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Reference Designs and Analog ICs Target Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Texas Instruments (TI) has introduced fully tested reference designs for battery management and traction inverter systems, along with new analog circuits with advanced monitoring and protection features to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and enable hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (HEV/EVs) to drive farther and longer.
Scalable across six to 96-series cell supervision circuits, TI’s new battery management system (BMS) reference design (shown) features the advanced BQ79606A-Q1 precision battery monitor and balancer. Engineers can get their automotive designs to market quickly using the reference design, which implements the battery monitor in a daisy chain configuration to create a highly accurate and reliable system design for three- to 378-series, 12-V up to 1.5 kV lithium-ion battery packs.

The highly integrated BQ79606A-Q1 accurately monitors temperature and voltage levels and helps maximize battery life and time on the road. Additionally, the BQ79606A-Q1 battery monitor features safe-state communication that helps system designers meet requirements up to Automotive Safety Integrity Level D (ASIL D), which is the highest functional safety goal defined by the ISO 26262 road vehicles standard.

With so many kilowatts of power filtering through an electric vehicle’s traction inverter and batteries, high temperatures could potentially damage expensive and sensitive powertrain elements. Excellent thermal management of the system is crucial to vehicle performance, as well as protecting drivers and passengers.

To protect powertrain systems such as a 48-V starter generator from overheating, TI introduced the TMP235-Q1 precision analog output temperature sensors. This low-power, low-quiescent-current (9-µA) device provides high accuracy (±0.5°C typical and ±2.5°C maximum accuracy across the full operating temperature from -40°C to 150°C) to help traction inverter systems react to temperature surges and apply appropriate thermal management techniques.

The TMP235-Q1 temperature sensing device joins the recently released UCC21710-Q1 and UCC21732-Q1 gate drivers in helping designers create smaller, more efficient traction-inverter designs. These devices are the first isolated gate drivers to integrate sensing features for insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistors, enabling greater system reliability in applications operating up to 1.5 kVRMS and with superior isolation surge protection exceeding 12.8 kV with a specified isolation voltage of 5.7 kV. The devices also provide fast detection times to protect against overcurrent events while ensuring safe system shutdown.

To power the new gate drivers directly from a car’s 12-V battery, TI has released a new reference design demonstrating three types of IGBT/SiC bias-supply options for traction inverter power stages. The design consists of reverse-polarity protection, electric-transient clamping and over- and under-voltage protection circuits. The compact design includes the new LM5180-Q1, which is a 65-V primary-side regulation flyback converter with a 100-V, 1.5-A integrated power MOSFET.

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

 

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Hypervisor Achieves Compliance to New Version of ISO 26262

OpenSynergy has received the certificate from TÜV SÜD confirming the compliance of OpenSynergy’s COQOS Hypervisor to ISO 26262:2018 ASIL-B. COQOS Hypervisor is a Type-1 hypervisor for the ARMv8 architecture developed specifically to support automotive use-cases such as cockpit and domain controllers. OpenSynergy specializes in embedded automotive software and its hypervisor technology has been in mass production since 2014.

The COQOS Hypervisor is a Type-1 hypervisor for automotive applications. It allows customers to build highly compartmentalized systems that can be tailored to their specific requirements. The COQOS Hypervisor has been developed for the ARMv8 architecture, supports many automotive SoC’s and takes full advantage of hardware virtualization. Current series development with COQOS Hypervisor includes cockpit controllers –integrating infotainment and a digital instrument cluster–, infotainment systems, rear-seat entertainment, connectivity devices and gateways.
Some of these use-cases include safety-relevant functionalities, such as displaying tell-tales on the instrument cluster. In these cases, the hypervisor must provide freedom from interference between the safety and non-safety virtual machines. This is why OpenSynergy has developed COQOS Hypervisor as a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 ASIL-B using safety requirements based on real automotive use-cases.

The examination and certification by TÜV SÜD Rail GmbH has now confirmed that COQOS Hypervisor complies to the new version of the ISO 26262 standard (ISO 26262:2018) at the ASIL-B level. The new version of the ISO 26262 standard has additional expectations, e.g. on the management of the security of the product. COQOS Hypervisor is the first hypervisor that has been certified according to this new version.

COQOS Hypervisor is part of OpenSynergy’s package COQOS Hypervisor SDK. The SDK includes pre- integrated guest operating systems (such as Linux and Android), standards-based sharing of devices between the virtual machines and pre-configured automotive use-cases. For the cockpit controller use-case, COQOS Hypervisor SDK includes OpenSynergy’s Safe Instrument Cluster technology ensuring that tell-tales are rendered correctly when using a Linux-based instrument cluster. In December 2018, TÜV SÜD already had confirmed that this architecture satisfies ISO 26262 ASIL-B.

