About Circuit Cellar Staff

Circuit Cellar's editorial team comprises professional engineers, technical editors, and digital media specialists. You can reach the Editorial Department at editorial@circuitcellar.com, @circuitcellar, and facebook.com/circuitcellar

4-Mb Asynchronous SRAMs with On-Chip Error-Correcting Code

Cypress Semiconductor Corp. recently started sampling 4-Mb asynchronous SRAMs with Error-Correcting Code (ECC). The on-chip ECC feature of the new SRAMs enables them to provide the highest levels of data reliability, without the need for additional error correction chips—simplifying designs and reducing board space. The devices ensure data reliability in a wide variety of industrial, military, communication, data processing, medical, consumer, and automotive applications.

Source: Cypress

Source: Cypress

Soft errors caused by background radiation can corrupt memory content, resulting in a loss of critical data. A hardware ECC block in Cypress’s new asynchronous SRAM family performs all error correction functions inline, without user intervention, delivering best-in-class Soft Error Rate (SER) performance of less than 0.1 FIT/Mb (one FIT is equivalent to one error per billion hours of device operation). The new devices are pin-compatible with current asynchronous fast and low-power SRAMs, enabling customers to boost system reliability while retaining board layout. The 4-Mb SRAMs also include an optional error indication signal that indicates the correction of single-bit errors.

The Cypress 4-Mb asynchronous SRAMs are available in three options—Fast, MoBL and Fast with PowerSnooze—an additional power-saving Deep Sleep mode that achieves 15 µA (max) deep-sleep current for the 4-Mb SRAM. Each of the options is offered in industry standard ×8 and ×16 configurations. The devices operate at multiple voltages (1.8, 3, and 5 V) over –40°C to 85°C (Industrial) and –40°C to +125°C (Automotive-E) temperature ranges.

The new SRAMs are currently sampling in industrial temperature grade, with production expected in July 2015. These devices will be available in RoHS-compliant 32-pin SOIC, 32-pin TSOP II, 36-pin SOJ, 44-pin SOJ, 44-pin TSOP II and 48-ball VFBGA packages.

Source: Cypress 

New Triple Output High Resolution DC Power Supply

Cal Test Electronics recently introduced the new Global Specialties 1320 Power Supply. The 1320 can provide continual output power of 200 VA through its three output supplies. It features constant current or constant voltage modes with automatic crossover. With resolutions of 10 mV and 1 mA, respectively, you can rely on the superior performance of the 1320. There is protection against over voltage and current producing a safe and reliable instrument.

Source: Global Specialties

Source: Global Specialties

Product Features

  • Two variable supplies: 0–32 V, 0–3 A
  • One fixed supply: 5 V, 3 A
  • For greater output connect in Parallel, Series, or Independent modes
  • For greater output connect multiple units together
  • Separate high-resolution, four-digit displays for voltage and current on variable outputs
  • Individual control of voltage and current for variable outputs
  • CV (constant voltage)/CC (constant current) mode operation with automatic crossover
  • LED indication for CV/CC mode
  • Overload indication LED for fixed output
  • Input voltage selection on rear side (120 VAC/ 240 VAC)

The 1320 is available immediately for $479.00.

Elektor Publishes the Ultimate Intel Edison Manual

Elektor’s latest publication on the Intel Edison is a must have for all those with an active interest in the Internet of Things. The book, Getting Started with the Intel Edison, focuses its attention on the Edison, a tiny computer, the size of a postage stamp, with a  lot of power and built-in wireless communication capabilities. In 128 pages, renowned author Bert van Dam helps readers get up to speed with the Edison by making it accessible and easy to use.  It is not a projects book, but a toolbox and guide that allows you to explore the wonderful world of the Intel Edison.

Source: Elektor

Source: Elektor

This book shows readers how to install the software on the Edison as well as on a Windows PC. The Edison Arduino breakout board is used because it is easy to work with. Linux, Arduino C++ and Python are also used and plenty of examples given as to how the Edison can interface with other software. Covering Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, the book also shows you a trick to program sketches over Wi-Fi. Once you have completed the book, not only will your Edison be up and running with the latest software version, but you will also have sufficient knowledge of both hardware and software to start making your own applications. You will even be able to program the Intel Edison over USB and wirelessly both in Arduino C++ and Python. This book is educational and interesting, and really helps to build your knowledge of all things Intel Edison.

Getting started with the Intel Edison is currently available for $35.

Source: Elektor

60-V LED Driver with Internal 4-A Switch & PWM Generator

Linear Technology’s LT3952 is a current mode step-up DC/DC converter with an internal 60-V, 4-A DMOS power switch. It is specifically designed to drive high power LEDs in multiple configurations. It combines input and output current regulation loops with output voltage regulation to operate as a flexible current/voltage source.  The LT3952’s 3-to-42-V input voltage range makes it ideal for a wide variety of applications, including automotive, industrial, and architectural lighting.Linear 3952

The LT3952 can drive up to 16 350-mA white LEDs from a nominal 12-V input, delivering in excess of 15 W. It incorporates a high side current sense, enabling its use in boost mode, buck mode, buck-boost mode or SEPIC topologies. Internal spread spectrum frequency modulation minimizes EMI concerns. The LT3952 delivers efficiencies of over 94% in the boost topology, eliminating the need for external heat sinking, and internal LED short-circuit protection enables added reliability required in most applications. A frequency adjust pin permits the user to program the switching frequency between 200 kHz and 3 MHz, optimizing efficiency while minimizing external component size and cost. The LT3952 delivers over 90% efficiency while switching at 2 MHz in a tiny solution footprint. The LT3952 provides a very compact high power LED driver solution in a thermally enhanced TSSOP-28E package.

