About Nan Price

Nan Price is an Associate Editor at Circuit Cellar. You can reach her at nprice@circuitcellar.com and @assoceditor_cc.

Nanopower Comparator

TLV3691The TLV3691 comparator offers a wide supply range, low quiescent current, and rail-to-rail inputs. These features come in industry-standard and extremely small packages, making this device ideal for low-voltage and low-power applications.

Available as a single channel, the comparator’s low power, wide supply, and temperature range make the device flexible enough to handle applications from consumer to industrial. The TLV3691 is available in SC70-5 and 1-mm × 1-mm DFN-6 packages. This device is specified for operation across the –40°C-to-125°C expanded industrial temperature range.

The TLV3691’s features include a 24-µs response time, push-pull output, and a range that extends 100 mV beyond both rails. Texas Instruments offers a variety of tools and resources to speed development with the TLV3691, including a SPICE Model, TINA-TI SPICE Model, and the DIP adapter evaluation module.

Contact Texas Instruments for pricing.

Texas Instruments, Inc.
www.ti.com

Fanless Small Form Factor PC System

HABEYThe BIS-3922 improves on HABEY’s BIS-6922 system by offering additional I/O for more applications and solutions. The system is well suited for automation, digital signage, network security, point of sale, transportation, and digital surveillance applications.
The BIS-3922 system includes six DB9 COM ports on the front panel, one of which supports RS-232/-422/-485. HABEY’s proprietary ICEFIN design ensures maximum heat dissipation and a true fanless system.

The BIS-3922 system is built with the Intel QM77 chipset and is compatible with the third-generation Ivy Bridge Core processors. The BIS-3922 system’s additional features include a HM77 chipset that supports third-generation Intel Core i3/i5/i7 processors; dual gigabit Ethernet ports; High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI), video graphics array (VGA), and low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) display interfaces; one mini-PCI Express (PCIe) and one mSATA expansion; and a 3.5” single-board computer (SBC) form factor.

Contact HABEY for pricing.

HABEY USA, Inc.
www.habeyusa.com

Fast Quad IF DAC

ADI AD9144 16-bit 2.8 GSPS DAC - Fastest Quad IF DAC - High DynaThe AD9144 is a four-channel, 16-bit, 2.8-GSPS DAC that supports high data rates and ultra-wide signal bandwidth to enable wideband and multiband wireless applications. The DAC features 82-dBc spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and a 2.8-GSPS maximum sample rate, which permits multicarrier generation up to the Nyquist frequency.

With –164-dBm/Hz noise spectral density, the AD9144 enables higher dynamic range transmitters to be built. Its low SFDR and distortion design techniques provide high-quality synthesis of wideband signals from baseband to high intermediate frequencies. The DAC features a JESD204B eight-lane interface and low inherent latency of fewer than two DAC clock cycles. This simplifies hardware and software system design while permitting multichip synchronization.

The combination of programmable interpolation rate, high sample rates, and low power at 1.5 W provides flexibility when choosing DAC output frequencies. This is especially helpful in meeting four- to six-carrier Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) transmission specifications and other communications standards. For six-carrier GSM intermodulation distortion (IMD), the AD9144 operates at 77 dBc at 75-MHz IF. Operating with the on-chip phase-locked loop (PLL) at a 30-MHz DAC output frequency, the AD9144 delivers a 76-dB adjacent-channel leakage ratio (ACLR) for four-carrier Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) applications.

The AD9144 includes integrated interpolation filters with selectable interpolation factors. The dual DAC data interface supports word and byte load, enabling users to reduce input pins on lower data rates to save board space, power, and cost.

The DAC is supported by an evaluation board with an FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector, software, tools, a SPI controller, and reference designs. Analog Devices’s VisualAnalog software package combines a powerful set of simulation and data analysis tools with a user-friendly graphical interface that enables users to customize their input signal and data analysis.

The AD9144BCPZ DAC costs $80. The AD9144-EBZ and AD9144-FMC-EBZ FMC evaluation boards cost $495.

Analog Devices, Inc.
www.analog.com

Switch Blade for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications

ADLINK_webThe aTCA-3710 is a 40G AdvancedTCA (ATCA) switch blade featuring a Broadcom BCM56846 10/40  gigabit Ethernet (GbE) fabric interface switch, a Broadcom BCM56334 24-port GbE base interface switch, and a Freescale QorIQ P2041 quad-core local management processor. The switch blade provides 14 10-GbE SFP+ uplink ports and supports 640-GBPS bandwidth for use in 14-slot 40G ATCA shelves. The aTCA-3710 is ideal for service providers requiring fast, high-quantity data throughput processing.