OpenSynergy | www.opensynergy.com

 

GPS Guides Robotic Car

Arduino UNO in Action

In this project article, Raul builds a robotic car that navigates to a series of GPS waypoints. Using the Arduino UNO for a controller, the design is aimed at robotics beginners that want to step things up a notch. In the article, Raul discusses the math, programming and electronics hardware choices that went into this project design.

By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

In this article I lay out a basic differential drive robotic car for waypoint autonomous navigation using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The robotic car receives a list of GPS coordinates, and navigates to waypoints in their given order. To understand how it works, I will discuss concepts about GPS, a simple approach to implement autonomous navigation using GPS, the hardware required for the task, how to calculate navigation vectors using the “Haversine Formula” and the “Forward Azimuth Formula” and a simple implementation of a moving average filter for filtering the GPS coordinate readings. I also discuss a simple approach to navigation control by minimizing the robotic car’s distance and heading error with respect to the goal.

This project is aimed at beginners with basic robotic car experience—that is, line followers, ultrasonic obstacle avoiders and others who now want to try something a little more complex—or anyone who is interested in the subject.

Figure 1 shows the main components of the system. The GPS receiver helps to calculate the distance from the robotic car to the goal. With the aid of a digital compass, the GPS also helps to determine in which direction the goal is located. Those two parameters—distance and direction—give us the navigation vector required to control the robotic car toward the goal. I used a four-wheel differential drive configuration for the car, which behaves almost the same as a two-wheel differential drive. The code provided with the project should work well with both configurations.

Figure 1
GPS Robotic Car block diagram

To calculate the distance to the goal, I used the Haversine Formula, which gives great-circle distances between two points on a sphere from their longitudes and latitudes. The Forward Azimuth Formula was used to calculate the direction or heading. This formula is for the initial bearing which, if followed in a straight line along a great-circle arc, will take you from the start point to the end point. Both parameters can be calculated using the following known data: The goal’s GPS coordinate, the robotic car’s coordinate obtained from the GPS receiver and the car’s heading with respect to North obtained from the digital compass.

The robotic car constantly recalculates the navigation vector and uses the obtained distance and heading to control the motors to approach the goal. I also put a buzzer in the robotic car to give audible feedback when the robotic car reaches the waypoints.

HARDWARE

As shown in Figure 1, I used an Arduino UNO board as the main controller. I chose Arduino because it’s incredibly intuitive for beginners, and it has an enormous constellation of libraries. The libraries make it easy to pull off reasonably advanced projects, without excessive details about the hardware and software drivers for sensors and actuators.

The GPS receiver I chose for the task is the HiLetgo GY-GPS6MV2 module, based on the U-blox NEO-6M chip. The digital compass is the GY-271 module, based on the Honeywell HMC5883L chip. Both are low-cost and ubiquitous with readily available Arduino libraries. The U-blox NEO-6M has a UART serial communication interface, and the HMC5883L works with the I2C serial protocol. To avoid interference, the compass should be placed at least 15 cm above the rest of the electronics.

The DC motors are driven using the very popular L298N module, based on the STMicroelectronics L298N dual, full-bridge driver. It can drive two DC motors with a max current of 2 A per channel. It can also drive two DC motors in each channel if the max current specification is not surpassed—which is what I’m doing with the four-wheel drive chassis I used for my prototype. The chassis has a 30 cm × 20 cm aluminum platform, four generic 12 V DC 85 rpm motors and wheels that are 13 cm in diameter. But almost any generic two-wheel or four-wheel drive chassis can be used.

Figure 2
Circuit diagram for the Robotic Car project

For supplying power to the robotic car, I used an 11.1 V, 2,200 mA-hour (LiPo) Lithium-Polymer battery with a discharge rate of 25C. For my type of chassis, a battery half that size should also work fine. Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram for this project, and Figure 3 shows the finished car.

Figure 3
Completed GPS Robotic Car

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global navigation satellite system owned by the United States government. It provides geolocation and time information to any GPS receiver on the surface of the Earth, whenever it has unobstructed line of sight to at least four GPS satellites—the more the better [1]. GPS receivers typically can provide latitude and longitude coordinates with an accuracy of about 2.5 m to 5 m under ideal conditions, such as good sky visibility and lots of visible satellites. My robotic car is programmed with one or more waypoints given by latitude and longitude coordinates, and the car’s GPS receiver gives its actual position in the same type of coordinates.  …

Read the full article in the June 347 issue of Circuit Cellar
(Full article word count: 3773 words; Figure count: 8 Figures.)

