About C. J. Abate

C. J. Abate is Circuit Cellar's Editor in Chief. You can reach him at cabate@circuitcellar.com and @editor_cc.

From the IBM PC AT to AVRs & Arduinos (CC 25th Anniversary Preview)

During the last 25 years, hundreds of the world’s most brilliant electrical engineers and embedded developers have published articles in Circuit Cellar magazine. But only a choice few had the skill, focus, creativity, and stamina to consistently publish six or more articles per year. Ed Nisley is a member of that select group. Since Issue 1, Nisley has covered topics ranging from a video hand scanner project to X10 powerline control to Arduino-based designs to crystal characterization.

In the upcoming Circuit Cellar 25th Anniversary Issue—which is slated for publication in early 2013—Nisley describes some of his most memorable projects, such as his hand Scanner design from Issue #1. He writes:

The cable in the upper-left corner went to the serial port of my Genuine IBM PC AT. The hand-wired circuit board in front came from an earlier project: an 8031-based video digitizer that captured single frames and produced, believe it or not, RS-232 serial data. It wasn’t fast, but it worked surprisingly well and, best of all, the board was relatively inexpensive. Having built the board and written the firmware, I modified it to output compressed data from hand images, then wrote a PC program to display the results.

Combining a TV camera, a prototype 8031-based video digitizer, and an IBM PC with custom firmware and software produced a digital hand scanner for Circuit Cellar Issue 1. The aluminum case came from an external 8″ floppy drive!

The robust aluminum case originally housed an external 8″ floppy drive for one of my earlier DIY “home computers” (they sure don’t make ‘em like they used to!) and I assembled the rest of the hardware in my shop. With hardware and software in hand, I hauled everything to Circuit Cellar Galactic HQ for a demo.

Some of the work Nisley details is much more modern. For instance, the photo below shows the Arduino microcontroller boards he has been using in many of his recent projects. Nisley writes:

The processors, from the Atmel AVR microcontroller family, date to the mid-1990s, with a compiler-friendly architecture producing good performance with high-level languages. Barely more than breakout boards wrapped around the microcontrollers, Arduinos provide a convenient way to mount and wire to the microcontroller chips. The hardware may be too expensive to incorporate in a product, but it’s ideal for prototypes and demonstrations.

The Arduino microcontroller project provides a convenient basis for small-scale projects like this NiMH cell tester. Simple interconnections work well with low-speed signals and lowcurrent hardware, but analog gotchas always lie in wait.

Even better, a single person can still comprehend all of a project’s hardware and software, if only because the projects tend to be human scaled. The Arduino’s open-source licensing model fits well with my column’s readily available hardware and firmware: you can reproduce everything from scratch, then extend it to suit your needs.

Circuit Cellar’s Circuit Cellar 25th Anniversary Issue will be available in early 2013. Stay tuned for more updates on the issue’s content.

Q&A: Andrew Spitz (Co-Designer of the Arduino-Based Skube)

Andrew Spitz is a Copenhagen, Denmark-based sound designer, interaction designer, programmer, and blogger studying toward a Master’s interaction design at the Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design (CIID). Among his various innovative projects is the Arduino-based Skube music player, which is an innovative design that enables users to find and share music.

The Arduino-based Skube

Spitz worked on the design with Andrew Nip, Ruben van der Vleuten, and Malthe Borch. Check out the video to see the Skube in action.

On his blog SoundPlusDesign.com, Spitz writes:

It is a fully working prototype through the combination of using ArduinoMax/MSP and an XBee wireless network. We access the Last.fm API to populate the Skube with tracks and scrobble, and using their algorithms to find similar music when in Discover mode.

The following is an abridged  version of an interview that appears in the December 2012 issue of audioXpress magazine, a sister publication of Circuit Cellar magazine..

SHANNON BECKER: Tell us a little about your background and where you live.

Andrew Spitz: I’m half French, half South African. I grew up in France, but my parents are South African so when I was 17, I moved to South Africa. Last year, I decided to go back to school, and I’m now based in Copenhagen, Denmark where I’m earning a master’s degree at the Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design (CID).

SHANNON: How did you become interested in sound design? Tell us about some of your initial projects.

