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Passive Infrared Sensors

Homing in on Heat

One way to make sure that the lights get turned off when you leave a room is to use Passive Infrared (PIR) sensors. Jeff examines the science and technology behind PIR sensors. He then details how to craft effective program code and control electronics to use PIR sensors is a useful way.

By Jeff Bachiochi

“The last one to leave, please turn off the lights.” How many times did you hear this while growing up? It’s an iconic phrase sometimes used to suggest the end of life, but as I remember it, just an effort to save electricity. I would always use the logic that bulbs burn out during the initial surge current and not necessarily from remaining on, but that logic never worked on Mom. To this day I am obsessive about turning lights off (thanks Mom!). To that end I tried installing Passive Infra Red (PIR) sensors to handle this automatically. After being inundated with complaints (from my wife Beverly) about lights turning off “while I’m still in the room,” I gave up.

While PIR devices are sensitive to heat (infrared)—the human body’s radiation is strongest at a wavelength of 9.4 µm—they are based on the heat source moving past the sensor. Let’s look at a typical PIR sensor element to see how this works. The RE200B PIR sensor comes in a TO-5 package. Manufactured by Glolab, this device actually contains two sensors as seen in Figure 1.

FIGURE 1
The metal tab on the TO-5 can indicates the X-axis plane across both sensor elements. The window filter material is optimized for approximately 10 μm wavelength.

Each pyroelectric sensor is made of a crystalline material that generates a surface electric charge when exposed to heat. When the amount of radiation striking the crystal changes, so does amount of charge on the input to a sensitive FET device built into the sensor. The two elements are in series with the FET input connected to their junction. With this configuration and a wide (138-degree) field of view, whatever ambient light falls on both the sensors is canceled out. The sensor elements are sensitive to radiation over a wider range so a filter window is added to the TO-5 package to limit detectable radiation. As a standalone this device is not very useful. We need a way to interrupt the heat source from hitting both sensor elements at the same time.

Anyone familiar with opto encoders already understands how this works. Opto transmitter/receiver pairs are placed on opposite sides of a spoked wheel. Light passes between the spokes as it rotates between the pair. A second pair is placed such that when one light path is blocked by a spoke, the other light path is between spokes. As the spoked wheel rotates, the opto device’s output alternates between one coupled pair and the other. With some logic on the opto outputs, you can tell both direction and speed of the rotation. Creating the same kind of “picket fence” in front of the infrared (IR) sensor elements can cause the radiation to be alternately blocked and passed to each sensor. The trick will be to design the slat width and placement to give the desired effect.

Fresnel Lens

Figure 2
Lenses of large aperture and short
focal length are massive. The bulk
of the material can be eliminated as
long as the lens’ curve stays the same.
This can be accomplished by a series
of annular lens rings or the special grinding pattern on a single blank.

A lens could be used to artificially reduce the field of view, by collecting and focusing it into a smaller spot. Move an object in front of the lens left to right and the spot moves right to left, behind the lens. If the spot passes over the two sensor elements sequentially, voilà—each sensor will produce a push or pull at the center tapped output. And that is something we can detect. A single lens would create one sensitive area out in front of the device. This might be just what you are looking for. However, to be sensitive to a wider range we must have multiple lenses. Since glass is opaque to IR we can’t use a typical glass lens. It turns out that polyethylene type materials do pass IR light and can be formed in various Fresnel lens patterns.

The idea for the Fresnel lens goes back to the French mathematicians of the late 18th century. This was an attempt to make lenses thinner while retaining the optical quality of the original. Figure 2 shows how unnecessary thickness is removed from an original lens without changing the lens’ curvature. In the early 19th century this idea was adapted for use in lighthouses by Augustin-Jean Fresnel. The thin cross section of the Fresnel lens makes it ideal for PIR lenses. …

Read the full article in the June 335 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Come to the RISC-V Workshop July 18-19

Join the RISC-V Workshop at IIT Madras in Chennai July 18-19 and be part of the disruptive force transforming the microprocessor IP market through open standard collaboration.