The LT3952 has a gate driver for a PMOS LED disconnect switch, delivering dimming ratios of up to 4,000:1 using an external PWM signal. For less demanding dimming requirements, the CTRL pin can be used to offer a 10:1 analog dimming range and an internal PWM generator can be used for 5:1 dimming. The LT3952’s fixed frequency, current-mode architecture offers stable operation over a wide range of supply and output voltages. Output short-circuit protection and open LED protection enhance system reliability. Other features include frequency synchronization, spread spectrum frequency modulation, programmable VIN undervoltage and overvoltage protection, and an input current limit and monitor.

The LT3952EFE is available in a thermally enhanced 28-lead TSSOP package. Three temperature grades are available, with operation from –40°C to 125°C (junction) for the extended, and industrial grades, and a high temperature grade of –40°C to 150°C. Pricing starts at $3.95 each in 1,000-piece quantities and all versions are available from stock. For more information, visit www.linear.com/product/LT3952

Source: Linear Technology

Registration Opens for 19th Annual Worldwide MASTERs Conference

Microchip Technology Inc., a leading provider of microcontroller, mixed-signal, analog and Flash-IP solutions, today announced that registration is open for its 19th annual Worldwide MASTERs Conference at the JW Marriott Desert Ridge Resort in Phoenix, AZ.  The Main Conference takes place from August 19 to 22, 2015. The Pre-Conference is held on August 17-18, 2015.Microchip video MASTERS

The MASTERs Conference provides design engineers with an annual forum for sharing and exchanging technical information about Microchip’s 8-, 16-, and 32-bit PIC microcontrollers, high-performance analog and interface solutions, dsPIC digital signal controllers, wireless and mTouch sensing solutions, memory products, and MPLAB development systems—including the industry’s only singular IDE to support an entire 8-, 16-, and 32-bit microcontroller portfolio.


There is a broad range of class offerings for 2015, to meet the growing needs of software and hardware design engineers and engineering managers, with more than 100 classes being offered—39 of which are new this year.  In addition to lecture-based classes, there are 47 hands-on workshops that enable attendees to learn more about specific applications by using development tools and writing code in the classrooms.  Classes are available for engineers with advanced experience or little knowledge in the concepts and basics of the technology being discussed.

Based on its overwhelming success at previous MASTERs, Microchip is again offering a two-day Pre-Conference for those who wish to attend as many classes as possible during the week. These classes are also designed for beginner through advanced attendees. For example, “Introduction to Embedded Programming Using C” is a two-day, 16-hour, step-by-step crash course in C, with practical hands-on exercises.

MASTERs classes cover a wide range of electronic-engineering topics, including connectivity sessions on Ethernet, TCP/IP, USB, CAN and wireless (e.g., Bluetooth and Wi-Fi), graphics and capacitive-touch interface development, intelligent power supplies, firmware development, motor control, selecting op amps for sensor applications, DSP and using an RTOS.

Additional activities include networking sessions between third-party partners and attendees to discuss relevant design topics, meeting with third-party development tool experts and a simulated wafer fab plant tour.

Entry to the MASTERs Conference courses, a USB Flash Drive with all class materials, round-trip airport transportation, accommodations for three nights with meals, evening entertainment, and more are included in the Conference cost of $1,526, if you register by May 8, 2015 to receive the Early Bird Discount.

Source: Microchip Technology

 

New XMC4800 Microcontrollers with EtherCAT Technology Support Industry 4.0

Infineon Technologies AG has launched a new XMC4800 series of 32-bit microcontrollers with on-chip Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT) node. With its real-time capability, the XMC4800 series is intended to drive networked industrial automation and Industry 4.0 applications.Infineon XMC4800

The EtherCAT node is integrated on an ARM Cortex-M-based microcontroller with on-chip flash and analog/mixed signal capability. The XMC4800 series comprises at least 18 members varying in memory capacity, temperature range and packaging. All XMC4800 microcontrollers will be AEC Q100 qualified, making them also suited for use in commercial, construction, and agricultural vehicles.

The XMC4800 series is a member of the XMC4000 family, which uses the ARM Cortex-M4 processor and was specifically developed for use in the automation of manufacturing and buildings as well as electric drives and solar inverters. The XMC4800 series offers a seamless upgrade path to EtherCAT technology with pin and code compatibility to the established XMC4000 microcontrollers. The XMC4800 enables the use of EtherCAT under the harsh condition of up to 125°C ambient temperature.

 

With the integration of the EtherCAT functionality, the XMC4800 enables the most compact design without need for a dedicated EtherCAT ASIC, external memory and clock crystal. It offers a 144-MHz-CPU, up to 2 MB of embedded flash memory, 352 KB of RAM and a comprehensive range of peripheral and interface functions. The peripherals include four parallel fast 12-bit A/D converter modules, two 12-bit D/A converters, four delta sigma demodulator modules, six capture/compare units (CCU4 and CCU8), and two positioning interface modules. In addition to its EtherCAT functionality, its communication functions comprise interfaces for Ethernet, USB, and SD/MMC. Also, the XMC4800 series offers six CAN nodes, six serial communication channels, and one external bus interface for communication. The three package options are LQFP-100, LQFP-144, and LFBGA-196.