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Enclustra FPGA Modules Power Electric Racing Car

Formula Student is the largest engineering competition in the world. The Zurich/Switzerland based AMZ student team managed to put itself top of the world rankings, also thanks to the innovative, FPGA module-based approach for the electric drivetrain. Four custom inverters are built around the Xilinx Zynq 7015 based Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module to reach the fastest lap times.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC (hidden under the heat sink) is the heart of the inverter (green PCB).

by Andreas Horat, CTO – AMZ electric
ETH Formula Student Project

Formula Student – the largest engineering competition in the world (see box) – has 18 events a year, with more than 600 student teams participating. In the twelve-year history, the AMZ (Akademischer Motorsportverein Zürich) racing team, consisting of students from the ETH Zürich and the university of applied science Lucerne, has managed to put itself at the top of the world rankings thanks to continuous improvement of concepts and the introduction of new innovations, like the use of an FPGA module for controlling the electric drive motors. The tenth anniversary two years ago was crowned with the successful world record for the fastest acceleration for an electric car from 0 to 100 km/h in 1.513 seconds. In order to remain competitive, the individual vehicle components must be coordinated and integrated into one reliable and performant system. With most of the components developed and built custom their selves, AMZ can do just that.

The way to the top
The aim of the 2018 vehicle “eiger” – all cars are named after Swiss mountains – was to reach the maximum possible number of points in the competition. This is achieved by driving the fastest lap. By lap time simulation, energy calculations and analysis of the log data of past seasons it was decided to follow a concept with a fully custom four wheel drivetrain, a Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) monocoque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and windtunnel validated aeropackage and hydraulic suspension.

FPGA module based inverter
For the first time in the AMZ history the team developed all components of the drivetrain completely in-house. The last missing part was the Inverter. In 2017 the team started the development of a completely custom inverter, based on a FPGA module from Enclustra. The inverter converts the DC voltage from the Lithium battery into three-phase current to run the permanent magnet synchronous motors.

Four self-developed inverters control one motor each. A self-developed direct torque control (DTC) modulator is running on a Xilinx Zynq 7015 FPGA-System-on-Chip based Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module. VHDL implementation makes it possible to estimate the current state of the motor and calculate the new switching positions every 10 nanoseconds – not possible with a microcontroller or DSP based system.

The electric race car “eiger” has a four wheel drivetrain that is controlled by an FPGA on the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module.

Custom 1200 Volt SiC MOSFET modules with an on resistance of only 10 milliohm with self developed intelligent gate-drivers, water cooled through a 3D printed cooling plate, reduce conduction and switching losses with increased switching speed down to 39 ns rise time. Additional two 47 nanofarad DC-link capacitors on the module decrease power loop inductance. A hybrid dc link with 6 microfarad Ceralink ceramic capacitors and 240 microfarad film capacitors are used to reduce mass and lower dc link voltage ripple. Two PCBs are designed with 1 millimeter copper inlets for tractive system connections to minimize board area. To control the motor, the three phase currents, the dc link voltage and current as well as two phase to phase voltages are measured with up to 1 million samples per second. To determine the current position of the motor a resolver is used. Gigabit ethernet and CAN connectivity ensures fast and safe communication in the car and on the test bench. The entire inverter software is developed in-house to ensure highest customizability.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 SoC module
For the processing unit a system on chip (SoC) was chosen. Bare SoCs are in most cases packaged in a ball grid array (BGA), that is difficult to solder and require a PCB with many layers to route the signals to the chip. The SoC requires also a lot of periphery such as memory, clock, interfaces and a sophisticated power supply. The Mercury ZX5 SoC module from Enclustra provides exactly all that functionality on one single small PCB. The module contains 1 gigabyte of DDR3L SDRAM, 512 megabyte of NAND Flash, an ethernet PHY and a power supply for all required voltages. The module even can power circuits on the base board, minimizing the need for power converters.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 is a complete system on module based on the Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC.

Abundant computing power
The modulator and all the communication to the peripherals are implemented on the FPGA as it requires a very low latency and a high update rate. All safety critical functions are implemented on the FPGA, reaching a delay time of at most 1 microsecond for the over current protection and 2 microseconds for the over-voltage protection. A multilayer redundant safety system is implemented on the FPGA and the processor so that the processors and the FPGA monitor each other and shut down the inverter in case of any inconsistencies.

The higher-level controls such as velocity control and traction control are implemented on one core of the ARM Cortex-A9 processor. The second core is responsible for the communication with the vehicle control unit (VCU) or the controlling computer and for the data logging.

High bandwidth interfaces
The compiled firmware together with the bitstream for the FPGA is copied onto an SD card, that gets plugged into the inverter base board. At startup the bootloader then copies the firmware into the memory and loads the bitstream into the FPGA fabric.

The FPGA processes all current measurements with 1 million sampels per second (MSps), while the voltage measurements are processed with 500 kSps. These components are accessed through a SPI-based protocol. The motor position is measured through a resolver with a 33 kSps parallel interface. Besides being used directly by the modulator, the data is transferred to the processor through the integrated AXI PL-PS interconnect. With this technology, the processor can simply change the configuration data and read the values of the FPGA with memory access instructions.