Andrew: From the age of 16, I was a skydiving cameraman and I was obsessed with filming. So when it was time to do my undergraduate work, I decided to study film. I went to film school thinking that I would be doing cinematography, but I’m color blind and it turned out to be a bigger problem than I had hoped. At the same time, we had a lecturer in sound design named Jahn Beukes who was incredibly inspiring, and I discovered a passion for sound that has stayed with me.

Shannon: What do your interaction design studies at CIID entail? What do you plan to do with the additional education?

Andrew: CIID is focused on a user-centered approach to design, which involves finding intuitive solutions for products, software, and services using mostly technology as our medium. What this means in reality is that we spend a lot of time playing, hacking, prototyping, and basically building interactive things and experiences of some sort.

I’ve really committed to the shift from sound design to interaction design and it’s now my main focus. That said, I feel like I look at design from the lens of a sound designer as this is my background and what has formed me. Many designers around me are very visual, and I feel like my background gives me not only a different approach to the work but also enables me to see opportunities using sound as the catalyst for interactive experiences. Lots of my recent projects have been set in the intersection among technology, sound, and people.

SHANNON: You have worked as a sound effects recordist and editor, location recordist and sound designer for commercials, feature films, and documentaries. Tell us about some of these experiences?

ANDREW: I love all aspects of sound for different reasons. Because I do a lot of things and don’t focus on one, I end up having more of a general set of skills than going deep with one—this fits my personality very well. By doing different jobs within sound, I was able to have lots of different experiences, which I loved! nLocation recording enabled me to see really interesting things—from blowing up armored vehicles with rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) to interviewing famous artists and presidents. And, documentaries enabled me to travel to amazing places such as Rwanda, Liberia, Mexico, and Nigeria. As a sound effects recordist on Jock of the Bushvelt, a 3-D animation, I recorded animals such as lions, baboons, and leopards in the South African bush. With Bakgat 2, I spent my time recording and editing rugby sounds to create a sound effects library. This time in my life has been a huge highlight, but I couldn’t see myself doing this forever. I love technology and design, which is why I made the move...

SHANNON: Where did the idea for Skube originate?

Andrew: Skube came out of the Tangible User Interface (TUI) class at CIID where we were tasked to rethink audio in the home context. So understanding how and where people share music was the jumping-off point for creating Skube.

We realized that as we move more toward a digital and online music listening experience, current portable music players are not adapted for this environment. Sharing mSkube Videousic in communal spaces is neither convenient nor easy, especially when we all have such different taste in music.

The result of our exploration was Skube. It is a music player that enables you to discover and share music and facilitates the decision process of picking tracks when in a communal setting.

audioXpress is an Elektor International Media publication.

CC 25th Anniversary Issue: The Past, Present, and Future of Embedded Design

In celebration of Circuit Cellar’s 25th year of publishing electrical engineering articles, we’ll release a special edition magazine around the start of 2013. The issue’s theme will be the past, present, and future of embedded electronics. World-renowned engineers, innovators, academics, and corporate leaders will provide essays, interviews, and projects on embedded design-related topics such as mixed-signal designs, the future of 8-bit chips, rapid prototyping, FPGAs, graphical user interfaces, embedded security, and much more.

Here are some of the essay topics that will appear in the issue:

  • The history of Circuit Cellar — Steve Ciarcia (Founder, Circuit Cellar, Engineer)
  • Do small-RAM devices have a future? — by John Regehr (Professor, University of Utah)
  • A review of embedded security risks — by Patrick Schaumont (Professor, Virginia Tech)
  • The DIY electronics revolution — by Limor Fried (Founder, Adafruit Industries)
  • The future of rapid prototyping — by Simon Ford (ARM mbed, Engineer)
  • Robust design — by George Novacek (Engineer, Retired Aerospace Executive)
  • Twenty-five essential embedded system design principles — by Bob Japenga (Embedded Systems Engineer, Co-Founder, Microtools Inc.)
  • Mixed-signal designs: the 25 errors you’ll make at least once — by Robert Lacoste (Founder, Alciom; Engineer)
  • User interface tips for embedded designers — by Curt Twillinger (Engineer)
  • Thinking in terms of hardware platforms, not chips — by Clemens Valens (Engineer, Elektor)
  • The future of FPGAs — by Colin O’Flynn (Engineer)
  • The future of e-learning for engineers and programmers — by Marty Hauff (e-Learning Specialist, Altium)
  • And more!