Samples of the series XMC4800 with EtherCAT technology will be available in August 2015. Volume production is scheduled for Q1 2016.

Source: Infineon 

 

 

Low-Profile PCIe Board Platform

BittWare recently announced today its second low-profile PCIe board—the A5-PCIe-S (A5PS). The new board is based on Altera’s Arria V GZ FPGA, which provides a high level of system integration and flexibility for I/O, routing, and processing. Thus, the A5PS is a reliable platform for a variety of applications (e.g., network processing, security, broadcast, and signals intelligence).BittWare A5PS

Featuring dual SFP+ cages that run up to 12.5 Gbps, the A5PS provides dual 10GigE ports using optical transceivers as well as passive copper cabling up to 7 m. These ports are serviced by the advanced 28-nm Arria V GZ FPGA, which also supports a Gen3 x8 PCIe interface and either 8-GB DDR3 or 36-MB QDRII+. Sophisticated time-stamping and synchronization options are supported by dual SMA connectors for interfacing to 1-PPS or 10-MHz reference clocks, in addition to the tunable on-board high accuracy, temperature compensated oscillator (TCXO). A comprehensive Board Management Controller (BMC) with host software support for advanced system monitoring is also provided.

The A5PS features and specifications include:

  • Altera Arria V GZ FPGA
  • PCIe x8 interface supporting Gen1, Gen2, or Gen3
  • Dual SFP+ cages for 2x 10GigE: Support for a wide range of optical transceiver; built-in low-latency active drivers/receivers for passive copper cables up to 7 m
  • Memory options (pick one): DDR3 (single 72-bit bank of up to 8 GBytes DDR3-1600 with ECC); QDRII+ (two 18-bit banks of up to 144 Mb each—288 Mb or 36 MB total)
  • Board Management Controller for Intelligent Platform Management
  • USB 2.0 for programming, debug, or control
  • Timestamping and synchronization support
    • Dual SMA for reference clock/synchronization inputs
    • Tunable high-accuracy TCXO
    • Programmable clock synthesizer (Si5338)
  • Complete software support with BittWare’s BittWorks II Toolkit
  • Broad range of IP offerings
    • 10 GigE MAC
    • TCP/IP Offload Engines (TOE), UDP Offload Engines
    • PTP/IEEE-1588
    • PCIe DMA

The A5PS board currently costs $1,500 in 1000s for the A5PS with the Arria V GZ E1 with no external memory. Contact BittWare for additional configurations, pricing, and details.

Source: BittWare

 

How to Improve Software Development Predictability

The analytical methods of failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) and failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) have been around since the 1940s. In recent years, much effort has been spent on bringing hardware related analyses such as FMECA into the realm of software engineering. In “Software FMEA/FMECA,” George Novacek takes a close look at software FMECA (SWFMECA) and its potential for making software development more predictable.

The roots of failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) and failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) date back to World War II. FMEA is a subset of FMECA in which the criticality assessment has been omitted. Therefore, for simplicity, I’ll be using the terms FMECA and SWFMECA only in this article. FMECA was developed for identification of potential hardware failures and their mitigation to ensure mission success. During the 1950s, FMECA became indispensable for analyses of equipment in critical applications, such as those occurring in military, aerospace, nuclear, medical, automotive, and other industries.

FMECA is a structured, bottom-up approach considering a failure of each and every component, its impact on the system and how to prevent or mitigate such a failure. FMECA is often combined with fault tree analysis (FTA) or event tree analyses (ETA). The FTA differs from the ETA only in that the former is focused on failures as the top event, the latter on some specific events. Those analyses start with an event and then drill down through the system to their root cause.

In recent years, much effort has been spent on bringing hardware related analyses, such as reliability prediction, FTA, and FMECA into the realm of software engineering. Software failure modes and effects analysis (SWFMEA) and software failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (SWFMECA) are intended to be software analyses analogous to the hardware ones. In this article I’ll cover SWFMECA as it specifically relates to embedded controllers.

Unlike the classic hardware FMECA based on statistically determined failure rates of hardware components, software analyses assume that the software design is never perfect because it contains faults introduced unintentionally by software developers. It is further assumed that in any complicated software there will always be latent faults, regardless of development techniques, languages, and quality procedures used. This is likely true, but can it be quantified?

SOFTWARE ANALYSIS

SWFMECA should consider the likelihood of latent faults in a product and/or system, which may become patent during operational use and cause the product or the system to fail. The goal is to assess severity of the potential faults, their likelihood of occurrence, and the likelihood of their escaping to the customer. SWFMECA should assess the probability of mistakes being made during the development process, including integration, verification and validation (V&V), and the severity of these faults on the resulting failures. SWFMECA is also intended to determine the faults’ criticality by combining fault likelihood with the consequent failure severity. This should help to determine the risk arising from software in a system. SWFMECA should examine the development process and the product behavior in two separate analyses.

First, Development SWFMECA should address the development, testing and V&V process. This requires understanding of the software development process, the V&V techniques and quality control during that process. It should establish what types of faults may occur when using a particular design technique, programming language and the fault coverage of the verification and validation techniques. Second, Product SWFMECA should analyze the design and its implementation and establish the probability of the failure modes. It must also be based on thorough understanding of the processes as well as the product and its use.