The aTCA-3710 40-GbE ATCA fabric interface switch blade is compliant with PICMG 3.0 R3.0 and PICMG 3.1 R2.0 standards. The high-performance server switch—along with CPU/NPU blades and ADLINK Software for Networks (ADSN)—can be used to constitute a 40G ARIP for next-generation applications. With a rich front panel I/O and a hot-swappable design, the aTCA-3710 guarantees high availability, scalability, and straightforward maintenance.

Contact ADLINK for pricing.

ADLINK Technology, Inc.
www.adlinktech.com

Q&A: Teaching, CAD Research, and VLSI Innovation

Shiyan Hu is an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Michigan Technological University. We discussed his research in the fields of computer-aided design (CAD), very-large-scale integration (VSLI), smart home monitoring, and biochip design.—Nan Price, Associate Editor

 

Shiyan Hu

Shiyan Hu

NAN: How long have you been at Michigan Technological University? What courses do you currently teach and what do you enjoy most about instructing?

SHIYAN: I have been with Michigan Tech for six years as an assistant professor. Effective September 2014, I will be an associate professor.

I have recently taught the graduate-level “Advanced Embedded System for Smart Infrastructure,” the graduate-level “Advanced Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) Computer-Aided Design (CAD),” and the undergraduate-level “VLSI Design” courses.
The most exciting part about teaching is the interactions with students. For example, questions from students—although sometimes challenging—can be intriguing and it is fun to observe diversified thoughts. In addition, students taking graduate-level courses need to discuss their course projects with me. During the discussions, I can clearly see how excited they feel about their progress, which makes the teaching very enjoyable.

NAN: What “hot topics” currently interest your students?

SHIYAN: Students are very interested in embedded system designs for smart homes, including FPGA design and embedded programming for the scheduling of various smart home appliances to improve convenience and reduce the cost of electricity bills. I also frequently have meetings with students who are interested in portable or wearable electronics targeting health-care applications.

Shiyan and a team of students he advises developed this sensor-based smart video monitoring system (left) and a 3-D mouse (right).

Photo 1: Shiyan and a team of students he advises developed this sensor-based smart video monitoring system.

Photo 2: A 3-D mouse developed by Shayin and his team.

Photo 2: A 3-D mouse developed by Shiyan and his team.

NAN: Describe your role as director of Michigan Tech’s VLSI CAD research lab.

SHIYAN: I have been advising a team of PhD and MS students who conduct research in the area of VLSI CAD in the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) department. A main research focus of our lab is VLSI physical design including buffer insertion, layer assignment, routing, gate sizing, and so forth. In addition, we have developed some embedded system prototypes such as sensor-based video monitoring and a 3-D mouse (see Photos 1 and 2).

There is also growing collaboration between our lab and the power system lab on the research of a CAD technique for smart-grid systems. The collaboration has led to an innovative optimization technique for an automatic feeder remote terminal unit that addresses cybersecurity attacks to smart power distribution networks. Further, there is an ongoing joint project on an FPGA-based embedded system for power quality prediction.

Although most of my time as the research lab director is spent on student mentoring and project management, our lab also contributes considerably to education in our department. For example, instructional and lab materials for the undergraduate “VLSI Design” course are produced by our lab.

NAN: Tell us more about your smart home research and the technique you developed to address cybersecurity problems.

SHIYAN: My smart home research emphasizes embedded systems that handle scheduling and cybersecurity issues. Figure 1 shows a typical smart home system, which consists of various components such as household appliances, energy storage, photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and a plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) charger. Smart meters are installed at the customer side and connected to the smart power distribution system.

The smart meter can periodically receive updated pricing information from utility companies. The smart meter also has a scheduling unit that automatically determines the operation of each household appliance (e.g., the starting time and working power level), targeting the minimization of the monetary expense of each residential customer. This technology is called “smart home scheduling.”

In the real-time pricing model, utility pricing is determined by the load while the load is influenced by the pricing, forming a feedback loop. In this process, the pricing information is transmitted from the utility to the smart meters through some communication network, which could be wireless or wired. Cyber attackers can hack some access points in the transmission or just directly hack the smart meters. Those impacted smart meters would receive fake pricing information and generate the undesired scheduling solutions. Cyber attackers can take advantage of this by scheduling their own energy-consuming tasks during the inexpensive hours, which would be expensive without a cyber attack. This is an interesting topic I am working on.

This smart home system architecture includes HVAC and several home appliances.

Figure 1: This smart home system architecture includes HVAC and several home appliances.

NAN: Describe your VSLI research.