In addition it is possible to access the DDR3 RAM of the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module directly from the FPGA fabric. Like this it is possible to transfer large amount of log data to the RAM without processor usage. This data is then stored to the SD card for offline analysis, before the inverter is turned off.

The temperatures of the semiconductors and the output filter are measured with the built-in XADC of the SoC and directly used on the processor. In the car, the inverter is connected to the VCU via the CAN interface directly to the processing system. To run the inverter on the test bench and to connect it to a computer, the ethernet interface is used.

Simplified power supply
The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 can be powered from a single power supply with a voltage between 5 and 15 volt. It contains the DC/DC converters for all the internally required voltages. The on the module generated voltages are also routed to module connector pins. O the inverter base board these 3.3 volt and 1.8 volt rails are used to power the analog and digital circuits. Due to this the effort for the external power supply is minimized.

The Enclustra Mercury ZX5 contains abundant I/Os and interfaces, memory and all needed power supplies.

Broad design-in support
To ease the integration of their modules, Enclustra provides all required hardware, software and support materials. Detailed documentation and reference designs make it easy to get started, in addition to the user manual, user schematics, a 3D-model, schematic symbol, PCB footprints and differential I/O length tables are available. Thanks to this the risk of wrong pin alignment is minimized.

The Enclustra Build Environment can be used to compile the Enclustra SoC modules with an integrated ARM processor very smoothly. The module and base board are selected by a graphical interface. After that, the Enclustra Build Environment downloads the appropriate Bitstream, First Stage Boot Loader (FSBL) and the required source code. Finally, U-Boot, Linux and the root file system based on BusyBox are compiled.
With the free Module Configuration Tool (MCT) the modules and base boards can be configured via USB – without any additional hardware. Using the on-board USB connectors on the Enclustra base boards, users can program the module’s FPGA and SPI flash, read the module EEPROM, and configure peripheral devices.a
All arising questions during the development of the AMZ inverter could be solved quickly with the help of Enclustras support.

The next evolution
The new inverter for the 2019 race car “mythen” is again built around the Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module. The even smaller Mars ZX2 from Enclustra has also been evaluated, but this module was not able to fulfil the required number of I/O-Pins. With the new inverter a fiber-optic link between two Enclustra Mercury ZX5 modules is implement in the car. For this the Multi-Gigabit-Transceivers are used.

For “mythen” the drivetrain concept was changed from four inverters – one for each motor/wheel – to a two inverters concept. One inverter with one Enclustra Mercury ZX5 module is controlling two motors now. Thanks this new concept a lot of auxiliary circuits could be merged, the complexity reduced and also some valuable space saved. In addition it opens the possibility to implement more advanced control algorithms, which act on multiple motors.

The Formula Student competition
Formula Student is the world’s biggest competition for engineers, founded in 1981. The idea of the competition is to introduce future engineers during one year to the development, production, assembly, testing and competition of an electric or combustion race car. More than 600 teams from universities all over the world competing with their self-constructed race cars. The winner is not necessarily the team with the fastest car, but the one with the best package regarding construction, performance, financial planning and sales arguments.A separate class for electric vehicles was introduced in 2010 in order to prepare prospective young engineers for future technologies such as electric drivetrains and in order to advance the innovation process.www.formulastudent.com
www.formulastudent.de
ETH Formula Student Project: electric.amzracing.ch

 

Enclustra – Everything FPGA
Enclustra is an innovative and successful FPGA design house. The FPGA Design Center supports customer with development services over the complete spectrum of the FPGA based system development. From high-speed hardware and HDL firmware to embedded software, from specification and implementation to prototype production. The other part of Enclustra, the FPGA Solution Center, develops and sells highly integrated FPGA & SoC modules, based on Intel and Xilinx FPGAs & SoCs, as well as FPGA optimized IP-Cores. The specialization to the FPGA technology enables Enclustra to provide optimal solutions with minimal effort in many application areas.Enclustra GmbH
8045 Zurich
Tel. +41 (0) 43 343 39 43
mailto:info@enclustra.com
www.enclustra.com

 

 

 

DENSO Taps Cypress’ Fail-Safe Flash for Car Cockpit Design

Cypress Semiconductor has announced that automotive supplier DENSO has selected Cypress’ Semper fail-safe storage for its next-generation digital automotive cockpit applications with advanced graphics. Based on an embedded Arm Cortex-M0 processing core, the Semper family is purpose-built for automotive environments.
The Cypress Semper family offers high density serial NOR Flash memory up to 4 Gbit and leverages the company’s proprietary MirrorBit process technology. The family also features EnduraFlex architecture, which achieves greater reliability and endurance. Semper fail-safe storage devices were the first in the industry to achieve the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard and are ASIL-B compliant, says Cypress.