As with past workshops, this event will bring together the RISC-V community to share RISC-V activities underway around the globe, and build consensus on the future evolution of the instruction set architecture. Experience two days of presentations, keynotes, poster sessions, demos, networking and parties.

To register as a delegate please visit:
RISC-V WORKSHOP CHENNAI

Building virtualized, redundant embedded real-time fog servers 

Fog and Industry 4.0 servers must provide high real-time performance on a small footprint. Time to create a suitable design using off-the-shelf blocks to build a virtualized, redundant embedded real-time fog server.  COM Express Type 7 server-on-modules enable space-saving servers with highly individual interfaces used outside server racks.

 


Stacked to a cube

By Dan Demers, Director of Sales and Marketing – Americas, congatec

It may sound a bit contradictory to talk about fog where an application needs a crystal clear view of what is happening at all times, in real-time. In the real world, fog nebulizes and obscures the view. In the IT world, fog has the exact opposite effect, bringing the cloud into close proximity of industrial applications, minimizing latency and making the connection clearer. It enables deterministic behavior at full throttle with immediate reactions instead of cautious driving due to limited visibility. Adding redundancy makes the system fault tolerant, always available, and highly reliable. And since it is a server, it is also very fast. Therefore, it can serve multiple users – or multiple sensor and device networks in embedded and IoT applications. A fog server ideally leverages virtualization to perfectly balance all the different applications within a smart 4.0 factory on one single yet highly flexible and scalable system.

Designing such a system with standard IT platforms would require a bulky 19-inch design. But in embedded we need a much more condensed powerful footprint that can easily be fitted in the devices. Take an autonomous logistics vehicle feeding production cells, for example. It should fit the needs for ruggedness, shock and vibration, industrial or even extended temperature ranges, and low power consumption for longest battery life. All that condensed in an extremely small design. But how can you design such a server? Conventional server boards with redundancy are way too large. A full-custom design, on the other hand, is too complex and costly for the typically smaller lot sizes required by most industrial and embedded applications. It is not even suitable for small cells in telecoms because they demand lowest costs for future performance upgrades.

This is where the new COM Express Type 7 Server-on-Modules from congatec are a great option to minimize NRE and upgrade costs to the max. With two different modules already available both featuring 10 GbE support and equipped with latest massive multi-core server processors the power train for industrial server designs was already at hand. With these modules designers can cover a broad application range from high performance embedded computing with Intel Xeon performance to energy efficient networking functions based on the Intel Atom technology. But now we have to think of a suitable design using off-the-shelf blocks to build a virtualized, redundant embedded real-time fog server. Next we want to virtualize the Intel Xeon D and Intel Atom processor modules (codename Denverton) to create a compact redundant design. For this purpose, we used the hypervisor from Real-Time Systems, because it allows hassle-free autonomous partitioning of the available resources and supports hard real-time operation. Next, we added the cooling solution with innovative flat pipes to avoid hotspots and optimize heat dissipation from the 16 cores, which is another crucial demand in server designs. For the board platform, finally, we chose the latest COM Express Type 7 carrier board from Connect Tech. It boasts dual 10GbE, 2x Gigabit Ethernet, an M.2 NVMe SSD and 4x USB on the same small footprint as COM Express Basic Server-on-Modules. With these customizable building blocks we have at last a cubic design for industrial fog servers that can be as small as 125 mm x 95 mm. Such a cube is handy and perfectly suited for space-constrained environments. You can spin these ideas further and daisy chain the systems, depending on thermal requirements. There are many possibilities – what ideas can you come up with?

Measuring only 125mm x 95mm, the Connect Tech COM Express Type 7 carrier board is as small as congatec’s Server-on-Modules, enabling server designs smaller than two stacked 3.5-inch hard drives.