SHIYAN: Modern ICs and chips are ubiquitous. Their applications include smartphones, modern home appliances, PCs, and laptops, as well as the powerful servers for big data storage and processing. In VLSI and system-on-a-chip (SoC) design, the layout design (a.k.a., physical design) often involves billions of transistors and is therefore enormously complex. Handling such a complex problem requires high-performance software automation tools (i.e., physical design automation tools) to achieve design objectives within a reasonable time frame. VLSI physical design is a key part of my research area.

NAN: Are you involved in any other areas of research?

SHIYAN: I also work on microfluidic biochip design. The traditional clinical diagnosis procedure includes collecting blood from patients and then sending it to laboratories, which require space and are labor-intensive and expensive, yet sometimes inaccurate.

The invention of the lab on a chip (a.k.a., biochip) technology offers some relief. The expensive laboratory procedures can be simply performed within a small chip, which provides much higher sensitivity and detection accuracy in blood sample analysis and disease diagnosis. Some point-of-care versions of these have already become popular in the market.

A major weakness of the prevailing biochip technology is that such a chip often has very limited functionality in terms of the quantities it can measure. The reason is that currently only up to thousands of biochemical reactions can be handled in a single biochip. Since the prevailing biochips are always manually designed, this seems to be the best one can achieve. If a single biochip could simultaneously execute a few biological assays corresponding to related diseases, then the clinical diagnosis would be much less expensive and more convenient to conduct. This is also the case when utilizing biochips for biochemical research and drug discovery.

My aim for this biochip research project is to largely improve the integration complexity of miniaturized components in a biochip to provide many more functionalities. The growing design complexity has mandated a shift from the manual design process toward a CAD process.

Basically, in the microfluidic biochip CAD methodology, those miniaturized components, which correspond to fundamental biochemical operations (e.g., mix and split), are automatically placed and routed using computer algorithms. This methodology targets minimizing the overall completion time of all biochemical operations, limiting the sizes of biochips, and improving the yield in the biochip fabrication. In fact, some results from our work were recently featured on the front cover of IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience (Volume 13, No. 1, 2014), a premier nanobioscience and engineering journal. In the future, we will consider inserting on-chip optical sensors to provide real-time monitoring of the biological assay execution, finding possible errors during execution, and dynamically reconfiguring the biochip for error recovery.

NAN: You’ve earned several distinctions and awards over the last few years. How do these acknowledgments help your research?

SHIYAN: Those awards and funding certainly help me a lot in pursuing the research of fascinating topics. For example, I am a 2014 recipient of the NSF CAREER award, which is widely regarded as one of the most prestigious honors for up-and-coming researchers in science and engineering.

My five-year NSF CAREER project will focus on carbon nanotube interconnect-based circuit design. In the prevailing 22-nm technology node, wires are made from coppers and such a thin copper wire has a very small cross-section area. This results in large wire resistance and large interconnect delay. In fact, the interconnect delay has become the limiting factor for chip timing. Due to the fundamental physical limits of copper wires, novel on-chip interconnect materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons) are more desirable due to their many salient features (e.g., superior conductivity and resilience to electromigration).

To judiciously integrate the benefits from both nanotechnology interconnects and copper interconnects, my NSF CAREER project will develop a groundbreaking physical layout codesign methodology for next-generation ICs. It will also develop various physical design automation techniques as well as a variation-aware codesign technique for the new methodology. This project aims to integrate the pioneering nanotechnologies into the practical circuit design and it has the potential to contribute to revolutionizing the prevailing circuit design paradigm.

NAN: Give us some background information. When did you first become interested in computer engineering?

SHIYAN: I started to work on computer engineering when I entered Texas A&M University conducting research with professor Jiang Hu, a leading expert in the field of VLSI physical design. I learned a lot about VLSI CAD from him and I did several interesting research projects including buffer insertion, gate sizing, design for manufacturability, and post silicon tuning. Through his introduction, I also got the chance to collaborate with leading experts from IBM Research on an important project called “slew buffering.”

NAN: Tell us more about your work at IBM Research.

SHIYAN: As VLSI technology scales beyond the 32-nm node, more devices can fit onto a chip, which implies continued growth of design size. The increased wire delay dominance due to finer wire widths makes design closure an increasingly challenging problem.
Buffer insertion, which improves an IC’s timing performance by inserting non-inverting buffers or inverting buffers (a.k.a., inverters), has proven to be indispensable in interconnect optimization. It has been well documented that typically more than 25% of gates are buffers in IBM ASIC designs.