In my opinion, SWFMECA is a bit of a misnomer with little resemblance to the hardware FMECA. Speculations what faults might be hidden in every line of code or every activity during software development is hardly realistic. However, there is resemblance with the functional level FMECA. There, system level effects of failures of functions can be established and addressed accordingly. Establishing the probability of those failures is another matter.

The data needed for such considerations are mostly subjective, their sources esoteric and their reliability debatable. The data are developed statistically, based on history, experience and long term fault data collection. Some data may be available from polling numerous industries, but how applicable they are to a specific developer is difficult to determine. Plausible data may perhaps be developed by long established software developers producing a specific type of software (e.g., Windows applications), but development of embedded controllers with their high mix of hardware/software architectures and relatively low-volume production doesn’t seem to fit the mold.

Engineers understand that hardware has limited life and customers have no problem accepting mean time between failures (MTBF) as a reality. But software does not fail due to age or fatigue. It’s all in the workmanship. I have never seen an embedded software specification requiring software to have some minimum probability of faults. Zero seems always implied.

SCORING & ANALYSIS

In the course of SWFMECA preparation, scores for potential faults should be determined: severity, likelihood of occurrence, and potential for escaping to the finished product. The scores between 1 to 10 are multiplied and thus the risk priority number (RPN) is obtained. An RPN larger than 200 should warrant prevention and mitigation planning. Yet the scores are very much subjective—that is, they’re dependent on the software complexity, the people, and other impossible to accurately predict factors. For embedded controllers the determination of the RPN appears to be just an analysis for the sake of analysis.

Statistical analyses are used every day from science to business management. Their usefulness depends on the number of samples and even with an abundance of samples there are no guarantees. SWFMECA can be instrumental for fine-tuning the software development process. In embedded controllers, however, software related failures are addressed by FMECA. SWFMECA alone cannot justify the release of a product.

EMBEDDED SOFTWARE

In embedded controllers, causes of software failures are often hardware related and exact outcomes are difficult to predict. Software faults need to be addressed by testing, code analyses, and, most important, mitigated by the architecture. Redundancy, hardware monitors, and others are time proven methods.

Software begins as an idea expressed in requirements. Design of the system architecture, including hardware/software partitioning is next, followed by software requirements, usually presented as flow charts, state diagrams, pseudo code, and so forth. High and low levels of design follow, until a code is compiled. Integration and testing come next. This is shown in the ubiquitous chart in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Software development "V" model

Figure 1: Software development “V” model

During an embedded controller design, I would not consider performing the RPN calculation, just as I would not try to calculate software reliability. I consider those purely statistical calculations to be of little practical use. However, SWFMECA activity with software ETA and FTA based on functions should be performed as a part of the system FMECA. The software review can be to a large degree automated by tools, such as Software Call Tree and many others. Automation notwithstanding, one should always check the results for plausibility.

TOOLS

Software Call Tree tells us how different modules interface and how a fault or an event would propagate through the system. Similarly, Object Relational Diagram shows how objects’ internal states affect each other. And then there are Control Flow Diagram, Entity Relationship Diagram, Data Flow Diagram, McCabe Logical Path, State Transition Diagram, and others. Those tools are not inexpensive, but they do generate data which make it possible to produce high-quality software. However, it is important to plan all the tests and analyses ahead of the time. It is easy to get mired in so many evaluations that the project’s cost and schedule suffer with little benefit to software quality.

The assumed probability of a software fault becomes a moot point. We should never plunge ahead releasing a code just because we’re satisfied that our statistical development model renders what we think is an acceptable probability of a failure. Instead, we must assume that every function may fail for whatever reason and take steps to ensure those failures are mitigated by the system architecture.

System architecture and software analyses can only be started upon determination that the requirements for the system are sufficiently robust. It is not unusual for a customer to insist on beginning development before signing the specification, which is often full of TBDs (i.e., “to be defined”). This may be leaving so many open issues that the design cannot and should not be started in earnest. Besides, development at such a stage is a violation of certification rules and will likely result in exceeding the budget and the schedule. Unfortunately, customers can’t or don’t always want to understand this and their pressure often prevails.

The ongoing desire to introduce software into the hardware paradigm is understandable. It could bring software development into a fully predictable scientific realm. So far it has been resisting those attempts, remaining to a large degree an art. Whether it can ever become a fully deterministic process, in my view, is doubtful. After all, every creative process is an art. But great strides have been made in development of tools, especially those for analyses, helping to make the process increasingly more predictable.

This article appears in Circuit Cellar 297, April 2015.

The Internet of Things: A Very Disruptive Force

We met with Geoff Lees (Senior Vice President & General Manager of Microcontrollers, Freescale) at the 2015 Embedded World Show in Nuremberg, Germany. We asked him about the Internet of Things, the big changes on the embedded systems horizon, and what it takes to be a successful engineer.L1060979

CIRCUIT CELLAR: The Embedded World Show is one of the biggest that specifically focuses on embedded technologies, new products, and design. What makes this show special?

GEOFF: In Europe we go to the Electronica in Munich and also to this show. At Electronica, we meet up with our clients and distributors. This Embedded show has a much more technical focus. Here we meet with the individual designers and technical teams of our clients and see most in-depth technical discussions. At the Electronica show we talk business; here we talk more technology and what it can do for the client.