To learn more about how Server-on-Modules, you can download the white paper, “COM Express Type 7 for fog and Industry 4.0 servers” or visit product overview for conga-B7AC

congatec | www.congatec.com/us

 

 

 

Sponsored by: congatec

Tool Helps Embed Type-C Port Manager on STM32 MCUs

Helping engineers leverage the latest USB Power Delivery capabilities and versatile USB Type-C connections in new or legacy product designs, STMicroelectronics has introduced new software for implementing a Type-C Port Manager (TCPM) on any general-purpose STM32 microcontroller.

Compliant with the USB Type-C Port Controller Interface (TCPCi) specification, and designed to manage a separate single- or multi-port Type-C Port Controller (TCPC) chip, ST’s X-CUBE-USB-PD stack implements the protocol layer and policy engine of the USB Power Delivery Specification (USB-PD 3.0 v1.1). The stack demands minimal STM32 resources, having a low memory footprint and using only a single I2C bus address and one alert pin per port. In addition, standard register maps ensure easy interoperability with any connected TCPC device.
X-CUBE-USB-PD supports all USB-PD 3.0 options, including Programmable Power Supply (PPS) for connecting fast chargers, Fast Role Swap (FRS) for seamless user experiences during cable insertion or removal, and authentication-message exchange to allow data or power transfer only with genuine devices or chargers.

By supporting Provider, Consumer, and Dual-Role (DRP) modes, the stack enables product designers to leverage the benefits of USB Type-C in a wide variety of equipment types, such as power hubs or power banks, docking stations, game controllers, PC peripherals, multi-function accessories, and small appliances such as cordless vacuum cleaners, portable speakers, lighting products, proprietary chargers, and many other applications.

ST has tested the stack with ON Semiconductor’s FUSB307B, a USB-PD 3.0 v1.1-certified TCPC chip, creating a fully certified and ready-to-use solution that centralizes the TCPM for multiple USB-PD ports. The FUSB307B provides a 1 Mbps I2C microcontroller interface and handles functionality such as plug-insertion/orientation detection and dead-battery power-up. Time-critical Power-Delivery functions that offload the microcontroller effectively enable any STM32 including entry-level devices to manage multi-port, multi-role USB-PD interfaces. X-CUBE-USB-PD currently contains libraries tested on STM32 Arm Cortex-M0 and Cortex-M4 microcontrollers, giving developers a choice of over 420 different part numbers. Libraries for other STM32 series will be introduced by the end of 2018.

An ON Semiconductor FUSB307B evaluation board, ON-FUSB3-STM32, is also available to help streamline development. The board, which features a STM32F072 microcontroller and a USB-C connector, demonstrates control of a single port. The X-CUBE-USB-PD stack, part of the STM32Cube software-development ecosystem, can be downloaded now, free of charge, from www.st.com/x-cube-usb-pd

STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

Firms Collaborate on 3D Surround View System for Cars

Renesas Electronics and Magna, a mobility technology company and one of the world’s largest automotive suppliers, have teamed up to accelerate the mass adoption of advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) features with a new cost-efficient 3D surround view system designed for entry- and mid-range vehicles.
The 3D surround view system adopts Renesas’ high-performance, low-power system-on-chip (SoC) optimized for smart camera and surround view systems. By enabling 3D surround view safety capabilities, the new system helps automakers to deliver safer and more advanced vehicles to a larger number of car consumers, contributing to a safer vehicle society.

Magna’s 3D surround view system is a vehicle camera system that provides a 360-degree panoramic view to assist drivers when parking or performing low speed operations. Drivers can adjust the view of their surroundings with a simple-to-use interface, while object detection alerts drivers about obstacles in their path. The system provides drivers a realistic 360-degree view of their environment, a significant upgrade to the bird’s-eye view offered by existing parking assist systems. The ready-to-use system minimizes integration time and development costs, making the system an easy, cost-efficient option for automakers.

