA jacks and routes audio to the eight preamplifier channels located on two quad preamplifier boards. It also distributes digital control and power to the preamplifiers. The preamplifier boards can either send line-level outputs or drive stereo amplifiers, either internal or external to the system.

My current system uses four line-level outputs to drive PCs or powered speakers in four of the zones. It also contains internal 40-W stereo amplifiers to directly drive speakers in the four other zones. Up to six stereo amplifiers can reside in the enclosure.

Photo 2: The crosspoint board shows the RCA input jacks (top), ribbon cable connections to the quad preamplifiers (right), and control and power cable from the CPU (bottom). Rev0 has a few black wires (lower center).

Photo 2: The crosspoint board shows the RCA input jacks (top), ribbon cable connections to the quad preamplifiers (right), and control and power cable from the CPU (bottom). Rev0 has a few black wires (lower center).

DIYers dealing with signal leakage issues in their projects may learn something from Erickson’s approach to achieving low channel-to-channel crosstalk and no audible digital crosstalk. “The low crosstalk requirement is to prevent loud music in one zone from disturbing quiet passages in another,” he says.

In Part 1, Erickson explains the crosspoint and his “grounding/guarding” approach to transmitting high-quality audio, power, and logic control signals on the same cable:

The crosspoint receives digital control from the CPU board, receives external audio signals, and distributes audio signals to the preamplifier boards and then on to the amplifiers. It was convenient to use this board to distribute the control signals and the power supply voltages to the preamplifier channels. I used 0.1” dual-row ribbon cables to simplify the wiring. These are low-cost and easy to build.

To transmit high-quality audio along with power and logic control signals on the same cable, it is important to use a lot of grounds. Two 34-pin cables each connect to a quad preamplifier board. In each of these cables, four channels of stereo audio are sent with alternating signals and grounds. The alternating grounds act as electric field “guards” to reduce crosstalk. There are just two active logic signals: I2C clock and data. Power supply voltages (±12 and 5 V) are also sent to the preamplifiers with multiple grounds to carry the return currents.

I used a similar grounding/guarding approach throughout the design to minimize crosstalk, both from channel to channel and from digital to analog. On the two-layer boards, I used ground planes on the bottom layer. Grounded guard traces or ground planes are used on the top layer. These measures minimize the capacitance between analog traces and thus minimize crosstalk. The digital and I2C signals are physically separated from analog signals. Where they need to be run nearby, they are separated by ground planes or guard traces.

To find out more about how Erickson upgraded his audio system, download the January issue (now available online) and the upcoming February issue. In Part 2, Erickson focuses on his improved system’s digital CPU, the controls, and future plans.

Compact Wi-Fi Transceiver

Lemos

The LEMOS-LMX-WiFi wireless transceiver

The LEMOS-LMX-WiFi is a compact wireless transceiver that can operate on IEEE 802.11 networks. It is supported by a 32-bit microcontroller running a scalable TCP/IP stack. The transceiver is well suited for wireless embedded applications involving digital remote control, digital and analog remote monitoring, asset tracking, security systems, point of sale terminals, sensor monitoring, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, environmental monitoring and control.

The 40.64-mm × 73.66-mm transceiver is available in two models: integrated PCB antenna or external antenna. Its features include software-selectable analog and digital I/O pins, a 2-Mbps maximum data rate, and a unique IEEE MAC address.

The LEMOS-LMX-WiFi can be powered by any 3.3-V to – 6-VDC source that can deliver 200 mA of current. The transceiver can interface to external devices that communicate via USART, I2C, and SPI. It also supports infrastructure and ad hoc networks.

Contact Lemos International for pricing.

Lemos International, Inc.
www.lemosint.com

A Look at Low-Noise Amplifiers

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio, who has a PhD in Physics, is an Italian telecommunications engineer who works mainly as a software developer with a focus on data acquisition systems. Emilio has authored articles about electronic designs, data acquisition systems, power supplies, and photovoltaic systems. In this article, he provides an overview of what is generally available in low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) and some of the applications.

By Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio
An LNA, or preamplifier, is an electronic amplifier used to amplify sometimes very weak signals. To minimize signal power loss, it is usually located close to the signal source (antenna or sensor). An LNA is ideal for many applications including low-temperature measurements, optical detection, and audio engineering. This article presents LNA systems and ICs.