Together with my collaborators at IBM Research, I proposed a new slew buffering-driven dynamic programming technique. The testing with IBM ASIC designs demonstrated that our technique achieves a more than 100× speed increase compared to the classical buffering technique while still saving buffers. Therefore, the slew buffering-driven technique has been implemented and deployed into the IBM physical design flow as a default option.

IBM researchers have witnessed that the slew buffering technique contributes to a great reduction in the turnaround time of the physical synthesis flow. In addition, more extensive deployment of buffering techniques leads to superior design quality. Such an extensive buffer deployment-based interconnect synthesis was not possible prior to this work, due to the inefficiency of the previous buffering techniques.

After the publication of this work, various extensions to the slew buffering-driven technique were developed by other experts in the field. In summer 2010, I was invited by the group again to take a visiting professorship working on physical design, which resulted in a US patent being granted.

Multi-Range Programmable DC Power Supplies

B&K9115_leftB&K Precision expanded its 9115 series with the addition of two new multi-range programmable DC power supplies: the 9115-AT and the 9116. Similar to the 9115, the new models deliver full 1,200-W output power in any combination of voltage and current within the rated limits. The models offer the same features as the 9115, but with a few differences.

The 9115-AT provides unique built-in automotive test functions that can simulate common test conditions to ensure reliability of electrical and electronic devices installed in automobiles. The 9116 offers a higher voltage range up to 150 V. Both models are suitable for automotive and a variety of benchtop or automated test equipment (ATE) system applications.

B&K9116_rearThe 9115-AT and the 9116 include a high-resolution vacuum fluorescent display (VFD), independent voltage and current control knobs, cursors, and a numerical keypad for direct data entry. Both models also provide internal memory storage to save and recall up to 100 different instrument settings, sequence (list mode) programming, and configurable overvoltage and overpower protection limits. The 9115 series offers remote control software for front-panel emulation, generation and execution of test sequences, and logging measurements via a PC.

The 9115-AT and 9116 cost $2,345 and $1,995, respectively.

B&K Precision Corp.
www.bkprecision.com

Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillators

TRX1890.TIFThe IQXT-210 series of temperature-compensated crystal oscillators (TCXOs) offers frequency stabilities down to ±0.14 ppm over a –40°C-to-85°C full industrial temperature range. The small-footprint oscillators are encased in miniature eight-pad 5-mm × 3.2-mm package.

Powered from a 3.3-V supply, the IQXT-210 has a typical 12-A current draw depending on the frequency, which can be specified at 10 to 50 MHz. The TCXOs initially offer 11 standard frequencies, including 12.8, 19.2, and 26 MHz.

The IQXT-210s’ output can include various pulling range options, which enables the frequency to be adjusted by a fixed amount for various applications. This also provides remote usage capabilities. The TCXOs are primarily designed for low-power consumption applications (e.g., femtocells, smart wireless devices, fiber-optic networking, microwave satellite communications, LTE/4G base stations, backhaul infrastructure, packet transport network, computer networking, RF modules, Wi-Fi, and test and measurement equipment).

Contact IQD Frequency Products for pricing.

IQD Frequency Products, Ltd.
www.iqdfrequencyproducts.com

Engineering Consultant and Roboticist

Eric Forkosh starting building his first robot when he was a teenager and has been designing ever since. This NYC-based electrical engineer’s projects include everything from dancing robots to remote monitoring devices to cellular module boards to analog signals—Nan Price, Associate Editor


NAN: Tell us about your start-up company, Narobo.

forkosh

Eric Forkosh

ERIC: Narobo is essentially the company through which I do all my consulting work. I’ve built everything from dancing robots to cellular field equipment. Most recently I’ve been working with some farmers in the Midwest on remote monitoring. We monitor a lot of different things remotely, and I’ve helped develop an online portal and an app. The most interesting feature of our system is that we have a custom tablet rig that can interface directly to the electronics over just the USB connection. We use Google’s Android software development kit to pull that off.

ERIC: The DroneCell was my second official product released, the first being the Roboduino. The Roboduino was relatively simple; it was just a modified Arduino that made building robots easy. We used to sell it online at CuriousInventor.com for a little while, and there was always a trickle of sales, but it was never a huge success. I still get a kick out of seeing Roboduino in projects online, it’s always nice to see people appreciating my work.

dronecell3

The DroneCell is a cellular module board that communicates with devices with TTL UARTs.

The DroneCell is the other product of mine, and my personal favorite. It’s a cellular module board geared toward the hobbyist. A few years ago, if you wanted to add cellular functionality to your system you had to do a custom PCB for it. You had to deal with really low voltage levels, very high peak power draws, and hard-to-read pins. DroneCell solved the problem and made it very easy to interface to hobbyist systems such as the Arduino. Putting on proper power regulation was easy, but my biggest design challenge was how to handle the very low voltage levels. In the end, I put together a very clever voltage shifter that worked with 3V3 and 5 V, with some calculated diodes and resistors.