We’ll feature interviews with embedded industry leaders and forward-thinking embedded design engineers and programmers such as:

More Content

In addition to the essays and interviews listed above, the issue will also include:

  • PROJECTS will be available via QR codes
  • INFOGRAPHICS depicting tech-related likes, dislikes, and ideas of hundreds of engineers.
  • And a few surprises!

Who Gets It?

All Circuit Cellar subscribers will receive the 25th Anniversary issue. Additionally, the magazine will be available online and promoted by Circuit Cellar’s parent company, Elektor International Media.

Get Involved

Want to get involved? Sponsorship and advertising opportunities are still available. Find out more by contacting Peter Wostrel at Strategic Media Marketing at 978-281-7708 (ext. 100) or peter@smmarketing.us. Inquire about editorial opportunities by contacting the editorial department.

About Circuit Cellar

Steve Ciarcia launched Circuit Cellar magazine in 1988. From its beginning as “Ciarcia’s Circuit Cellar,” a popular, long-running column in BYTE magazine, Ciarcia leveraged his engineering knowledge and passion for writing about it by launching his own publication. Since then, tens of thousands of readers around the world have come to regard Circuit Cellar as the #1 source for need-to-know information about embedded electronics, design, and programming.

Q&A: Hai (Helen) Li (Academic, Embedded System Researcher)

Helen Li came to the U.S. from China in 2000 to study for a PhD at Purdue University. Following graduation she worked for Intel, Qualcomm, and Seagate. After about five years of working in industry, she transitioned to academia by taking a position at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, where she teaches courses such as circuit design (“Introduction to VLSI”), advanced computer architecture (“VLSI System and Architecture Design”), and system-level applications (“Real-Time Embedded System Design”).

Hai (Helen) Li

In a recent interview Li described her background and provided details about her research relating to spin-transfer torque RAM-based memory hierarchy and memristor-based computing architecture.

An abridged version of the interview follows.

NAN: What were some of your most notable experiences working for Intel, Qualcomm, and Seagate?

HELEN: The industrial working experience is very valuable to my whole career life. At Seagate, I led a design team on a test chip for emerging memory technologies. Communication and understanding between device engineers and design communities is extremely important. The joined effects from all the related disciplines (not just one particular area anymore) became necessary. The concept of cross layers (including device/circuit/architecture/system) cooptimization, and design continues in my research career.

NAN: In 2009, you transitioned from an engineering career to a career teaching electrical and computer engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU). What prompted this change?

HELEN: After five years of working at various industrial companies on wireless communication, computer systems, and storage, I realized I am more interested in independent research and teaching. After careful consideration, I decided to return to an academic career and later joined the NYU faculty.

NAN: How long have you been teaching at the Polytechnic Institute of NYU? What courses do you currently teach and what do you enjoy most about teaching?

HELEN: I have been teaching at NYU-Poly since September 2009. My classes cover a wide range of computer engineering, from basic circuit design (“Introduction to VLSI”), to advanced computer architecture (“VLSI System and Architecture Design”), to system-level applications (“Real-Time Embedded System Design”).

Though I have been teaching at NYU-Poly, I will be taking a one-year leave of absence from fall 2012 to summer 2013. During this time, I will continue my research on very large-scale integration (VLSI) and computer engineering at University of Pittsburgh.

I enjoy the interaction and discussions with students. They are very smart and creative. Those discussions always inspire new ideas. I learn so much from students.

Helen and her students are working on developing a 16-Kb STT-RAM test chip.

NAN: You’ve received several grants from institutions including the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Research Lab to fund your embedded systems endeavors. Tell us a little about some of these research projects.

HELEN: The objective of the research for “CAREER: STT-RAM-based Memory Hierarchy and Management in Embedded Systems” is to develop an innovative spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM)-based memory hierarchy to meet the demands of modern embedded systems for low-power, fast-speed, and high-density on-chip data storage.

