Specs & Code Matter (EE Tip #136)

MCU

No matter how many engineering hours you’ve logged over the years, it’s always a good idea to keep in mind that properly focusing on specs and code can make or break a project. In 2013, Aubrey Kagan—an experienced engineer and … Continue reading

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One-Wire RS-232 Half Duplex (EE Tip #135)

Grun2-HalfDup

Traditional RS-232 communication needs one transmit line (TXD or TX), one receive line (RXD or RX), and a Ground return line. The setup allows a full-duplex communication. However, many applications use only half-duplex transmissions, as protocols often rely on a … Continue reading

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Low-Drop Series Regulator Using a TL431 (EE Tip #134)

EL2009-Kruger-SeriesReg

You likely have a stash of 12-V lead acid batteries (such as the sealed gel cell type) in your lab or circuit cellar. Below is a handy tip from Germany-based Lars Krüger for a simple way to charge them. A … Continue reading

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What Is Emissivity? (EE Tip #133)

Fig1-IR-Rad-Elektor

All objects radiate infrared energy. The warmer an object is, the faster the molecules in the object move about, and as a result the more infrared energy it radiates. The wavelength of this radiation lies roughly between 0.5 and 100 … Continue reading

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Measuring Jitter (EE Tip #132)

Figure 4—Time interval error (TIE) is another way to measure jitter. Here, the actual transitions are compared to a reference clock, which is supposed to be “perfect,” providing the TIE. This reference can be either another physical signal or it can be generated using a PLL. The measured signal’s accumulated plot, triggered by the reference clock, also provides the so-called eye diagram.

Jitter is one of the parameters you should consider when designing a project, especially when it involves planning a high-speed digital system. Moreover, jitter investigation—performed either manually or with the help of proper measurement tools—can provide you with a thorough … Continue reading

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