NAN: Tell us about your first project. Where were you at the time and what did you learn from the experience?

butlerrobot

Eric’s Butler robot was his first electronics project. He started building it when he was still in high school.

ERIC: The Butler robot was my first real electronics project. I started building it in ninth grade, and for a really stupid reason. I just wanted to build a personal robot, like on TV. My first version of the Butler robot was cobbled together using an old laptop, a USB-to-I/O converter called Phidgets, and old wheelchair motors I bought on eBay.

I didn’t use anything fancy for this robot, all the software was written in Visual Basic and ran on Windows XP. For motor controllers, I used some old DPDT automotive relays I had lying around. They did the job but obviously I wasn’t able to PWM them for speed control.

My second version came about two years later, and was built with the intention of winning the Instructables Robot contest. I didn’t win first place, but my tutorial “How to Build a Butler Robot” placed in the top 10 and was mentioned in The Instructables Book in print. This version was a cleaner version of everything I had done before. I built a sleek black robot body (at least it was sleek back then!) and fabricated an upside-down bowl-shaped head that housed the webcam. The electronics were basically the same. The main new features were a basic robot arm that poured you a drink (two servos and a large DC motor) and a built-in mini fridge. I also got voice command to work really well by hooking up my Visual Basic software with Dragon’s speech-to-text converter.

The Butler robot was a great project and I learned a lot about electronics and software from doing it. If I were to build a Butler robot right now, I’d do it completely differently. But I think it was an important to my engineering career and it taught me that anything is possible with some hacking and hard work.

At the same time as I was doing my Butler robot (probably around 2008), I lucked out and was hired by an entertainer in Hong Kong. He saw my Butler robot online and hired me to build him a dancing robot that was synced to music. We solved the issue of syncing to music by putting dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) tones on the left channel audio and music on the right channel. The right channel went to speakers and the left channel went to a decoder that translated DTMF tone sequences to robot movement. This was good because all the data and dance moves were part of the same audio file. All we had to do was prepare special audio files and the robot would work with any music player (e.g., iPod, laptop, CD, etc.). The robot is used in shows to this day, and my performer client even hired a professional cartoon voice actor to give the robot a personality.

NAN: You were an adjunct professor at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City. What types of courses did you teach and what did you enjoy most about teaching?

ERIC: I will be entering my senior year at Cooper Union in the Fall 2014. Two years ago, I took a year off from school to pursue my work. This past year I completed my junior year. I taught a semester of “Microcontroller Projects” at Cooper Union during my year off from being a student. We built a lot of really great projects using Arduino. One final project that really impressed me was a small robot car that parallel parked itself. Another project was a family of spider robots that were remotely controlled and could shrink up into a ball.

Cooper Union is filled with really bright students and teaching exposed me to the different thought processes people have when trying to build a solution. I think teaching helped me grow as a person and helped me understand that in engineering—and possibly in life—there is no one right answer. There are different paths to the same destination. I really enjoyed teaching because it made me evaluate my understanding about electronics, software, and robotics. It forced me to make sure I really understood what was going on in intricate detail.

NAN: You have competed in robotics competitions including RoboCup in Austria. Tell us about these experiences—what types of robots did you build for the competitions?

robocup

Eric worked with his high school’s robotics team to design this robot for a RoboCup competition.

ERIC: In high school I was the robotics team captain and we built a line-following robot and a soccer robot to compete in RoboCup Junior in the US. We won first place in the RoboCup Junior Northeast Regional and were invited to compete in Austria for the International RoboCup Junior games. So we traveled as a team to Austria to compete and we got to see a lot of interesting projects and many other soccer teams compete. I remember the Iranian RoboCup Junior team had a crazy robot that competed against us; it was built out of steel and looked like a miniature tank.

My best memory from Austria was when our robot broke and I had to fix it. Our robot was omnidirectional with four omni wheels in each corner that let it drive at any angle or orientation it wanted. It could zigzag across the field without a problem. At our first match, I put the robot down on the little soccer field to compete… and it wouldn’t move. During transportation, one of the motors broke. Disappointed, we had to forfeit that match. But I didn’t give up. I removed one of the wheels and rewrote the code to operate with only three motors functional. Again we tried to compete, and again another motor appeared to be broken. I removed yet another wheel and stuck a bottle cap as a caster wheel on the back. I rewrote the code, which was running on a little Microchip Technology PIC microcontroller, and programmed the robot to operate with only two wheels working. The crippled robot put up a good fight, but unfortunately it wasn’t enough. I think we scored one goal total, and that was when the robot had just two wheels working.