According to Cypress, the Semper fail-safe storage products exceed automotive quality and functional safety requirements with ASIL-B compliance and are ready for use in ASIL-D systems. Cypress’ 512 Mb, 1 Gb and 2 Gb Semper devices are currently sampling.

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com

 

Isolated DC-DC Converters Meet PoE Requirements

Murata Manufacturing has expanded its lineup of isolated DC-DC converters for Power over Ethernet (PoE). The additions to the lineup consist of the following two isolation type DC-DC converter products intended for Powered Devices (PD) and also the following isolation type DC-DC converter product intended for Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE). The MYBSP0055AABFT is 5 V output /5.1 A product for PDs. The MYBSP0122BABFT is a 12 V output /2.1 A product also for PDs. And the MYBSS054R6EBF is a 54 V output/0.6 A device for PSEs.

These products are suitable for biometric authentication devices which are required mainly to occupy minimal space and possess low noise characteristics, an IoT Gateway which is necessary for edge computing, and camera modules. They also contribute to miniaturization of conventional wireless access points, IP telephones, and routers. These products are already being mass produced, and Murata can provide samples upon request.

MYBSP0055AABFT, MYBSP0122BABFT Features:

  • Complies with IEEE 802.3at Class 4
  • Compact, low-profile SMD type: 35.5 x 22.4 x 10.55 mm
  • Operating temperature range: -40 to +85°C
  • Low noise
  • Input/output isolation withstand voltage: 2250 Vdc
  • Adapter-ORing function
  • Type 2 PSE indicator function

MYBSS054R6EBF Features:

  • 30W Boost-up isolation type converter
  • Compact, low-profile SMD type: 35.5 x 22.4 x 8.9 mm
  • Operating temperature range: -40 to +85°C
  • Input/output isolation withstand voltage: 2250 Vdc
  • Supports 12 V and 24 V outputs, and also ACDC adapter inputs

Murata | www.murata.com

 

Firms Team for IoT Effort that Nixes Need for Physical SIM Cards

Telit has announced that it is a key partner for Deutsche Telekom’s nuSIM initiative. This is the latest milestone in Telit’s longstanding partnership with Deutsche Telekom to grow the IoT market by providing breakthrough technologies and services, says Telit. The nuSIM initiative takes a fundamentally new approach to IoT system design by moving the subscriber identity module’s (SIM) functionality to the cellular chipset. The IoT device has the mobile operators’ credentials securely programmed during manufacturing, eliminating the need for the traditional physical SIM card.
As a result, the nuSIM architecture streamlines design and manufacturing processes by eliminating the need for contacts, circuit paths, card holders and other components associated with physical SIMs. It also enables ultra-compact device form factors that would not be possible with a physical SIM card, such as healthcare wearables and industrial sensors. nuSIM also maximizes battery life by leveraging advanced power saving methods that are achievable only when the modem and SIM share the same underlying hardware. Each module ships with a fully operational integrated SIM. The solution eliminates overhead costs related to SIM logistics, such as stock keeping and handling.

Telit is a longtime Deutsche Telekom partner and was the first module supplier to become an active contributor in the nuSIM initiative. Telit’s role includes contributing to the nuSIM design process and serving as a test bed for the technology.

Telit | www.telit.com

Semtech LoRa Tech Leveraged for Construction and Mining Gear

Semtech has announced that MachineMax, a provider of smart solutions for fleet management, construction and mining applications, has integrated Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology (LoRa Technology) into a new smart construction machine usage tracking solution. With Semtech’s LoRa Technology, MachineMax says they were able to create simple, easy to deploy solutions which effectively monitor machine status from anywhere on a construction or mining site.

Machine idling, where a machine’s engine is running but the machine is not actively in use, accounts for an estimated 37% of the time a construction or mining machine is operating on average. Idling results in an increased amount of fuel waste and machine wear, without creating productive machine output. Previously, monitoring the usage status of a mining or construction fleet was accomplished manually, with site managers continually checking on the use status of machines, an expensive and time consuming task.

MachineMax developed a LoRa-based solution which can be easily deployed onto fleet machines in under a minute. The devices attach magnetically and gather real-time data on machine usage status, such as whether or not a machine is idle. With real-time data on when a machine is in use, site managers can make more efficient use of a machine’s time to prevent idling, reducing the amount of fuel used and prolonging machine life.

Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology is a widely adopted long-range, low-power solution for IoT that gives telecom companies, IoT application makers and system integrators the feature set necessary to deploy low-cost, interoperable IoT networks, gateways, sensors, module products and IoT services worldwide. IoT networks based on the LoRaWAN specification have been deployed in 100 countries and Semtech is a founding member of the LoRa Alliance.