CIRCUIT CELLAR: Talking about individual engineers, we remember last year in your press conference you mentioned a focus on hobbyists. That’s quite remarkable for a company like Freescale. We also see there is a small “maker lab” in your booth at the show.

GEOFF: It is important to address makers and hobbyists for two reasons. First, there are the sheer numbers. At Maker Show in New York, you see there a 100,000 people showing up. At a show like this, it is 20,000 to 25,000. Here we see the engineering teams of companies. But what is interesting about the maker community is that individuals can have an idea or innovation, create and build the prototypes, but instead of having a company making this, they have the community and can even go to market.L1060983

CIRCUIT CELLAR: Sometimes we get the idea that the bigger companies are looking at the crowd-funding communities as part of—or as a replacement for—their own R&D activities. How does that work for a company like Freescale?

GEOFF: One thing that’s very clear in today’s world is speed. Sometimes an individual, with very little obstruction, can have speed that cannot be matched by companies—and someone who can respond or react to the requirements almost instantaneously has an advantage. There are so many of these. Finding and communicating with them is almost an impossible task. You really have to watch carefully. It is almost impossible to know where the next innovation is coming from.

CIRCUIT CELLAR: You call the Internet of Things, the Internet of Tomorrow?

GEOFF: The IoT is a very disruptive force. It started out as a buzz, but it is in the “nature” of microcontrollers to connect and to communicate. With new Wi-Fi concepts, low-power and IPv6 the road is clear for many new applications. To demonstrate the new technologies we have a “bigger than big” truck driving through the US. We put it in the parking lot of companies and demo not only our own products, but also their products as well as the solutions of their competitors. With a show you get the designers or marketing people. With the truck we also have CEOs and CTOs for a coffee—the guys who would not even consider visiting our website!

CIRCUIT CELLAR: But how will the IoT affect us?

GEOFF: I currently have eight apps on my phone that are all IoT controls, monitoring my house, solar panels, and vehicle. I expect that number will grow. Also, devices will talk to devices and create new independent controls. “Big Ass Fans” is a nice example of that. That company is making fans but is also playing a role in home automation. Their latest model fan talks to the NEST. Only a small difference in temperature can set the fan to work rather than your air conditioning, either by cooling down or circulating the hotter air downwards.

CIRCUIT CELLAR: Everyone knows that standards are key to making the IoT really happen. What role does Freescale have in this?

GEOFF: We joined up with the Thread Group. This initiative started with only eight companies, and that number has grown to 50 in five months, and now we see around 1,000 companies that look for information. If we see a growth from eight to 50 to 1,000, you know that there is a momentum which will result in new standards. The Thread Group uses existing (IEEE 8082.15.4) technologies and standards to build a new wireless mesh protocol that will enable to overcome the current limitations in wireless home automation. The Thread Networks will aim at the simple installation of new nodes and it can scale up to 250 and more devices in a single network. No company—whether you are Cisco or IBM or Oracle—has the power to set the standard on their own, maybe a part of it, but not all. This will go as usual, an initiative will gain critical mass, and then the momentum drives it through. This will all be about momentum.

The complete interview appears in Circuit Cellar 297 (April 2015).

Toshiba Expands TX04 Range of ARM Cortex-M4F-Based Microcontrollers

Toshiba Electronics Europe has announced a new ARM Cortex-M4F based microcontroller for use in secure systems control. The TMPM46BF10FG expands its existing TX04 range and adds enhanced security features that are well-suited to applications in Internet of Things (IoT) devices, energy management systems, sensor technology, and industrial equipment.Toshiba TMPM46BF10FG

Users of secure communications control systems increasingly require mass memory data for firmware generation management, failure analysis, and high-precision consecutive data storage. The TMPM46BF10FG meets these requirements for high-level security features, such as tamper detection and information concealment. The IC also meets the need to reduce the number of parts on system circuit board by supporting large capacity memory.

Featuring an ARM Cortex-M4F core, with a maximum operating frequency of 120 MHz, the TMPM46BF10FG incorporates 1,024 KB of flash memory and 514-KB SRAM required for secure communications control, four types of security circuits for network communications. The microcontroller also integrates an SLC NAND flash memory controller and 4- and 8-bit error correction circuitry (BCH ECC) that supports memory expansion with 1-to-4-Gb SLC NAND flash memory chips.

To provide additional levels of safety, the IC includes a 16-channel interrupt input and a clock-independent watchdog timer, which operates separately from the system clock, improving the safety of system functions. In the case of a system clock malfunction, the watchdog timer is still capable of detecting errors.

The TMPM46BF10FG incorporates a true random number generator (TRNG: SP800-90C standard) through the combination of a random entropy seed generation (ESG) circuit and Hash-DRGB created by the secure hash processor (SHA) and software program. This meets the robust standards of security that are required in network communications. The hardware based AES encryption/decryption process meets FIPS180-4 and FIPS197 standards and reduces the load on the CPU, in combination with a random seed generation circuit (ESG), and a multiple-length arithmetic (MLA) used to calculate elliptic curves for asymmetric ciphers.

The TMPM46BF10FG features direct memory access (32 channel), a 12-bit AD converter (8 channel), 16-bit timer (8 channel), SPP (3 channel), SIO/UART (4 channel), full UART (2 channel) I2C (3 channel), with an operating voltage of 2.7 to 3.6 V. Housed in an LQFP100 package, the IC measures just 14 mm × 14 mm, with a 0.5-mm pitch.