After the competition, during an interview with the judges, we had a laugh comparing our disabled robot to the videos we took back home with the robot scoring goal after goal. I learned from that incident to always be prepared for the worst, do your best, and sometimes stuff just happens. I’m happy I tried and did my best to fix it, I have no regrets. I have a some of the gears from that robot at home on display as a reminder to always prepare for emergencies and to always try my best.

NAN: What was the last electronics-design related product you purchased and what type of project did you use it with?

ERIC: The last product would be an op-amp I bought, probably the 411 chip. For a current project, I had to generate a –5-to-5-V analog signal from a microcontroller. My temporary solution was to RC filter the PWM output from the op-amp and then use an amplifier with a
gain of 2 and a 2.5-V “virtual ground.” The result is that 2.5 V is the new “zero” voltage. You can achieve –5 V by giving the op-amp 0 V, a –2.5-V difference that is amplified by 2 to yield 5 V. Similarly, 5 V is a 2.5-V difference from the virtual ground, amplified by 2 it provides a 5-V output.

NAN: What do you consider to be the “next big thing” in the industry?

ERIC: I think the next big thing will be personalized health care via smartphones. There are already some insulin pumps and heart monitors that communicate with special smartphone apps via Bluetooth. I think that’s excellent. We have all this computing power in our pockets, we should put it to good use. It would be nice to see these apps educating smartphone users—the patients themselves— about their current health condition. It might inspire patients/users to live healthier lifestyles and take care of themselves. I don’t think the FDA is completely there yet, but I’m excited to see what the future will bring. Remember, the future is what you build it to be.

Low-Power AC Input LED Drivers

XPThe DLE25 and DLE35 series of AC input LED drivers incorporate universal input with active power factor correction in a two-power stage design to eliminate flicker while providing a high-efficiency solution. The series includes dimmable constant current versions with PWM, voltage, and resistance programming capabilities.

The DLE25 and DLE35 drivers are packaged in an IP67-rated 3.68“ × 2.89“ × 1.29“ enclosure and are waterproof to depths up to 1 m, making them suitable for use in almost any outdoor application. Typical operating efficiency is in the 78% to 83% range.

Accommodating the extended universal input voltage range from 90 to 305 VAC, the DLE series supports the 277 VAC system used in the US. The series complies with EN61347 and UL8750 safety approvals and Class B conducted and radiated noise limits as specified by EN55015.

The DLE25 series costs $21.06 in 500-piece quantities.

XP Power, Ltd.
www.xppower.com

Nanopower Anisotropic Magnetoresistive Sensor ICs

HoneywellThe ultra-high sensitivity SM351LT and the very high sensitivity SM353LT nanopower anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor ICs provide a high level of magnetic sensitivity (as low as 7 Gauss typical) while requiring nanopower (360 nA). The high sensitivity improves design flexibility and provides application cost savings by utilizing smaller or lower-strength magnets. The nanopower enables the ICs to be used in battery-operated equipment with extremely low power requirements.

The SM351LT and the SM353LT are designed for a range of battery-operated applications including water, gas, and electricity meters; industrial smoke detectors; exercise equipment; security systems; handheld computers; and scanners. They can also be used with household appliances (e.g., dishwashers, microwaves, washing machines, refrigerators, and coffee makers), medical equipment (e.g., hospital beds, medication dispensing cabinets, and infusion pumps), and consumer electronics (e.g. notebook computers, tablets, and cordless speakers).

The ICs’ omnipolarity enables them to be activated by either a north or south pole, eliminating the need for the magnet polarity to be identified. This simplifies installation and potentially reduces the system cost. The push-pull (CMOS) output does not require external resistors, making it easier to operate. The non-chopper stabilized design eliminates electrical noise generated by the sensor. The subminiature SOT-23 surface-mount package is smaller than most reed switches and can be used in automated pick-and-place component installation.

Contact Honeywell for pricing.

Honeywell International, Inc.
www.honeywell.com

PCI Switching Solutions

Pickering
Pickering Interfaces expanded its range of PCI switching solutions with the introduction of seven new PCI cards and the expansion of an eighth card. The expansion includes programmable and precision resistors, general-purpose relays, high-density matrices, and multiplexers.

The 50-293 PCI programmable resistor and relay card offers two or four programmable resistor channels. An optional eight single pole, double throw (SPDT) relays can be used for general-purpose switching. Each resistor can be programmed with resistance calls that set the module’s resistance to a ±1% resolution accuracy and the ability to read back the resistance setting to 0.3%. Depending on the version, the resolution is 0.25 to 2 Ω and the resistance is up to 131 kΩ.