Semtech | www.semtech.com

 

Fanless Industrial IoT Gateway Boasts Small Form Factor

WIN Enterprises has announced the PL-80580, a fanless, small form factor for use as an Industrial IoT (IIoT) Gateway, and for networking applications requiring the small footprint and temperature tolerance of industrial applications. The small footprint of the PL-80580 (216 mm x 142 mm x 37.5 mm) also provides a good fit for robotics, cart-based medical and digital signage applications.

The unit features a choice of three Intel Atom E3800 3-D processors with Tri-gate design in single-, dual, and quad-core versions with 2x GbE LAN ports. The Intel processor is high performance, low-power consuming at 5 W, 7 w or 10 W. The E3845 SoC provides up to 1.91 GHz performance with its quad-core design. CPUs are partnered with the Intel i210AT GbE LAN controller. System I/O includes 1x USB 3.0, 2x USB 2.0, 2x Intel PCIe GbE, and 1x RS-232/422/485 & 3x RS232, plus expansion capabilities. The unit is RoHS, FCC, and CE compliant.

Features:

  • Intel Atom Processor E3800 SoC (up to 1.91 GHz)
  • Supports -10°C~60°C operating temperature range
  • 1 x HDMI, 1 x VGA1 x SATA III, 1 x Half-size mSATA
  • 2 x Intel i210AT Gigabit Ethernet
  • 4 x COM, USB 2.0, USB 3.0
  • 1 x Full-size mini-PCIe, 1 x Half-size mini-PCIe (mSATA)
  • DC 8V-32V input

WIN Enterprises will customize the PL-80580 based on customer’s specific market requirements.

WIN Enterprises | www.win-ent.com

 

Study Predicts 5G Will Reach the IoT Market in Late 2020

According to a new report from the IoT analyst firm Berg Insight, 5G will make its first appearance in the IoT market in late 2020. The first 5G cellular IoT modules will become available to developers this year, enabling early adopters to create the first IoT devices based on the standard. Based on the experience of previous introductions of new standards, 5G will however not be an instant hit. By 2023, Berg Insight forecasts that 5G will account for just under 3 percent of the total installed base of cellular IoT devices.
“5G still has some way to go before it can become a mainstream technology for cellular IoT”, says Tobias Ryberg, Principal Analyst and author of the report. “Just like 4G when it was first introduced, the initial version of 5G is mostly about improving network performance and data capacity. This is only relevant for a smaller subset of high-bandwidth cellular IoT applications like connected cars, security cameras and industrial routers.” Ryberg predicts that he real commercial breakthrough won’t happen until the massive machine type communication (mMTC) use case has been implemented in the standard.

mMTC is intended as an evolution of the LTE-M/NB-IoT enhancements to the 4G standard. Since NB-IoT has only just started to appear in commercial products, there is no immediate demand for a successor. Over time, fifth generation mobile networks will however become necessary to cope with the expected exponential growth of IoT connections and data traffic. The report identifies homeland security as an area where 5G cellular IoT can have a major impact already in the early 2020s. “5G enables the deployment of high-density networks of AI-supported security cameras to monitor anything form security-classified facilities to national borders or entire cities”, says Mr. Ryberg. “How this technology is used and by whom is likely to become one of the most controversial issues in the next decade.”

Berg Insight | www.berginsight.com

Software/Hardware Solution Facilitates IoT System Development

Recon Industrial Controls has announced LabRecon, a software and hardware product that enables users to create rich graphical interfaces for “remote” IoT or “local” measurement and control applications. A drag-and-drop panel builder and graphical programming environment allows one to easily build an interface and create the operating logic for any project. A USB connected “Breadboard Experimentor” circuit board provides the measurement and control link.
The product features a “Measurement Wizard” that lets you choose from a built-in database of over 500 commercially available sensors to automatically configure sensor configurations. The wizard also provides circuits with component values for voltage and current measurements. LabRecon’s “Breadboard Experimentor” incorporates a solder-less breadboard to quickly build interface circuitry to sensors or output devices. The on-board LabRecon chip provides many I/O options including 8 12-bit analog, frequency and digital inputs. Outputs comprise PWM, servo, frequency and stepper motor signals. Pins can also be configured to support 24-bit ADCs, 12 or 16-bit DACs and port expanders. As an alternative to the Breadboard Experimentor, LabRecon chips are available in DIP packages, which provide the same I/O functionality.