Samples are now available. Mass production will begin in October.

Source: Toshiba

 

 

RTG4 Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs for High-speed Signal Processing Applications

Microsemi Corp. today announced availability of its RTG4 high-speed, signal-processing radiation-tolerant FPGA family. The RTG4’s reprogrammable flash technology offers complete immunity to radiation-induced configuration upsets in the harshest radiation environments, requiring no configuration scrubbing, unlike SRAM FPGA technology. RTG4 supports space applications requiring up to 150,000 logic elements and up to 300 MHz of system performance.Microsemi RTG4-  3-4view

Typical uses for RTG4 include remote sensing space payloads, such as radar, imaging and spectrometry in civilian, scientific and commercial applications. These applications span across weather forecasting and climate research, land use, astronomy and astrophysics, planetary exploration, and earth sciences. Other applications include mobile satellite services (MSS) communication satellites, as well as high altitude aviation, medical electronics and civilian nuclear power plant control. Such applications have historically used expensive radiation-hardened ASICs, which force development programs to incur substantial cost and schedule risk. RTG4 allows programs to access the ease-of-use and flexibility of FPGAs without sacrificing reliability or performance.

The flexibility, reliability and performance of RTG4 FPGAs make it much easier to achieve this. RTG4 is Microsemi’s latest development in a long history of radiation-tolerant FPGAs that are found in many NASA and international space programs.

Key product features include:

  • Up to 150,000 logic elements; each includes a four-input combinatorial look-up table (LUT4) and a flip-flop with built-in single event upset (SEU) and single event transient (SET) mitigation
  • High system performance, up to 300 MHz
  • 24 serial transceivers, with operation from 1 Gbps to 3.125 Gbps
  • 16 SEU- and SET-protected SpaceWire clock and data recovery circuits
  • 462 SEU- and SET-protected multiply-accumulate mathblocks
  • More than 5 Mb of on-board SEU-protected SRAM
  • Single event latch-up (SEL) and configuration memory upset immunity
  • Total ionizing dose (TID) beyond 100 Krad

Engineering silicon, Libero SoC development software, and RTG4 development kits are available now. RTG4 FPGAs and development kits have already shipped to some of the 120+ customers engaged in the RTG4 lead customer program. Flight units qualified to MIL-STD-883 Class B are expected to be available in early 2016.

Microsemi will present more information on RTG4 FPGAs in a live webinar on May 6 and will also be hosting Microsemi Space Forum events in the U.S., India and Europe starting in June, presenting information on RTG4 FPGAs and the extensive range of Microsemi space products.

Source: Microsemi Corp.

New High-Speed CMOS DDR SDRAMs

Alliance Memory recently announced new high-speed CMOS double data rate synchronous DRAMs (DDR SDRAM) with densities of 256 Mb (AS4C32M8D1), 512 Mb (AS4C64M8D1), and 1 Gb (AS4C64M16D1) in the 60-ball 8-mm × 13-mm × 1.2 mm TFBGA package and the 66-pin TSOP II package with a 0.65-mm pin pitch. The devices provide reliable drop-in, pin-for-pin-compatible replacements for a number of similar solutions in industrial, medical, communications, and telecommunications products requiring high memory bandwidth. They are particularly well-suited to high performance in PC applications.Alliance Memory DDR

The AS4C32M8D1, AS4C64M8D1, and AS4C64M16D1 are internally configured as four banks of 32M word × 8 bits, 64M word × 8 bits, and 64M word × 16 bits, respectively. The DDR SDRAMs offer a synchronous interface. They operate from a single +2.5-V (±0.2 V) power supply, and they are lead (Pb)- and halogen-free.

The AS4C32M8D1, AS4C64M8D1, and AS4C64M16D1 feature fast clock rates of 200 MHz and 166 MHz. They are offered in commercial (0°C to 70°C) and industrial (–40°C to 85°C) temperature ranges. The DDR SDRAMs provide programmable read or write burst lengths of 2, 4, or 8. An automatic pre-charge function provides a self-timed row pre-charge initiated at the end of the burst sequence. Easy-to-use refresh functions include auto- or self-refresh, while a programmable mode register allows the system to choose the most suitable modes to maximize performance.

With the addition of the AS4C32M8D1, AS4C64M8D1, and AS4C64M16D1 to its portfolio, Alliance Memory now offers the most extensive lineup of DDR SDRAMs in the industry, featuring densities of 64 Mb, 128 Mb, 256 Mb, 512 Mb, and 1 Gb. For Alliance Memory’s customers, the devices eliminate costly redesigns by providing long-term support for end-of-life (EOL) components. In addition, the company doesn’t perform die shrinks, which frees up engineering resources.

Samples and production quantities are available with lead times of six to eight weeks for large orders. Pricing for US delivery starts at $1 per piece.

Source: Alliance Memory

Power-Saving Flat Panel VCOM Buffer Amplifier

Exar Corp. recently announced a next-generation VCOM control product based on patent-pending innovative architecture. The iML2911 provides a solution to add two additional power supply voltages readily available in panel electronics. The device employs sensing circuitry for VCOM output load requirement and automatically switches between multiple supply voltage combinations. This results in 50% savings of energy for still images and 25% to 30% savings for dynamic display images without affecting the quality. The iML2911 is also advantageous for use in TV panel applications, where heat dissipation from VCOM buffer devices is a major concern for panel and set makers, as local heating can negatively affect image quality.Exar_iML2911

Summary of features:

  • Significant power savings for managing VCOM voltage level
  • Patent-pending, integrated sensing circuitry
  • Up to 12V VCOM voltage range

The iML2911 is currently available in an eight-pin TDFN package and in a nine-ball CSP. Pricing starts at $0.45 in 10,000-piece quantities. Device samples and evaluation circuit boards are currently available online or from your local sales office.

