March Circuit Cellar: Sneak Preview

The March issue of Circuit Cellar magazine is coming soon. And we’ve got a healthy serving of embedded electronics articles for you. Here’s a sneak peak.

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Here’s a sneak preview of March 2018 Circuit Cellar:

TECHNOLOGY FOR THE INTERNET-OF-THINGS

IoT: From Device to Gateway
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most dynamic areas of embedded systems design today. This feature focuses on the technologies and products from edge IoT devices up to IoT gateways. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child examines the wireless technologies, sensors, edge devices and IoT gateway technologies at the center of this phenomenon.

Texting and IoT Embedded Devices
Texting has become a huge part of our daily lives. But can texting be leveraged for use in IoT Wi-Fi devices? Jeff Bachiochi lays the groundwork for describing a project that will involve texting. In this part, he gets into out the details for getting started with a look at Espressif System’s ESP8266EX SoC.

Exploring the ESP32’s Peripheral Blocks
What makes an embedded processor suitable as an IoT or home control device? Wi-Fi support is just part of the picture. Brian Millier has done some Wi-Fi projects using the ESP32, so here he shares his insights about the peripherals on the ESP32 and why they’re so powerful.

MICROCONTROLLERS HERE, THERE & EVERYWHERE

Designing a Home Cleaning Robot (Part 4)
In this final part of his four-part article series about building a home cleaning robot, Nishant Mittal discusses the firmware part of the system and gets into the system’s actual operation. The robot is based on Cypress Semiconductor’s PSoC microcontroller.

Apartment Entry System Uses PIC32
Learn how a Cornell undergraduate built a system that enables an apartment resident to enter when keys are lost or to grant access to a guest when there’s no one home. The system consists of a microphone connected to a Microchip PIC32 MCU that controls a push solenoid to actuate the unlock button.

Posture Corrector Leverages Bluetooth
Learn how these Cornell students built a posture corrector that helps remind you to sit up straight. Using vibration and visual cues, this wearable device is paired with a phone app and makes use of Bluetooth and Microchip PIC32 technology.

INTERACTING WITH THE ANALOG WORLD

Product Focus: ADCs and DACs
Makers of analog ICs are constantly evolving their DAC and ADC chips pushing the barriers of resolution and speeds. This new Product Focus section updates readers on this technology and provides a product album of representative ADC and DAC products.

Stepper Motor Waveforms
Using inexpensive microcontrollers, motor drivers, stepper motors and other hardware, columnist Ed Nisley built himself a Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machines. In this article Ed examines how the CNC’s stepper motors perform, then pushes one well beyond its normal limits.

Measuring Acceleration
Sensors are a fundamental part of what make smart machines smart. And accelerometers are one of the most important of these. In this article, George Novacek examines the principles behind accelerometers and how the technology works.

SOFTWARE TOOLS AND PROTOTYPING

Trace and Code Coverage Tools
Today it’s not uncommon for embedded devices to have millions of lines of software code. Trace and code coverage tools have kept pace with these demands making it easier for embedded developers to analyze, debug and verify complex embedded software. Circuit Cellar Chief Editor Jeff Child explores the latest technology trends and product developments in trace and code coverage tools.

Manual Pick-n-Place Assembly Helper
Prototyping embedded systems is an important part of the development cycle. In this article, Colin O’Flynn presents an open-source tool that helps you assemble prototype devices by making the placement process even easier.

Gas Monitoring and Sensing (Part 1)

Fun with Fragrant Analysis

Gas sensing technology has come long way since the days of canaries in coal mines. This month columnist Jeff covers the background issues surrounding gas monitoring and sensing. Then he describes how he uses sensors, A/D conversion and Arduino technologies to do oxygen measurement.

By Jeff Bachiochi

When coal miners began dropping like flies, it was determined that poisonous gas was the culprit. To date there was no test to detect the presence of this odorless ghost. Sacrificial canaries became the guinea pigs, giving up their lives to save the miners. These birds are especially sensitive to methane and carbon monoxide. When the song bird stopped singing, miners headed for a breath of fresh air until the mine could be cleared of the silent killer.

Seemingly ripe for disaster, the flame height of an oil lamp was used for detecting dangerous conditions in the 1800s. A shrinking flame indicated reduced oxygen, while a stronger flame indicated the presence of methane—or other combustible gas. Flame arrestors kept the combustion internal to the lamp, preventing external gas ignition unless it was dropped.

In the 1900s, it was discovered that the current through an electric heater was affected when nearby combustible gases increased in temperature. The use of a catalytic material—such as palladium—lowers the temperature at which combustion takes place. Using these heaters in a Whetstone bridge configuration—where one leg is exposed to the gas—can create an easily measured imbalance proportional to the concentration of the combustible gas.

Infrared light can be used to measure the concentration of many hydrocarbon gases. When compared to a gas-free path, the IR absorption through a gas can indicate the concentration of hydrocarbon molecules. Gases can be identified by their molecular makeup. That is the amount of each element present. Absorption bands can be identified by dispersion through diffraction or non-dispersion through filtration. Concentration is the relationship of a particular wavelength between a reference path and a gas absorption path.

Table Untitled

This summary of the basic gas sensing methods includes their advantages, disadvantages and general areas of use. (Source: www.equipcoservices.com/support/reference/ionization-potentials-of-common-chemicals),

There are many techniques available today for monitoring gases. Refer to Table 1 for a breakdown of gas monitoring methods and their associated advantages and disadvantages. HAZMAT Class 2 in United States identifies all gases which can be compressed and stored for transportation. Even though we are not directly dealing with storage or transportation, the class is further defined by three groups of gases: flammable, toxic and others (non-flammable).

Read the full article in the October 327 issue of Circuit Cellar

We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.
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