Several automakers have already expressed strong interest in the technology, including a European automaker, which will be the first to integrate the 3D surround view system into a future vehicle.

Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com

Cypress and Semtech Team up on Integrated LoRaWAN Solution

Cypress Semiconductor has announced it has collaborated with Semtech on a compact, two-chip LoRaWAN-based module deployed by Onethinx. The highly-integrated Onethinx module is ideal for smart city applications that integrate multiple sensors and are in harsh radio environments. Using Cypress’ PSoC 6 microcontroller’s (MCU) hardware-based Secure Element functionality and Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology (LoRa Technology), the solution enables a multi-layer security architecture that isolates trust anchors for highly protected device-to-cloud connectivity.

In addition, the PSoC 6 MCU’s integrated Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) connectivity provides a simple, low-power, out-of-band control channel. The PSoC 6 device is the industry’s lowest power, most flexible Arm Cortex-M dual-core MCU with a power slope as low as 22-μA/MHz active power for the Cortex-M4 core. The device is a natural fit with Semtech’s latest LoRa radio chip family, which offers 50% power savings in receive mode and 20% longer range over previous-generation devices.

Security is a primary concern for many smart city applications. The Onethinx module utilizes the integrated Secure Element functionality in the PSoC 6 MCU to give each LoRaWAN-based device a secret identity to securely boot, on-board, and deliver data to the cloud application. Using its mutual authentication capabilities, the PSoC 6 MCU-based, LoRa-equipped device can also receive authenticated over-the-air firmware updates.

Key provisioning and management services are provided by IoT security provider and member of the Bosch group, ESCRYPT, for a complete end-to-end, secure LoRaWAN solution. The module, offered by Cypress partner Onethinx, connects to Bosch Sensortec’s Cross Domain Development Kit (XDK) for Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors and to the provisioning system from ESCRYPT to securely connect.

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com

Semtech | www.semtech.com

MCUs Eye Closed-Loop Control Applications

Microchip Technology has introduced the new PIC18 Q10 and ATtiny1607 families, featuring multiple intelligent Core Independent Peripherals (CIPs) that simplify development and enable quick response time to system events. Advancements in the architecture of PIC and AVR 8-bit microcontrollers (MCUs) have optimized the devices for implementing closed-loop control, enabling systems to offload the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to manage more tasks and save power.

Well suited for applications that use closed-loop control, a key advantage of using the PIC18 Q10 and ATtiny1607 MCUs are the CIPs that independently manage tasks and reduce the amount of processing required from the CPU. System designers can also save time and simplify design efforts with the hardware-based CIPs, which significantly reduce the amount of software required to write and validate. Both families have features for functional safety and operate up to 5 V, increasing noise immunity and providing compatibility with the majority of analog output and digital sensors.

Offered in a compact 3 mm x 3 mm 20-pin QFN package, the new ATtiny1607 family is optimized for space-constrained closed-loop control systems such as handheld power tools and remote controls. In addition to the integrated high-speed Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) that provides faster conversion of analog signals resulting in deterministic system response, the devices provide improved oscillator accuracy, allowing designers to reduce external components and save costs.

Among CIPs in the PIC18 Q10 family are the Complementary Waveform Generator (CWG) peripheral, which simplifies complex switching designs, and an integrated Analog-to-Digital Converter with Computation (ADC2) that performs advanced calculations and filtering of data in hardware without any intervention from the core. CIPs such as these allow the CPU to execute more complex tasks, such as Human Machine Interface (HMI) controls, and remain in a low-power mode to conserve power until processing is required.

All PIC18 Q10 products are supported by MPLAB Code Configurator (MCC), a free software plug-in that provides a graphical interface to easily configure peripherals and functions. MCC is incorporated into Microchip’s downloadable MPLAB X Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and the cloud-based MPLAB Xpress IDE, eliminating the need to download software. The Curiosity High Pin Count (HPC) development board (DM164136), a fully-integrated, feature-rich rapid prototyping board, can also be used to start development with these MCUs.