Source: Exar Corp.

 

Quad Bench Power Supply

The need for a bevy of equipment for building and testing presents a problem: how to deliver an adequate power supply while keeping workbench clutter to a minimum. Brian decided to tackle this classic engineering conundrum with a small, low-capacity quad bench power supply.

To the right of the output Johnson posts are the switches that set the polarity of the floating supplies—as well as the switch that disconnects all power supply outputs—while leaving the unit still powered up.

To the right of the output Johnson posts are the switches that set the polarity of the floating supplies—as well as the switch that disconnects all power supply outputs—while leaving the unit still powered up.

In “Quad Bench Power Supply,” Millier writes:

I hate to admit it, but my electronics bench is not a pretty sight, at least in the midst of a project anyway. Of course, I’m always in the middle of some project that, more often than not, contains two or three different projects in various stages of completion. To make matters worse, most of my projects involve microchips, which have to be programmed. Because I use ISP flash memory MCUs exclusively, it makes sense to locate a computer on my construction bench to facilitate programming and testing. To save space, I initially used my laptop’s parallel port for MCU programming. It was only a matter of time before I popped the laptop’s printer port by connecting it to a prototype circuit with errors on it.

Fixing my laptop’s printer port would have involved replacing its main board, which is an expensive proposition. Therefore, I switched over to a desktop computer (with a $20 ISA printer port board) for programming and testing purposes. The desktop, however, took up much more room on my bench.

You can’t do without lots of testing equipment, all of which takes up more bench space. Amongst my test equipment, I have several bench power supplies, which are unfortunately large because I built them with surplus power supply assemblies taken from older, unused equipment. This seemed like a good candidate for miniaturization.

At about the same time, I read a fine article by Robert Lacoste describing a high-power tracking lab power supply (“A Tracking Lab Power Supply,” Circuit Cellar 139). Although I liked many of Robert’s clever design ideas, most of my recent projects seemed to need only modest amounts of power. Therefore, I decided to design my own low-capacity bench supply that would be compact enough to fit in a small case. In this article, I’ll describe that power supply.

MY WISH LIST

Even though I mentioned that my recent project’s power demands were fairly modest, I frequently needed three or more discrete voltage levels. This meant lugging out a couple of different bench supplies and wiring all of them to the circuit I was building. If the circuit required all of the power supplies to cycle on and off simultaneously, the above arrangement was extremely inconvenient. In any event, it took up too much space on my bench.

I decided that I wanted to have four discrete voltage sources available. One power supply would be ground referenced. Two additional power supplies would be floating power supplies. Each of these would have the provision to switch either the positive or negative terminal to the negative (ground) terminal of the ground-referenced supply, allowing for positive or negative output voltage. Alternately, these supplies could be left floating with respect to ground by leaving the aforementioned switch in the center position.

This arrangement allows for one positive and two positive, negative or floating voltage outputs. To round off the complement, I added Condor’s commercial 5-V, 3-A linear power supply module, which I had on hand in my junk box. Table 1 shows the capabilities of the four power supplies.

I wanted to provide the metering of voltage and current for the three variable power supplies. The simultaneous voltage and current measurement of three completely independent power supplies seemed to indicate the need for six digital panel meters. Indeed, this is the path that Robert Lacoste used in his tracking lab supply.

As you can see, there are four power supplies. I’ve included all of the information you need to understand their capabilities.

As you can see, there are four power supplies. I’ve included all of the information you need to understand their capabilities.

I had used many of these DPM modules before, so I was aware of the fact that the modules require their negative measurement terminal to float with respect to the DPM’s own power supply. I solved this problem in the past by providing the DPM module with its own independent power source. Robert solved it by designing a differential drive circuit for the DPM. Either solution, when multiplied by six, is not trivial. Add to this the fact that high-quality DPMs cost about $40 in Canada, and you’ll see why I started to consider a different solution.

I decided to incorporate an MCU into the design to replace the six DPMs as well as six 10-turn potentiometers, which are also becoming expensive. In place of $240 worth of DPMs, I used three inexpensive dual 12-bit ADCs, an MCU, and an inexpensive LCD panel. The $100 worth of 10-turn potentiometers was replaced with three dual digital potentiometers and two inexpensive rotary encoders.

Using a microcontroller-based circuit basically allows you to control the bench supply with a computer for free. I have to admit that I decided to add the commercial 5-V supply module at the last minute; therefore, I didn’t allow for the voltage or current monitoring of this particular supply.

THE ANALOG CORE

Although there certainly is a digital component to this project, the basic power supply core is a standard analog series-pass regulator design. I borrowed a bit of this design from Robert’s lab supply circuit.

Basically, all three power supplies share the same design. The ground-referenced power supply provides less voltage and more current than the floating supplies. Thus, it uses a different transformer than the two floating supplies. The ground-referenced supply’s digital circuitry (for control of the digital potentiometer and ADC) can be connected directly to the MCU port lines. The two floating supplies, in addition to the different power transformer, also need isolation circuitry to connect to the MCU.