The software’s graphical programming feature uses Drag-and-drop functions, which can be wired together, to add analysis and control functionality to a project. Algorithms can be further expanded using the “code link” interface to text-based languages such as Python, Java, C#, Visual Basic and so on. LabRecon also comprises a server to allow access of the created GUI by computers or mobile devices. Furthermore, emails and text messages can be sent periodically or upon events. The server also includes a MQTT broker to allow MQTT clients to share data with the software. Even without Breadboard Experimentor or the LabRecon chip, the software has powerful features that can be used for free. Such features include simulation, the Measurement Wizard and a serial monitor/terminal.

A Kickstarter campaign is underway for the LebRecon product. The Kickstarter link is posted on www.LabRecon.com

Recon Industrial Controls | www.labrecon.com

 

June (issue #347) Circuit Cellar Article Materials

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p.6: Taming Your Wind Turbine: Power Perfected, By Alexander Pozhitkov, PhD.

References:
[1]  F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan and A. L. Rogers. Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application, Second Edition 2009. JohnManwell_09 Wiley & Sons.

BK Precision | www.bkprecision.com
MidNite Solar | www.midnitesolar.com

p12: Haptic Feedback Electronic Travel Aid: Vibration Vision,
         By Aaheli Chattopadhyay, Naomi Hess and Jun Ko

References:
[1] National Research Council (US) Working Group on Mobility Aids for the Visually Impaired and Blind. Electronic Travel AIDS: New Directions for Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1986. Chapter 6, THE TECHNOLOGY OF ELECTRONIC TRAVEL AIDS. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218025/
[2] Protothreads documentation, Adam Dunkels, http://dunkels.com/adam/pt/
[3] GetSerialBuffer, Bruce Land
[4] Poika Isokoski, ‎Jukka Springare, “Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: 8th,” 2012

Sean Carroll. The Small Board, Nov 2016 http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/PIC32/target_board.html

Cassinelli Alvaro, Reynolds Carson and Ishikawa Masatoshi : Augmenting spatial awareness with Haptic Radar, Tenth International Symposium on Wearable Computers(ISWC) (Montreux, 2006.10.11-14)

Data sheets:

VL53L0X (ST Microelectronics) www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/vl53l0x.pdf

Adafruit VL53L0X Breakout (Adafruit) https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-vl53l0x-micro-lidar-distance-sensor-breakout/overview

2N3904 (ST Microelectronics) www.mouser.com/ds/2/149/2N3904-82270.pdf

TIP31 (ST Microelectronics) www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/tip31c.pdf

Code/designs borrowed from others:

Polulu Arduino library for VL53L0X sensor https://github.com/pololu/vl53l0x-arduino

Protothreads source http://dunkels.com/adam/pt/

PIC32 protothread code for UART    http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/PIC32/ProtoThreads/Semaphore_alternating_input.c

PARTS LIST:
Three solderable perf boards
PIC32MX250F128B
ToF sensor
Vibration Motor (ERM 3V)
Arduino Pro Mini
Wristband (sock)
Header pins
Header sockets
Small board (PIC)
Two 9 volt batteries
Flashlight case

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.20: GPS Guides Robotic Car: Arduino UNO in Action, By Raul Alvarez-Torrico

References:
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversine_formula
[3]  https://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html
[4]  https://dspguide.com/ch15.htm

Fundamentals of a GPS guided vehicle
https://www.robotshop.com/community/forum/t/fundamentals-of-a-gps-guided-vehicle/12955

Calculating the Distance Between Two GPS Coordinates with Python (Haversine Formula)
https://nathanrooy.github.io/posts/2016-09-07/haversine-with-python/

Arduino UNO https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/ArduinoUno

GY-GPS6MV2 GPS receiver module https://www.amazon.com/gy-gps6mv2/s?k=gy-gps6mv2

HMC5883L digital compass module
https://www.amazon.com/s?k=GY-271+HMC5883L&ref=nb_sb_noss

L298N motor driver https://www.amazon.com/s?k=l298n+motor+driver

Arduino | www.arduino.cc
HiLetgo | www.hiletgo.com
Honeywell | www.honeywell.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
U-blox | www.u-blox.com

p.28: Understanding PID: Control Concepts, By Stuart Ball

Wikipedia has a good article on PID control: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller

TM4C1231233H6PM datasheet: http://www.ti.com/lit/gpn/tm4c1233h6pm

Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.36: Building a PoE Power Subsystem: Design Decisions,
             By Thong Huynh and Suhel Dhanani

References:
[1] https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/poe-chipsets-market-size-worth-1-22-billion-by-2025-cagr-12-6-grand-view-research-inc–843035168.html
[2] https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/power-over-ethernet-solution-market-84424663.html?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI86airsDm3wIV8iCtBh2-vg5rEAAYASAAEgK3y_D_BwE
[3] http://www.delloro.com

Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com

p.42: Integration Trend Leads PCB Design Tool Evolution: Comprehensive Solutions, By Jeff Child