The expanded 50-297 PCI precision resistor card family increases the versions offered from six to 42. Each version provides a choice of the number of resistor channels, the resistance range, and the resistance setting resolution. Depending on the version, the resolution is from 0.125 to 2 Ω and the resistor counts from three to 18. Resistor values up to 1.51 MΩ can be simulated and accuracy is ±0.2% resolution.

Two PCI general-purpose 2-A relay cards were also introduced. Model 50-131 provides 16 or 26 single pole, double throw (SPDT) relays. Model 50-132 provides 16, 32, or 39 SPST relays, each rated at 2 A and featuring up to 60-W hot switch power.

Pickering’s PCI 2-A 1-pole high-density matrix solutions include three models. The 50-527 is a 32 × 2, one-pole matrix; the 50-528 offers 32 × 4 or 16 × 4 configurations; and the 50-529 offers 16 × 8 and 8 × 8 configurations.

The 50-635 PCI low-cost electromechanical relay (EMR) multiplexer (MUX) system has a variety of different configurations ranging from a 64:1 single-pole MUX to a quad 8:1 two-pole MUX. All the PCI relay cards use high-quality EMRs and standard D-type connectors.

Contact Pickering Interfaces for pricing.

Pickering Interfaces, Ltd.
www.pickeringtest.com

Long-Range, Memory Jewelry-Tagging Solution

EMThe EM4126 EPC radio-frequency identification (RFID) IC is designed to provide RFID tagging on small and/or high-value products (e.g., jewelry and watches). The IC’s high sensitivity enables long read ranges. EM4126-based tags can achieve –21-dBm read sensitivities. The ICs are designed for supply chain management, tracking and tracing, container identification, and access and asset control applications.

The EM4126’s 224 bits of nonvolatile memory support International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or Electronic Product Code (EPC) data structures and enable SGTIN-198 encoding, which uses alphanumeric serialization represented as a string of up to 20 7-bit characters. The EM4126’s additional features include ISO 18000-63 and EPC Class-1 Generation-2 compliance, 32-bit short-tag identification, 40-to-160 Kbps forward- and return-link data rates, and a –40°C-to-85°C extended temperature range.

Contact EM Microelectronic for pricing.

EM Microelectronic
www.emmicroelectronic.com

Experimentation and Engineering

Frederic Vecoven is software engineer living in Luxembourg who enjoys experimenting with everything from his home’s central heating controller to FPGAs. He has been designing micrcontroller-based projects for more than a dozen years and is currently working on an EPROM emulator.—Nan Price, Associate Editor

 

NAN: What is your current occupation?

FREDERIC:: I am a software principal engineer at Oracle.

NAN: Your website Vecoven.com features projects involving capacitors, microcontrollers, and EEPROM and hardware emulators. Tell us a little about the projects and your design process.

vecovenFREDERIC: At work I design firmware for high-end servers. At home I like to design my own stuff, so I have full control and can create new devices and/or enhance existing ones. I work on various projects and I don’t find enough time to document all of them on the website. For example, I designed a controller for the central heating in my house, but never documented it (it’s too “custom”). I love retrocomputing, which is how my FreHD project started. This is a hard-drive emulator for TRS-80 computers.

My design process starts from an idea (I have too many, so I must carefully select one) then a lot of thinking about the future implementation (as always, designing something is about compromises). Once I have a clear view in my mind about how things should work, I start prototyping. If possible, I use a breadboard or I create a PCB. Sometimes I do a lot of simulation before starting the prototyping, as this will save a lot of time. However, that cannot be done for all projects.

NAN: How long have you been designing microcontroller-based systems?

FREDERIC: More than 15 years.

NAN: How did you become interested in technology?

FREDERIC: When I was 13 years old I fell in love with computers when I saw a TRS-80 model in high school. I am thankful to my parents, who gave me a computer one year later.
I went to college and got a master’s degree in computer science. But I wasn’t satisfied, so I studied some more years to get another master’s degree, this time in electrical engineering. The combination of software and hardware is really powerful. A few years later, I relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area, but I am back in Europe now.

NAN: Describe the first embedded system you designed. Where were you at the time? What did you learn from the experience?

FREDERIC: My first big experience with a real embedded system was when I was working for Sun Microsystems. My group was writing the firmware for the system controllers of the SunFire 3800-6900 line. The embedded system was a small SPARC CPU running Wind River Systems’s VxWorks and the firmware was almost entirely written in Java.

NAN: What was the last electronics design-related product you purchased and how did you use it?

