Cypress Semiconductor Corp. recently announced its radiation-hardened (RadHard) 72-Mb Quad Data Rate II+ (QDR-II+) SRAMs and 4-Mb fast asynchronous SRAMs have achieved Qualified Manufacturers List Class V and Class Q requirements—the highest standards of quality and reliability for aerospace-grade ICs.
The 72-Mbit QDR-II+ SRAMs deliver industry-leading throughput performance up to 36 Gbps by leveraging the ability to read and write data simultaneously. This throughput, combined with complete random access of data and free memory controllers for FPGAs, enables reconfigurable computing platforms that allow satellites to be reprogrammed while in space. The devices also feature the industry’s lowest latency and are ideal for radar and networking applications used in space
Both new SRAM families employ Cypress’s patented RadStop technology, which enables uncompromised functionality in the face of radiation up to 300 krads. The devices are manufactured in the Cypress’s fabrication facility in Bloomington, Minnesota, which is Microelectronics Trusted Category 1A accredited.
The radiation-hardened 4-Mbit devices deliver access times of 10 ns at 85°C and 12 ns at 125°C. They are also the first 90-nm, QML-V qualified devices of their kind and are ideal for a wide range of space and military applications.
Cypress’s RadStop technology combines manufacturing process hardening and proprietary design techniques. With RadStop technology, the SRAMs deliver single event latch-up immunity and single event functional interrupt immunity at temperatures as high as 125°C.
The Rad-Hard 72-Mb QDR-II+ SRAMs are available in a 165-column grid array (CGA) package. The devices come in the following four part numbers and configurations with equivalent Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) part numbers:
CYRS1542AV18-250GCMB (x18 bus width, burst of 2); Class V part number: 5962F1120101VXA
CYRS1543AV18-250GCMB (x18 bus width, burst of 4); Class V part number: 5962F1120102VXA
CYRS1544AV18-250GCMB (x36 bus width, burst of 2); Class V part number: 5962F1120201VXA
CYRS1545AV18-250GCMB (x36 bus width, burst of 4); Class V part number: 5962F1120202VXA
The CYRS1049DV33-12FZMB (5962F1123501VXA) 4-Mb fast asynchronous SRAMs are available in a 36-pin ceramic flat package.
Ready to start a low-power or energy-monitoring microcontroller-based design project? You’re in luck. We’re featuring eight award-winning, green energy-related designs that will help get your creative juices flowing.
The projects listed below placed at the top of Renesas’s RL78 Green Energy Challenge.
Electrostatic Cleaning Robot: Solar tracking mirrors, called heliostats, are an integral part of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. They must be kept clean to help maximize the production of steam, which generates power. Using an RL78, the innovative Electrostatic Cleaning Robot provides a reliable cleaning solution that’s powered entirely by photovoltaic cells. The robot traverses the surface of the mirror and uses a high voltage AC electric field to sweep away dust and debris.
Parts and circuitry inside the robot cleaner
Cloud Electrofusion Machine: Using approximately 400 times less energy than commercial electrofusion machines, the Cloud Electrofusion Machine is designed for welding 0.5″ to 2″ polyethylene fittings. The RL78-controlled machine is designed to read a barcode on the fitting which determines fusion parameters and traceability. Along with the barcode data, the system logs GPS location to an SD card, if present, and transmits the data for each fusion to a cloud database for tracking purposes and quality control.
Inside the electrofusion machine (Source: M. Hamilton)
The Sun Chaser: A GPS Reference Station: The Sun Chaser is a well-designed, solar-based energy harvesting system that automatically recalculates the direction of a solar panel to ensure it is always facing the sun. Mounted on a rotating disc, the solar panel’s orientation is calculated using the registered GPS position. With an external compass, the internal accelerometer, a DC motor and stepper motor, you can determine the solar panel’s exact position. The system uses the Renesas RDKRL78G13 evaluation board running the Micrium µC/OS-III real-time kernel.