This research provides a comprehensive design package for efficiently integrating STT-RAM into modern embedded system designs and offers unparalleled performance and power advantages. System architects and circuit designers can be well bridged and educated by the research innovations. The developed techniques can be directly transferred to industry applications under close collaborations with several industry partners, and directly impact future embedded systems. The activities in the collaboration also include tutorials at the major conferences on the technical aspects of the projects and new course development.

The main goal of the research for “CSR: Small Collaborative Research: Cross-Layer Design Techniques for Robustness of the Next-Generation Nonvolatile Memories” is to develop design technologies that can alleviate the general robustness issues of next-generation nonvolatile memories (NVMs) while maintaining and even improving generic memory specifications (e.g., density, power, and performance). Comprehensive solutions are integrated from architecture, circuit, and device layers for the improvement on the density, cost, and reliability of emerging nonvolatile memories.

The broader impact of the research lies in revealing the importance of applying cross-layer design techniques to resolve the robustness issues of the next-generation NVMs and the attentions to the robust design context.

The research for “Memristor-Based Computing Architecture: Design Methodologies and Circuit Techniques” was inspired by memristors, which have recently attracted increased attention since the first real device was discovered by Hewlett-Packard Laboratories (HP Labs) in 2008. Their distinctive memristive characteristic creates great potentials in future computing system design. Our objective is to investigate process-variation aware memristor modeling, design methodology for memristor-based computing architecture, and exploitation of circuit techniques to improve reliability and density.

The scope of this effort is to build an integrated design environment for memristor-based computing architecture, which will provide memristor modeling and design flow to circuit and architecture designers. We will also develop and implement circuit techniques to achieve a more reliable and efficient system.

An electric car model controlled by programmable emerging memories is in the developmental stages.

NAN: What types of projects are you and your students currently working on?

HELEN: Our major efforts are on device modeling, circuit design techniques, and novel architectures for computer systems and embedded systems. We primarily focus on the potentials of emerging devices and leveraging their advantages. Two of our latest projects are a 16-Kb STT-RAM test chip and an electric car model controlled by programmable emerging memories.

The complete interview appears in Circuit Cellar 267 (October 2012).

DIY Green Energy Design Projects

Ready to start a low-power or energy-monitoring microcontroller-based design project? You’re in luck. We’re featuring eight award-winning, green energy-related designs that will help get your creative juices flowing.

The projects listed below placed at the top of Renesas’s RL78 Green Energy Challenge.

Electrostatic Cleaning Robot: Solar tracking mirrors, called heliostats, are an integral part of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. They must be kept clean to help maximize the production of steam, which generates power. Using an RL78, the innovative Electrostatic Cleaning Robot provides a reliable cleaning solution that’s powered entirely by photovoltaic cells. The robot traverses the surface of the mirror and uses a high voltage AC electric field to sweep away dust and debris.

Parts and circuitry inside the robot cleaner

Cloud Electrofusion Machine: Using approximately 400 times less energy than commercial electrofusion machines, the Cloud Electrofusion Machine is designed for welding 0.5″ to 2″ polyethylene fittings. The RL78-controlled machine is designed to read a barcode on the fitting which determines fusion parameters and traceability. Along with the barcode data, the system logs GPS location to an SD card, if present, and transmits the data for each fusion to a cloud database for tracking purposes and quality control.

Inside the electrofusion machine (Source: M. Hamilton)

The Sun Chaser: A GPS Reference Station: The Sun Chaser is a well-designed, solar-based energy harvesting system that automatically recalculates the direction of a solar panel to ensure it is always facing the sun. Mounted on a rotating disc, the solar panel’s orientation is calculated using the registered GPS position. With an external compass, the internal accelerometer, a DC motor and stepper motor, you can determine the solar panel’s exact position. The system uses the Renesas RDKRL78G13 evaluation board running the Micrium µC/OS-III real-time kernel.

[Video: ]

Water Heater by Solar Concentration: This solar water heater is powered by the RL78 evaluation board and designed to deflect concentrated amounts of sunlight onto a water pipe for continual heating. The deflector, armed with a counterweight for easy tilting, automatically adjusts the angle of reflection for maximum solar energy using the lowest power consumption possible.