FREDERIC: I bought some FPGAs recently. I haven’t released any project with it yet, it is still a work in progress. My hobby time is very limited.

My idea is to use a CPU core and enhance it with new instructions to enable the generation of real-time signals. FPGAs are very powerful in that area, where a microcontroller would spend most of its time processing interrupts.

NAN: Are you currently working on or planning any projects?

Vecoven_PWM

This is Frederic’s PWM prototype for his Roland Super JX synthesizer.

FREDERIC: Yes, I have rewritten the Roland JX-10/MKS-70 firmware from scratch because I wanted to add PWM waveforms. This quickly turned into a big project. Currently, the prototype setup involves a simulator running the “assigner” code on my laptop. The laptop sends the sound board commands in System Exclusive (SysEx) Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) messages, which go to a microcontroller that extracts the payload from the SysEx. The payload is then sent to the sound board, which believes it got its instructions directly from the assigner. The sound board (which runs its own microcontroller) uses an EPROM emulator connected over USB, so I can easily modify the assigner code (running in the simulator) or the sound board code (running in the EPROM emulator) without having to program any chip. Note that I didn’t have an EPROM emulator, so I designed mine.

Vecoven_scope

This oscilloscope capture shows the generated PWM signal.

FREDERIC: The power of CPUs and GPUs are really exciting. You can pretty much do everything with software now (a 32-bit core costs less than $5).
On the other side, people don’t pay enough attention to optimization, so I am sad anytime I see poorly written code. I am also excited with all the tools and hardware available today for so little cost. That wasn’t the case in the past, so it opens door to students and hobbyists.

NAN: Last question. Let’s say you had a full year and a nice budget to work on any embedded design project you wanted. Call it your “dream project.” What would it be?

FREDERIC: I would love to do some robotic design, but I am not an expert in mechanics and I don’t have the tools (e.g., lathe, milling machine, etc.). That would fill the gap: hardware, software, and mechanics.

Flexible I/O Expansion for Rugged Applications

WynSystemsThe SBC35-CC405 series of multi-core embedded PCs includes on-board USB, gigabit Ethernet, and serial ports. These industrial computers are designed for rugged embedded applications requiring extended temperature operation and long-term availability.

The SBC35-CC405 series features the latest generation Intel Atom E3800 family of processors in an industry-standard 3.5” single-board computer (SBC) format COM Express carrier. A Type 6 COM Express module supporting a quad-, dual-, or single-core processor is used to integrate the computer. For networking and communications, the SBC35-CC405 includes two Intel I210 gigabit Ethernet controllers with IEEE 1588 timestamping and 10-/100-/1,000-Mbps multispeed operation. Four Type-A connectors support three USB 2.0 channels and one high-speed USB 3.0 channel. Two serial ports support RS-232/-422/-485 interface levels with clock options up to 20 Mbps in the RS-422/-485 mode and up to 1 Mbps in the RS-232 mode.

The SBC35-CC405 series also includes two MiniPCIe connectors and one IO60 connector to enable additional I/O expansion. Both MiniPCIe connectors support half-length and full-length cards with screw-down mounting for improved shock and vibration durability. One MiniPCIe connector also supports bootable mSATA solid-state disks while the other connector includes USB. The IO60 connector provides access to the I2C, SPI, PWM, and UART signals enabling a simple interface to sensors, data acquisition, and other low-speed I/O devices.

The SBC35-CC405 runs over a 10-to-50-VDC input power range and operates at temperatures from –40°C to 85°C. Enclosures, power supplies, and configuration services are also available.

Linux, Windows, and other x86 OSes can be booted from the CFast, mSATA, SATA, or USB interfaces, providing flexible data storage options. WinSystems provides drivers for Linux and Windows 7/8 as well as preconfigured embedded OSes.
The single-core SBC35-CC405 costs $499.

Winsystems, Inc.
www.winsystems.com

High Electron Mobility Transistors

gold backgroundThe TPH3002LD and the TPH3002LS are 600-V Gallium nitride (GaN)-based, low-profile power quad flat no-lead (PQFN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs utilize Transphorm’s patented, high-performance EZ-GaNTM technology, which combines low switching and conduction losses, reducing the overall system energy dissipation up to 50%.

The TPH3002PD and TPH3002PS HEMTs are designed for use in smaller, lower-power applications (e.g., adapters and all-in-one computer power supplies). The HEMTs feature a Kelvin connection to isolate the gate circuit from the high-current output circuit to further reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and high-frequency switching capabilities.
Evaluation boards are available with the devices.

Contact Transphorm for pricing.

Transphorm, Inc.
www.transphormusa.com