Signal amplifiers are electronic devices that can amplify a relatively small signal from a sensor (e.g., temperature sensors and magnetic-field sensors). The parameters that describe an amplifier’s quality are:

  • Gain: The ratio between output and input power or amplitude, usually measured in decibels
  • Bandwidth: The range of frequencies in which the amplifier works correctly
  • Noise: The noise level introduced in the amplification process
  • Slew rate: The maximum rate of voltage change per unit of time
  • Overshoot: The tendency of the output to swing beyond its final value before settling down

Feedback amplifiers combine the output and input so a negative feedback opposes the original signal (see Figure 1). Feedback in amplifiers provides better performance. In particular, it increases amplification stability, reduces distortion, and increases the amplifier’s bandwidth.

 Figure 1: A feedback amplifier model is shown here.


Figure 1: A feedback amplifier model is shown.

A preamplifier amplifies an analog signal, generally in the stage that precedes a higher-power amplifier.

IC LOW-NOISE PREAMPLIFIERS
Op-amps are widely used as AC amplifiers. Linear Technology’s LT1028 or LT1128 and Analog Devices’s ADA4898 or AD8597 are especially suitable ultra-low-noise amplifiers. The LT1128 is an ultra-low-noise, high-speed op-amp. Its main characteristics are:

  • Noise voltage: 0.85 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz
  • Bandwidth: 13 MHz
  • Slew rate: 5 V/µs
  • Offset voltage: 40 µV

Both the Linear Technology and Analog Devices amplifiers have voltage noise density at 1 kHz at around 1 nV/√Hz  and also offer excellent DC precision. Texas Instruments (TI)  offers some very low-noise amplifiers. They include the OPA211, which has 1.1 nV/√Hz  noise density at a  3.6 mA from 5 V supply current and the LME49990, which has very low distortion. Maxim Integrated offers the MAX9632 with noise below 1nV/√Hz.

The op-amp can be realized with a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), as in the case of the LT1128, or a MOSFET, which works at higher frequencies and with a higher input impedance and a lower energy consumption. The differential structure is used in applications where it is necessary to eliminate the undesired common components to the two inputs. Because of this, low-frequency and DC common-mode signals (e.g., thermal drift) are eliminated at the output. A differential gain can be defined as (Ad = A2 – A1) and a common-mode gain can be defined as (Ac = A1 + A2 = 2).

An important parameter is the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), which is the ratio of common-mode gain to the differential-mode gain. This parameter is used to measure the  differential amplifier’s performance.

Figure 2: The design of a simple preamplifier is shown. Its main components are the Linear Technology LT112 and the Interfet IF3602 junction field-effect transistor (JFET).

Figure 2: The design of a simple preamplifier is shown. Its main components are the Linear Technology LT1128 and the Interfet IF3602 junction field-effect transistor (JFET).

Figure 2 shows a simple preamplifier’s design with 0.8 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz background noise. Its main components are the LT1128 and the Interfet IF3602 junction field-effect transistor (JFET).  The IF3602 is a dual N-channel JFET used as stage for the op-amp’s input. Figure 3 shows the gain and Figure 4 shows the noise response.

Figure 3: The gain of a low-noise preamplifier.

Figure 3: The is a low-noise preamplifier’s gain.

 

Figure 4: The noise response of a low-noise preamplifier

Figure 4: A low-noise preamplifier’s noise response is shown.

LOW NOISE PREAMPLIFIER SYSTEMS
The Stanford Research Systems SR560 low-noise voltage preamplifier has a differential front end with 4nV/√Hz input noise and a 100-MΩ input impedance (see Photo 1a). Input offset nulling is accomplished by a front-panel potentiometer, which is accessible with a small screwdriver. In addition to the signal inputs, a rear-panel TTL blanking input enables you to quickly turn the instrument’s gain on and off (see Photo 1b).

Photo 1a:The Stanford Research Systems SR560 low-noise voltage preamplifier

Photo 1a: The Stanford Research Systems SR560 low-noise voltage preamplifier. (Photo courtesy of Stanford Research Systems)

Photo 1 b: A rear-panel TTL blanking input enables you to quickly turn the Stanford Research Systems SR560 gain on and off.