Water Heater by Solar Concentration: This solar water heater is powered by the RL78 evaluation board and designed to deflect concentrated amounts of sunlight onto a water pipe for continual heating. The deflector, armed with a counterweight for easy tilting, automatically adjusts the angle of reflection for maximum solar energy using the lowest power consumption possible.
RL78-based solar water heater (Source: P. Berquin)
Air Quality Mapper: Want to make sure the air along your daily walking path is clean? The Air Quality Mapper is a portable device designed to track levels of CO2 and CO gasses for constructing “Smog Maps” to determine the healthiest routes. Constructed with an RDKRL78G13, the Mapper receives location data from its GPS module, takes readings of the CO2 and CO concentrations along a specific route and stores the data in an SD card. Using a PC, you can parse the SD card data, plot it, and upload it automatically to an online MySQL database that presents the data in a Google map.
Air quality mapper design (Source: R. Alvarez Torrico)
Wireless Remote Solar-Powered “Meteo Sensor”: You can easily measure meteorological parameters with the “Meteo Sensor.” The RL78 MCU-based design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. Receivers are configured for listening of incoming data on the same radio channel. It simplifies the way weather data is gathered and eases construction of local measurement networks while being optimized for low energy usage and long battery life.
The design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. (Source: G. Kaczmarek)
Portable Power Quality Meter: Monitoring electrical usage is becoming increasingly popular in modern homes. The Portable Power Quality Meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis.
The portable power quality meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis. (Source: A. Barbosa)
High-Altitude Low-Cost Experimental Glider (HALO): The “HALO” experimental glider project consists of three main parts. A weather balloon is the carrier section. A glider (the payload of the balloon) is the return section. A ground base section is used for communication and display telemetry data (not part of the contest project). Using the REFLEX flight simulator for testing, the glider has its own micro-GPS receiver, sensors and low-power MCU unit. It can take off, climb to pre-programmed altitude and return to a given coordinate.
High-altitude low-cost experimental glider (Source: J. Altenburg)
I’ve had good cause to be reading and perusing a few old Circuit Cellar articles every day for the past several weeks. We’re preparing the upcoming 25th anniversary issue of Circuit Cellar, and part of the process is reviewing the company’s archives back to the first issue. As I read through Circuit Cellar 143 (2002) the other day I thought, why wait until the end of the year to expose our readers to such intriguing articles? Since joining Elektor International Media in 2009, thousands of engineers and students across the globe have become familiar with our magazine, and most of them are unfamiliar with the early articles. It was in those articles that engineers set the foundation for the development of today’s embedded technologies.
Over the next few months, I will highlight some past articles here on CircuitCellar.com as well as in our print magazine. I encourage long-time readers to revisit these articles and projects and reflect on their past and present use values. Newer readers should not regard them as simply historical documents detailing outdated technologies. Not only did the technologies covered lead to the high-level engineering you do today, many of those technologies are still in use.
The article below is about Thomas Black’s “BatMon” battery monitor for RC applications (Circuit Cellar 143, 2002). I am leading with it simply because it was one of the first I worked on.
For years, hobbyists have relied on voltmeters and guesswork to monitor the storage capacity of battery packs for RC models. Black’s precise high-tech battery monitor is small enough to be mounted in the cockpit of an RC model helicopter. Black writes:
I hate to see folks suffer with old-fashioned remedies. After three decades of such anguish, I decided that enough is enough. So what am I talking about? Well, my focus for today’s pain relief is related to monitoring the battery packs used in RC models. The cure comes as BatMon, the sophisticated battery monitoring accessory shown in Photo 1.
Photo 1: The BatMon is small enough to fit in most RC models. The three cables plug into the model’s RC system. A bright LED remotely warns the pilot of battery trouble. The single character display reports the remaining capacity of the battery.
Today, electric model hobbyists use the digital watt-meter devices, but they are designed to monitor the heavy currents consumed by electric motors. I wanted finer resolution so I could use it with my RC receiver and servos. With that in mind, a couple of years ago, I convinced my firm that we should tackle this challenge…My solution evolved into the BatMon, a standalone device that can mount in each model aircraft (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Installation in an RC model is as simple as plugging in three cables. Multiple point measurements allow the system to detect battery-related trouble. Voltage detection at the RC receiver even helps detect stalled servos and electrical issues.