Rapid prototyping with the ATtiny1607 family is supported by ATmega4809 Xplained Pro (ATmega4809-XPRO) evaluation kit. The USB-powered kit features touch buttons, LEDs and extension headers for quick setup as well as an on-board programmer/debugger that seamlessly integrates with the Atmel Studio 7 Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and Atmel START, a free online tool to configure peripherals and software that accelerates development.

The PIC18 Q10 and ATtiny1607 are available today for sampling and in volume production. Pricing for the PIC18 Q10 family starts at $0.77 each in 10,000-unit quantities, and pricing for the ATtiny1607 family starts at $0.56 each in 10,000-unit quantities.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

MCUs Offer Configurable Signal Chain Elements

Texas Instruments (TI) has announced the addition of new microcontrollers with integrated signal-chain elements and an extended operating temperature range to its MSP430 value line portfolio. New MSP430FR2355 ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) MCUs allow developers to reduce printed circuit board (PCB) size and bill-of-materials (BOM) cost while meeting temperature requirements for sensing and measurement in applications such as smoke detectors, sensor transmitters and circuit breakers.
Engineers can enjoy more flexibility in their system design with MSP430FR2355 MCUs, which integrate smart analog combos—configurable signal-chain elements that include options for multiple 12-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and programmable gain amplifiers, along with a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and two enhanced comparators.

Developers can use MSP430FR2355 MCUs for applications that require operation at temperatures as high as 105°C while also benefiting from FRAM data-logging capabilities. Engineers gain more options to select the right memory and processing speed for cost-sensitive applications with the MSP430FR2355 MCUs, which add options to the MSP430 value line FRAM MCU family by offering memory up to 32 KB and central processing unit (CPU) speeds up to 24 MHz. Designers can also scale to the rest of the MSP430 FRAM MCU portfolio for applications that require up to 256 KB of memory, higher performance or more analog peripherals.

Developers can start evaluating with the MSP430FR2355 MCU LaunchPad development kit (MSP-EXP430FR2355), available for US$12.99 from the TI store.

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

Tuesday’s Newsletter: Microcontroller Watch

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Microcontroller Watch newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

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You’ll get your Microcontroller Watch newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

IoT Technology Focus. (6/19) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(6/26) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (7/3) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Myth Busted: The Truth About Developing Embedded Vision Solutions

Are embedded vision solutions complex? Expensive? Strictly about software? Get answers to your top questions about developing embedded vision solutions, right from Avnet & Xilinx.


We’re at the moment of truth with embedded vision systems as scores of new applications means designs must go up faster than ever—with new technologies dropping every day.

But isn’t embedded vision complex? Lacking scalability? Rigid in its design capability?

Truth be told, most of those ideas are myths. From the development of the first commercially viable FPGA in the 1980s to now, the amount of progress that’s been made has revolutionized the space.

So while it can be complex to decide how you’ll enter an ever-changing embedded vision market, it’s simpler than it used to be. It’s true: Real-time object detection used to be a strictly research enterprise and image processing a solely software play. Today, though, All Programmable devices enable system architects to create embedded vision solutions in record time.

As far as flexibility goes, you’ll find something quite similar. In the past, programming happened on the software side because hardware was preformatted. But FPGAs are more customizable. They contain logic blocks, the programmable components and reconfigurable interconnects that allow the chip to be programmed which allows for more efficiency of power, temperature and design—all without the need of an additional OS.

Ready to bust some more myths around embedded vision? Watch our video breaking down the five biggest myths around embedded vision development.

WATCH NOW >

M-Module Serves Up Four Serial Interfaces

The M-Module M77N from MEN Micro has been developed according to the ANSI Mezzanine standard and extends carrier boards by four electrically isolated serial interfaces, which can be adapted to the respective requirements by software. M-Modules—an ANSI-VITA standard since 1997—are ideally suited for the connection of binary and analog process I/O, robotics, motion and measurement functions. As an extension to all common bus systems such as CompactPCI, ComapctPCI Serial, VME or independent SBCs, mezzanine modules complement each application in a tailor-made and modular manner.