Altium | www.altium.com
Cadence Design Systems | www.cadence.com
Mentor, a Siemens Company | www.mentor.com
Zuken | www.zuken.com

p.48: Sensor Innovations Span a Wide Range of Solutions: Ready for the IoT Era,
By Jeff Child

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
ACEINNA | www.aceinna.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p.53: PRODUCT FOCUS: AC-DC Power Supplies: Application Emphasis,
           By Jeff Child

Aimtec | www.aimtec.com
CUI| www.cui.com
MINMAX Technology | www.minmaxpower.com
RECOM | www.recom-power.com
TDK-Lambda Americas | www.us.tdk-lambda.com
XP Power | www.xppower.com

p.56: THE DARKER SIDE: dB for Dummies: Decibels Demystified,
           By Robert Lacoste

“ dB or not dB?”, A. Winter, Rohde & Schwarz, Application note 1MA98_8e, May 2014.

Rohde & Schwarz | www.rohde-schwarz.com

p.60: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Bluetooth Mesh (Part 3): Secure Provisioning,
            By Bob Japenga

References:
[1] April 2019 Circuit Cellar Embedded in Thin Slices
[2] Bluetooth Profile Specification 5.4.3
[3] August 2018 Circuit Cellar Embedded in Thin Slices

p.64: THE CONSUMMATE ENGINEER: Energy Monitoring (Part 1): Sun-Powered System, By George Novacek

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Sparkfun | www.sparkfun.com

p.67: FROM THE BENCH: Windless Wind Chimes (Part 1): Let Randomness Ring,
           By Jeff Bachiochi

http://leehite.org/Chimes.htm#DIY_Calculators

ULN2803A
Eight Darlington arrays w/diode protection
ST Microelectronics

PIC18F26K22
Low-Power, High-Performance Microcontrollers with XLP Technology
Microchip Technologies

XL6009E adjustable DC-DC Switching boost converter
Addicore

USB LiIon/LiPoly charger – v1.2
Adafruit

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Addicore | www.addicore.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

p.79: The Future of Embedded Databases: Embedded Database Systems in the Age of IoT, By Steve Graves

McObject | www.mcobject.com

Tuesday’s Newsletter: IoT Tech Focus

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s IoT Technology Focus newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your IoT Technology Focus newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Embedded Boards.(5/28) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Analog & Power. (6/4) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (6/11) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

Automotive USB 3.1 SmartHub Features Type-C Support

Microchip Technology provides an automotive-qualified USB 3.1 Gen1 SmartHub IC, offering up to 10 times faster data rates over existing USB 2.0 solutions and reducing indexing times to improve the user experience in vehicles. To support the rising adoption of USB Type-C in the smartphone market and enable universal connectivity in vehicles, the USB7002 SmartHub IC includes interfaces for USB Type-C connectors.

As automotive manufacturers continue to add more functions to vehicles and integrate with mobile phone applications, the role of USB for reliable data transfers requires robust functionality and faster transfer speeds. Consumers expect instant responses from infotainment systems despite many functions occurring simultaneously in vehicles, from transferring mapping data to playing music and interacting with user interfaces.

The 5 Gbps SuperSpeed data rates of USB 3.1 ensure higher bandwidth and maximum functionality, making it well suited for applications that require gigabit speeds for faster data streaming, data download and in-vehicle communication. The USB7002 also reduces the download time for large videos, which is ideal for vehicles that have integrated 4K dash cams.

Consumer demand for faster mobile device charging has led to the rise of USB Type-C in the smartphone industry. The USB7002 combines the benefits of USB 3.1 technology with the rising popularity of USB Type-C. The USB7002 enables direct USB Type-C connections through native Configuration Channel (CC) pin interfaces and integrated 2:1 multiplexers that support the reversible connection feature of the USB Type-C connector.

To support the driver assistance applications that are now standard on all mobile handsets, the SmartHub ICs also include Microchip’s patented FlexConnect technology, which provides the unique ability to dynamically swap between a USB host and USB device. The SmartHub ICs also feature patented multi-host end-point reflector technology, which enables USB data to be mirrored between two USB hosts. These fundamental features enable the graphical user interface of a phone to be displayed on the vehicle’s screen and integrate with voice commands inside the car, while simultaneously charging the mobile device. This allows consumers to easily and safely use their mobile devices while driving, providing a user-friendly way to make calls, send messages and get directions while focusing on the road.

Development Tools

The USB7002 IC comes with a complete solution including the MPLAB® Connect Configurator hub configuration tool, evaluation boards with schematics and gerbers to reduce development time. Microchip’s USBCheck services allow manufacturers to verify designs and layouts prior to sending out a PCB for manufacturing, significantly accelerating time to market for their end products.

The USB7002-I/KDXVA0 is AEC-Q100 Grade 3 qualified and available now starting at $4.05 in volume production quantities.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com