RL78-based solar water heater (Source: P. Berquin)

Air Quality Mapper: Want to make sure the air along your daily walking path is clean? The Air Quality Mapper is a portable device designed to track levels of CO2 and CO gasses for constructing “Smog Maps” to determine the healthiest routes. Constructed with an RDKRL78G13, the Mapper receives location data from its GPS module, takes readings of the CO2 and CO concentrations along a specific route and stores the data in an SD card. Using a PC, you can parse the SD card data, plot it, and upload it automatically to an online MySQL database that presents the data in a Google map.

Air quality mapper design (Source: R. Alvarez Torrico)

Wireless Remote Solar-Powered “Meteo Sensor”: You can easily measure meteorological parameters with the “Meteo Sensor.” The RL78 MCU-based design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. Receivers are configured for listening of incoming data on the same radio channel. It simplifies the way weather data is gathered and eases construction of local measurement networks while being optimized for low energy usage and long battery life.

The design takes cyclical measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and supply voltage, and shares them using digital radio transceivers. (Source: G. Kaczmarek)

Portable Power Quality Meter: Monitoring electrical usage is becoming increasingly popular in modern homes. The Portable Power Quality Meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis.

The portable power quality meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis. (Source: A. Barbosa)

High-Altitude Low-Cost Experimental Glider (HALO): The “HALO” experimental glider project consists of three main parts. A weather balloon is the carrier section. A glider (the payload of the balloon) is the return section. A ground base section is used for communication and display telemetry data (not part of the contest project). Using the REFLEX flight simulator for testing, the glider has its own micro-GPS receiver, sensors and low-power MCU unit. It can take off, climb to pre-programmed altitude and return to a given coordinate.

High-altitude low-cost experimental glider (Source: J. Altenburg)

Elektor & element14 Partner for Embedded Linux Webinar at Electronica 2012

Want to learn more about Embedded Linux? You’re in luck. On Wednesday, November 14, Elektor and Farnell/element14 will partner to run an informative webinar on the topic at Electronica 2012 in Munich, Germany. If you’re at the show, you can attend the recordings for free. Register before October 31 to get free Electronica entry tickets from Farnell/element14.

Attendees should go to the Farnell/element14 stand (Hall 5, Stand 558) for the Elektor Academy seminar, which will focus on the latest developments on the innovative Embedded Linux board. You can watch the presentation and ask the experts questions. The webinar will be recorded and webcast a bit later.

  • Presenter: Embedded Linux expert Benedict Sauter, the board’s designer
  • Description: Benedict Sauter will take you through the design and update us on the latest applications.
  • When: Wed, November 14, 2012
  • Time: 11:30 CET
  • Where: Farnell element14 stand (Messe München, Hall 5, Booth 558)
  • Language: English

Visit the element14 page about the Elektor Academy event for more information and to register for a free entry ticket.

CircuitCellar.com is an Elektor International Media publication.

CC268: The History of Embedded Tech

At the end of September 2012, an enthusiastic crew of electrical engineers and journalists (and significant others) traveled to Portsmouth, NH, from locations as far apart as San Luis Obispo, CA,  and Paris, France, to celebrate Circuit Cellar’s 25th anniversary. Attendees included Don Akkermans (Director, Elektor International Media), Steve Ciarcia (Founder, Circuit Cellar), the current magazine staff, and several well-known engineers, editors, and columnists. The event marked the beginning of the next chapter in the history of this long-revered publication. As you’d expect, contributors and staffers both reminisced about the past and shared ideas about its future. And in many instances, the conversations turned to the content in this issue, which was at that time entering the final phase of production. Why? We purposely designed this issue (and next month’s) to feature a diversity of content that would represent the breadth of coverage we’ve come to deliver during the past quarter century. A quick look at this issue’s topics gives you an idea of how far embedded technology has come. The topics also point to the fact that some of the most popular ’80s-era engineering concerns are as relevant as ever. Let’s review.

In the earliest issues of Circuit Cellar, home control was one of the hottest topics. Today, inventive DIY home control projects are highly coveted by professional engineers and newbies alike. On page 16, Scott Weber presents an interesting GPS-based time server for lighting control applications. An MCU extracts time from GPS data and transmits it to networked devices.