This is not your typical larger-than-life Gotham City solution. It’s only 1.3″ × 2.8″ and weighs one ounce. But the BatMon does have the typical dual persona expected of a super hero. For user simplicity, it reports battery capacity as a zero to nine (0% to 90%) level value. This is my favorite mode because it works just like a car’s gas gauge. However, for those of you who must see hard numbers, it also reports the actual remaining capacity—up to 2500 mAH—with 5% accuracy. In addition, it reports problems associated with battery pack failures, bad on/off switches, and defective servos. A super-bright LED indicator flashes if any trouble is detected. Even in moderate sunlight this visual indicator can be seen from a couple hundred feet away, which is perfect for fly-by checks. The BatMon is compatible with all of the popular battery sizes. Pack capacities from 100 mAH to 2500 mAH can be used. They can be either four-cell or five-cell of either NiCD or NiMH chemistries. The battery parameters are programmed by using a push button and simple menu interface. The battery gauging IC that I used is from Dallas Semiconductor (now Maxim). There are other firms that have similar parts (Unitrode, TI, etc.), but the Dallas DS2438 Smart Battery Monitor was a perfect choice for my RC application (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: A battery fuel gauging IC and a microcontroller are combined to accurately measure the current consumption of an RC system. The singlecharacter LCD is used to display battery data and status messages.
This eight-pin coulomb counting chip contains an A/D-based current accumulator, A/D voltage convertor, and a slew of other features that are needed to get the job done. The famous Dallas one-wire I/O method provides an efficient interface to a PIC16C63 microcontroller…In the BatMon, the one-wire bus begins at pin 6 (port RA4) of the PIC16C63 microcontroller and terminates at the DS2438’s DQ I/O line (pin 8). Using bit-banging I/O, the PIC can read and write the necessary registers. The timing is critical, but the PIC is capable of handling the chore…The BatMon is not a good candidate for perfboard construction. A big issue is that RC models present a harsh operating environment. Vibration and less than pleasant landings demand that you use rugged electronic assembly techniques. My vote is that you design a circuit board for it. It is not a complicated circuit, so with the help of a freeware PCB program you should be on your way…The connections to the battery pack and receiver are made with standard RC hobby servo connectors. They are available at most RC hobby shops. You will need a 22-AWG, two-conductor female cable for the battery (J1), a 22-AWG, two-conductor male for the RC switch (J2), and a three-conductor (any AWG) for the Aux In (J3) connector…The finished unit is mounted in the model’s cockpit using double-sided tape or held with rubber bands (see Photo 2).
Photo 2: Here's how the battery monitor looks installed in the RC model helicopter’s cockpit. You can use the BatMon on RC airplanes, cars, and boats too. Or, you could adapt the design for battery monitoring applications that aren’t RC-related.
Thomas Black designs and supports high-tech devices for the consumer and industrial markets. He is currently involved in telecom test products. During his free time, he can be found flying his RC models. Sometimes he attempts to improve his models by creating odd electronic designs, most of which are greeted by puzzled amusement from his flying pals.
In a TEDTalk Thursday, engineer Vijay Kumar presented an exciting innovation in the field of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology. He detailed how a team of UPenn engineers retrofitted compact aerial robots with embedded technologies that enable them to swarm and operate as a team to take on a variety of remarkable tasks. A swarm can complete construction projects, orchestrate a nine-instrument piece of music, and much more.
The 0.1-lb aerial robot Kumar presented on stage—built by UPenn students Alex Kushleyev and Daniel Mellinger—consumed approximately 15 W, he said. The 8-inch design—which can operate outdoors or indoors without GPS—featured onboard accelerometers, gyros, and processors.
“An on-board processor essentially looks at what motions need to be executed, and combines these motions, and figures out what commands to send to the motors 600 times a second,” Kumar said.
Watch the video for the entire talk and demonstration. Nine aerial robots play six instruments at the 14:49 minute mark.