The M-Module M77N supports four high-performance UARTs with RS232 or RS422 / 485 interfaces – implemented in the FPGA. These are accessible via a D-Sub connector at the front and can be connected to the carrier card, and thus to the backplane of the system via a 24-pin onboard connection if required. The interface mode of the M-Module can be changed by the software.

The serial lines have been optically isolated, which is essential for use in automotive or industrial applications as well as in mobile environments, for example, to protect the control system from external disturbances such as high voltage pulses. All components of the M77N are firmly soldered against shock and vibration, and are approved for a temperature range of -40°C to +85°C.

MEN Micro | www.menmicro.com

Form vs. Function in Test

Input Voltage

–Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

JeffHeadShot

A couple months back I and the Circuit Cellar team attended ESC (Embedded Systems Conference) Boston. Having a booth was new for Circuit Cellar at ESC, so we were very pleased at the positive feedback from people who stopped by our booth—a mix of devoted long-time readers and new faces just learning about us. My thanks to those who became new subscribers on the spot. There are many good reasons for a technology editor like myself to attend tradeshows in our industry. Meeting with technology vendors—the people—face to face is the big one. I don’t care how convenient, realistic or powerful our various forms of electronic communication become. There will never—never ever—be any substitute for meetings done in person and the kind of conversation you can have face to face.

Another good reason to attend a show like ESC is to see the “stuff”—the embedded boards, chips, instruments and so on. I can write all day about the size, weight and power of a COM Express board. But it’s kinda nice to feel the size and weight by holding one in my hand. One type of gear that’s enormously important to see close up is test instrumentation products—oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, signal generators and so forth. Fortunately for me, ESC Boston had a nice cluster this year of test equipment exhibitors. Among these were Pico Technology, Rohde & Schwarz, Siglent Technologies, Tektronix and Teledyne LeCroy.

Like many of you, as an Electrical Engineering major in college I had a lot of EE labs. And I have to make a confession: Operating test equipment was never my strong suit. I remember my lab partners would seldom let me touch the oscilloscope once they caught on to my poor skills. I vividly remember a pair of them saying “Let’s have Jeff write the lab report. That’s at least something he’s good at.” Fast forward to my early years as a New Products Editor, and I sat through many press tour meetings. In those days, test equipment companies would make great efforts to lug their gear across country just to set it up and show me every last new feature of their new logic analyzer or scope.

At this year’s ESC Boston, it was fun seeing the state of the art test equipment on display. And I was able to glean a few insights. At today’s state of electronics technology, it’s quite feasible to have an all-in-one test system. But according to the vendors I talked to, there’s still a desire have a stand-alone box one can call an oscilloscope, for example. Also, even though touch-screen and push-button digital interfaces are mature technologies, many test customers still like feel of turning knobs when it comes to operating test gear.

Exemplifying what can be done with today’s technology, Pico Technology’s approach to test gear is to create compact, easily portable box-level systems. Instead of having a screen and arrays of controls, Pico Technology’s test systems instead interface with your laptop, so that laptop provides all the display and control needs for the equipment. Its latest example along those lines is its PicoScope 9300 Series of sampling oscilloscopes designed for measuring high-speed signals. The 9300 Series scopes provide 2 channels, 15 GHz bandwidth and 15 Terasample/s (64 fs) sequential sampling.

Rohde & Schwarz in contrast makes more traditional test gear, focusing on the high-performance end of the market. Its latest offering is its enhanced power-of-ten oscilloscope family with 10-bit resolution and large memory depth. According to the company, the power-of-ten oscilloscope families R&S RTB2000, R&S RTM3000 and R&S RTA4000 provide 10 times as much memory as comparable instruments and large 10.1” touchscreen displays.