The time-broadcasting device includes a circuit board that’s attached to a GPS module. (Source: S. Weber, CC268)

Thiadmer Riemersma’s DIY automated component dispenser is a contemporary solution to a problem that has frustrated engineers for decades (p. 26). The MCU-based design simplifies component management and will be a welcome addition to any workbench.

The DIY automated component dispenser. (Source: T. Riemersma, CC268)

USB technology started becoming relevant in the mid-to-late 1990s, and since then has become the go-to connection option for designers and end users alike. Turn to page 30 for Jan Axelson’s  tips about debugging USB firmware. Axelson covers controller architectures and details devices such as the FTDI FT232R USB UART controller and Microchip Technology’s PIC18F4550 microcontroller.

Debugging USB firmware (Source: J. Axelson, CC268)

Electrical engineers have been trying to “control time” in various ways since the earliest innovators began studying and experimenting with electric charge. Contemporary timing control systems are implemented in a amazing ways. For instance, Richard Lord built a digital camera controller that enables him to photograph the movement of high-speed objects (p. 36).

Security and product reliability are topics that have been on the minds of engineers for decades. Whether you’re working on aerospace electronics or a compact embedded system for your workbench (p. 52), you’ll want to ensure your data is protected and that you’ve gone through the necessary steps to predict your project’s likely reliability (p. 60).

The issue’s last two articles detail how to use contemporary electronics to improve older mechanical systems. On page 64 George Martin presents a tachometer design you can implement immediately in a machine shop. And lastly, on page 70, Jeff Bachiochi wraps up his series “Mechanical Gyroscope Replacement.” The goal is to transmit reliable data to motor controllers. The photo below shows the Pololu MinIMU-9.

The Pololu MinIMU-9’s sensor axes are aligned with the mechanical gyro so the x and y output pitch and roll, respectively. (Source: J. Bachiochi, CC268)

MCU-Based Prosthetic Arm with Kinect

James Kim—a biomedical student at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada—recently submitted an update on the status of an interesting prosthetic arm design project. The design features a Freescale 9S12 microcontroller and a Microsoft Kinect, which tracks arm movements that are then reproduced on the prosthetic arm.

He also submitted a block diagram.

Overview of the prosthetic arm system (Source: J. Kim)

Kim explains:

The 9S12 microcontroller board we use is Arduino form-factor compatible and was coded in C using Codewarrior.  The Kinect was coded in C# using Visual Studio using the latest version of Microsoft Kinect SDK 1.5.  In the article, I plan to discuss how the microcontroller was set up to do deterministic control of the motors (including the timer setup and the PID code used), how the control was implemented to compensate for gravitational effects on the arm, and how we interfaced the microcontroller to the PC.  This last part will involve a discussion of data logging as well as interfacing with the Kinect.

The Kinect tracks a user’s movement and the prosthetic arm replicates it. (Source: J. Kim, YouTube)

The system includes:

Circuit Cellar intends to publish an article about the project in an upcoming issue.

Team-Based Engineering

On August 6, 2012, NASA’s Curiosity rover successfully landed in Gale Crater on Mars after traveling a daunting 352 million miles. It was a triumphant moment for the scores of Curiosity team members who had spent years engineering the mission. And it has become the archetypal example of the benefit of team-based, multidisciplinary engineering.

This is an image of the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) located on Curiosity’s arm. (Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS)

In Circuit Cellar 267 (October  2012), Steve Ciarcia refers to the Curiosity effort as a point of departure for expounding the importance teamwork and intelligent project management.  He argues that engineering endeavors of all sorts and sizes require the extraordinary focus and collaboration of multiple specialists all working toward a common goal.

Several weeks ago, I was following the successful landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars, which got me reminiscing about the importance of teamwork on large engineering projects. Obviously, a large project requires a significant number of people due to the sheer amount of work. But, more importantly, a project’s various tasks require a balanced mix of skills for successful and timely completion.

Naturally, you want engineers working in areas where they have the skills and confidence to succeed. That’s when they’ll do their best work. At a basic level, all engineers share a distinctive trait: the ability to make something you want from technology and materials. This is the best definition of “engineer” I have heard. But, as I said last month, different engineers have different interests, skills, and experience. Some engineers are good at understanding the subtleties of how a large systems’ components interact, while others are good at low-level details (e.g., analog circuit design, mechanical design, or software programming). Diversity of skills among team members is important and can greatly strengthen a team.