Figure 1 is the schematic for the ground-referenced supply. As you can see, a 24VCT PCB-mounted transformer provides all four necessary voltage sources. A full wave rectifier comprised of D4, D5, and C5 provides the 16 V that’s regulated down to the actual power supply output. Diodes D6, R10, C8, and Zener diode D7 provide the negative power supply needed by the op-amps. …

The ground-referenced power supply includes an independent 5-V supply to run the microcontroller module.

The ground-referenced power supply includes an independent 5-V supply to run the microcontroller module.

MCU AND USER INTERFACE

As with every other project I’ve worked on in the last two years, I chose the Atmel AVR family for the MCU. In this case, I went with the AT90S8535 for a couple of reasons. I needed 23 I/O lines to handle the three SPI channels, LCD, rotary encoders, and RS-232. This ruled out the use of smaller AVR devices. I could’ve used the slightly less expensive AT90LS8515, but I wanted to allow for the possibility of adding a temperature-sensing meter/alarm option to the circuit. The ’8535 has a 10-bit ADC function that’s suitable for this purpose; the ’8515 does not.

The ’8535 MCU has 8 KB of ISP flash memory, which is just about right for the necessary firmware. It also contains 512 bytes of EEPROM. I used a small amount of the EEPROM to store default values for the three programmable power supplies. That is to say, the power supply will power up with the same settings that existed at the time its Save Configuration push button was last pressed.

To simplify construction, I decided to use a SIMM100 SimmStick module made by Lawicel. The SIMM100 is a 3.5″ × 2.0″ PCB containing the ’8535, power supply regulator, reset function, RS-232 interface, ADC, ISP programming headers, and a 30-pin SimmStick-style bus. I’ve used this module for prototypes several times in the past, but this is the first time I’ve actually incorporated one into a finished project. …

eded to operate the three SPI channels and interface the two rotary encoders come out through the 30-pin bus. As you now know, I designed the ground-referenced power supply PCB to include space to mount the SIMM100 module, as well as the IsoLoop isolators. The SIMM100 mounts at right angles to this PCB; it’s hard-wired in place using 90° header pins. The floating power supplies share a virtually identical PCB layout apart from being smaller because of the lack of traces and circuitry associated with the SIMM100 bus and IsoLoop isolators.

The SIMM100 module has headers for the ISP programming cable and RS-232 port. I used its ADC header to run the LCD by reassigning six of the ADC port pins to general I/O pins.

When I buy in bulk, it’s inevitable that by the time I use the last item in my stock, something better has taken its place. After contacting Lawicel to request a .jpg image of the SIMM100 for this article, I was introduced to the new line of AVR modules that the company is developing.

Rather than a SimmStick-based module, the new modules are 24- and 40-pin DIP modules that are meant to replace Basic Stamps. Instead of using PIC chips/serial EEPROM and a Basic Interpreter, they implement the most powerful members of Atmel’s AVR family—the Mega chips.

Mega chips execute compiled code from fast internal flash memory and contain much more RAM and EEPROM than Stamps. Even though flash programming AVR-family chips is easy through SPI, using inexpensive printer port programming cables, these modules go one step further by incorporating RS-232 flash memory programming. This makes field updates a snap. …

The user interface I settled on consisted of a common 4 × 20 LCD panel along with two rotary encoders. One encoder is used to scroll through the various power supply parameters, and the other adjusts the selected parameter. The cost of LCDs and rotary encoders is reasonable these days. Being able to eliminate the substantial cost of six DPMs and six 10-turn potentiometers was the main reason for choosing an MCU-based design in the first place.

Brian Millier’s article first appeared in Circuit Cellar 149.

ARM MCUs wtith Capacitive Touch Hardware Support for HMI and LIN Applications

Atmel recently announced its next-generation family of automotive-qualified ARM Cortext-M0+-based micrcontrollers with an integrated peripheral touch controller (PTC) for capacitive touch applications. The new SAM DA1 is the first series in this Atmel |SMART MCU automotive-qualified product family, operating at a maximum frequency of 48 MHz and reaching a 2.14 Coremark/MHz.Atmel Corporation SAM DA1

Atmel’s SAM DA1 series is ideal for capacitive touch button, slider, wheel or proximity sensing applications and offers high analog performance for greater front-end flexibility. The new devices are available down to a very compact QFN 5 × 5 mm package with wettable flanks for automated optical inspection.

Eliminating external components and offering more robust features, devices in the SAM DA1 series come with 32 to 64 pins, up to 64 KB of flash memory, 8 KB of SRAM, and 2-KB read-while-write flash memory and are qualified according to the AEC Q-100 Grade 2 (–40° to 105°C).

Key Features of Atmel’s SAM DA1 Series

  • Atmel |SMART ARM Cortex-M0+-based processor
  • 45 DMIPS
  • Vcc 2.7 to 3.63 V
  • 16- to 64-KB Flash; 32 to 64 pins
  • Up to six SERCOM (Serial Communication Interface), USB, I2S
  • Peripheral Touch Controller
  • Complex PWM
  • AEC Q100 Grade 2 Qualified

To accelerate the design development, the ATSAMDA1-XPRO development kit is available to support the new devices. The new SAM DA1 series is also supported by Atmel Studio, Atmel Software Framework and debuggers.

Contact Atmel to sample the SAM DA1 series.

Source: Atmel