Among the new products on display at Teledyne LeCroy’s booth at ESC Boston was what it claims as the industry’s first HDMI 2.1 Fixed Rate Link (FRL) Video Generator. FRL is the transport mode for HDMI 2.1 which enables transmission of uncompressed 8K video formats to reach link rates of up to 48 Gb/s.

All in all, my two days at ESC Boston were well spent. Aside from those test equipment vendors, there were a great mix of embedded hardware and embedded software tool vendors I met with at the show. I also sat in on a few presentations, including a great one called “ARM Trace: Kills Bugs Fast!” by IAR Systems’ Shawn Prestridge

This appears in the June (335) issue of Circuit Cellar magazine

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High-Accuracy MEMS Sensors Target Industrial Sensing

STMicroelectronics has announced the release of new high-stability MEMS sensors with 10-year product-longevity assurance. The new sensors, to be made available during 2018, begin with the IIS3DHHC, a 3-axis accelerometer optimized for high measurement resolution and stability to ensure accuracy over time and temperature. The IIS3DHHC targets precision inclinometers in antenna-positioning mechanisms for communication systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) equipment for keeping buildings and bridges safe, and stabilizers or levelers for a wide variety of industrial platforms. Its long-term accuracy and robustness are also ideal for high-sensitivity tilt and security sensors, as well as image stabilization in high-end Digital Still Cameras (DSCs).
ST’s 10-year longevity commitment assures long-term availability of a wide range of high-performing components used in industrial equipment, helping vendors handle the typically long in-market lifetimes of their products and extended operation in challenging environmental conditions. In addition to industrial sensors, the program covers STM32 microcontrollers, motor drivers, analog components, power converters, LEDs, and existing MEMS sensors that will be supported for at least 10 years.

The IIS3DHHC is in production now, in a high-quality 16-lead 5mm x 5mm x 1.7mm ceramic LGA package, priced from $4.50 for orders of 1000 pieces.

STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

Fault Protection Solution Defends High-Speed USB Ports

With the MAX22505 ±40 V high-speed USB fault protector from Maxim Integrated Products, system designers can now eliminate USB port damage from all faults, including ground potential differences, up to ±40 V without the tradeoffs required by competing solutions. It protects data and power lines from industrial equipment powered at 24 VAC and 40 VDC, while also reducing solution size by more than 50% for industrial voltage applications.
Industrial environments continue striving to reduce solution footprint to increase productivity and throughput while demanding system robustness and increased uptime. As a result, there has been a trend to adopt USB vs. RS-232 on automation equipment due to a much smaller connector size. As industrial environments adopt USB to provide faster communication for applications such as real-time diagnostics, programming/service ports on programmable logic controllers (PLCs), or supporting camera vision systems, USB ports require fault protection from overvoltage and ground differences while balancing the need to support high-speed data rates up to 480 Mbps.

Damage to both the host and device side can occur in these systems, requiring a unique solution that achieves high levels of fault protection. Existing USB fault protection solutions on the market today compromise either USB operating speed or voltage/current limit protection on a device’s data and power lines. Consequently, current solutions on the market are costlier and incapable of providing fault protection at high-speed USB performance.

The MAX22505 answers this market need as a solution that combines high-speed USB fault protection (480Mbps) for industrial voltages, while being flexible enough to support either host or device applications including USB On-The-Go (OTG). It protects equipment from overvoltage or negative voltage on power and data lines, as well as ground potential differences between devices. It reduces solution size by more than 50% compared to competing solutions and ensures robust communications in harsh environments cost-effectively in a simpler design. Housed in a 24-pin 4mm x 4mm TQFN package, it operates over the -40°C to +105°C temperature range. Applications include building automation, industrial PCs, PLCs and diagnostic USB ports.

The MAX22505 is available at Maxim’s website for $2.24 (1000-up, FOB USA); also available with select authorized distributors The MAX22505EVKIT# evaluation kits are available for $110

Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com