Photo 1b: A rear-panel TTL blanking input enables you to quickly turn the Stanford Research Systems SR560 gain on and off. (Photo courtesy of Stanford Research Systems)

The Picotest J2180A low-noise preamplifier provides a fixed 20-dB gain while converting a 1-MΩ input impedance to a 50-Ω output impedance and 0.1-Hz to 100-MHz bandwidth (see Photo 2). The preamplifier is used to improve the sensitivity of oscilloscopes, network analyzers, and spectrum analyzers while reducing the effective noise floor and spurious response.

Photo 2: The Picotest J2180A low-noise preamplifier is shown.

Photo 2: The Picotest J2180A low-noise preamplifier is shown. (Photo courtesy of picotest.com)

Signal Recovery’s Model 5113 is among the best low-noise preamplifier systems. Its principal characteristics are:

  • Single-ended or differential input modes
  • DC to 1-MHz frequency response
  • Optional low-pass, band-pass, or high-pass signal channel filtering
  • Sleep mode to eliminate digital noise
  • Optically isolated RS-232 control interface
  • Battery or line power

The 5113 (see Photo 3 and Figure 5) is used in applications as diverse as radio astronomy, audiometry, test and measurement, process control, and general-purpose signal amplification. It’s also ideally suited to work with a range of lock-in amplifiers.

Photo 3: This is the Signal Recovery Model 5113 low-noise pre-amplifier.

Photo 3: This is the Signal Recovery Model 5113 low-noise preamplifier. (Photo courtesy of Signal Recovery)

Figure 5: Noise contour figures are shown for the Signal Recovery Model 5113.

Figure 5: Noise contour figures are shown for the Signal Recovery Model 5113.

WRAPPING UP
This article briefly introduced low-noise amplifiers, in particular IC system designs utilized in simple or more complex systems such as the Signal Recovery Model 5113, which is a classic amplifier able to obtain different frequency bands with relative gain. A similar device is the SR560, which is a high-performance, low-noise preamplifier that is ideal for a wide variety of applications including low-temperature measurements, optical detection, and audio engineering.

Moreover, the Krohn-Hite custom Models 7000 and 7008 low-noise differential preamplifiers provide a high gain amplification to 1 MHz with an AC output derived from a very-low-noise FET instrumentation amplifier.

One common LNA amplifier is a satellite communications system. The ground station receiving antenna will connect to an LNA, which is needed because the received signal is weak. The received signal is usually a little above background noise. Satellites have limited power, so they use low-power transmitters.

Telecommunications engineer Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio was born in Pescara, Italy. Working mainly as a software developer with a focus on data acquisition systems, he helped design the thermal compensation system (TCS) for the optical system used in the Virgo Experiment (an experiment for detecting gravitational waves). Maurizio currently collaborates with researchers at the University of L’Aquila on X-ray technology. He also develops data acquisition hardware and software for industrial applications and manages technical training courses. To learn more about Maurizio and his expertise, read his essay on “The Future of Data Acquisition Technology.”

I/O Raspberry Pi Expansion Card

The RIO is an I/O expansion card intended for use with the Raspberry Pi SBC. The card stacks on top of a Raspberry Pi to create a powerful embedded control and navigation computer in a small 20-mm × 65-mm × 85-mm footprint. The RIO is well suited for applications requiring real-world interfacing, such as robotics, industrial and home automation, and data acquisition and control.

RoboteqThe RIO adds 13 inputs that can be configured as digital inputs, 0-to-5-V analog inputs with 12-bit resolution, or pulse inputs capable of pulse width, duty cycle, or frequency capture. Eight digital outputs are provided to drive loads up to 1 A each at up to 24 V.
The RIO includes a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller that processes and buffers the I/O and creates a seamless communication with the Raspberry Pi. The RIO processor can be user-programmed with a simple BASIC-like programming language, enabling it to perform logic, conditioning, and other I/O processing in real time. On the Linux side, RIO comes with drivers and a function library to quickly configure and access the I/O and to exchange data with the Raspberry Pi.

The RIO features several communication interfaces, including an RS-232 serial port to connect to standard serial devices, a TTL serial port to connect to Arduino and other microcontrollers that aren’t equipped with a RS-232 transceiver, and a CAN bus interface.
The RIO is available in two versions. The RIO-BASIC costs $85 and the RIO-AHRS costs $175.

Roboteq, Inc.
www.roboteq.com