At some point, we all look to ascend the corporate ladder and, for most companies, that involves engineers taking on management responsibilities. Actively encouraging engineers to work in areas outside their comfort zones encourages greater diversity in problem-solving approaches. Further, inspiring engineers to seek responsibility and expand their comfort zones can make them better engineers for the long term. While this is mainly true about engineers who are employees, it also applies to any contractor or consultant involved in a long-term company relationship.

Some engineers can jump into just about any area and do well. However, it is rarely in the interest of the project or good team dynamics to follow that impulse. Those engineers need to enable the specialists to do the work they’re best at and only jump into situations where they can do the most good. In other words, when team management is your primary task, engineer or not, you need to take on a mentoring role, often teaching rather than doing.

Communication among team members is also key. There must be enough of it, but not too much. I have seen teams schedule so many meetings there isn’t any time left for individuals to make progress on their assigned tasks. Meetings need to be short, to the point, and involve only those people who have a vested interest in the information being exchanged. This can range from two engineers conversing in a hallway to a large project-wide meeting that keeps everyone in sync on a project’s overall goals and status. But beware, it can be difficult to keep big meetings from getting diverted into the minutiae of a particular problem. This needs to be avoided at all costs.

Even when the schedule is tight, overstaffing usually has a negative benefit. The math suggests that project completion time should go down by the inverse of the number of team members. However, this ignores the overhead of more communication among team members, which goes up by the square of the number of participants. If there are too many team members, they may start getting in each other’s way and have less sense of ownership in what they’re doing. Basically, there are some tasks that take a fixed amount of time. As the saying goes, nine women can’t make a baby in one month!

Motivating the team is another key factor that should be a priority shared by the team and technical management. No matter how large or small a team member’s assigned tasks, if he feels he has the responsibility and the recognition for getting that task done, he’ll be more engaged and motivated to do well. Moving team members from task to task destroys any sense of ownership. Granted, every project has the occasional fire that needs to be extinguished—all hands on deck—but, if a project is constantly in that state, then it’s pretty much doomed to fail.

Regardless of whether you are engineering a Mars rover at NASA or creating the next great social media “widget” at a venture-capital funded start-up, the dynamics of successful project management have an established methodology. Design engineers are creative and it is important to give them the flexibility to unleash their creativity—but keep it within bounds. Most projects are time and cost sensitive. Ratifying your step up the corporate ladder only comes by ensuring the project is completed within budget and in a timely fashion.

Circuit Cellar 267 (October 2012) is now available.

CC267: Continuity of Embedded Tech Content

The October issue features articles on topics ranging from FAT cache to IIR digital filters to a quadcopter that uses a mechanical gyro. Let’s review.

Jeff’s quadcopter uses a mechanical gyro that is “an inexpensive yet elegant attempt to counteract wind gusts.” With its protective shield removed, you can see the motorized spinning rotor that sustains equilibrium as its frame moves.

On page 16, Stuart Oliver details how to use math routines that include the dsPIC hardware features, such as the accumulators and barrel shifter. He uses the math for implementing Assembler routines.

Turn to page 30 to learn how Kerry Imming uses FAT cache for SD card access. You can implement his cache technique in a variety of other applications.

Before you start a new project, familiarize yourself George Novacek’s tips on managing project risk (p. 34). He explains how to define, evaluate, and handle risk. Better yet, why not just reduce risk by avoiding as many problems as possible?

Bob Japenga addresses this issue as well (p. 38). In the third part of his series on concurrency in embedded systems, he details how to avoid concurrency-related problems, which can be difficult because the more concurrency you add to a project, the more complicated it becomes.

Ed Nisley presented a MOSFET tester in his August 2012 article, “MOSFET Channel Resistance.” In this issue, Ed covers temperature measurement, the control circuitry, the firmware’s proportional integral control loop, and more (p. 42).

A fan under the black CPU heatsink keeps it near ambient temperature, so that the Peltier module under the aluminum block can control the MOSFET temperature. The gray epoxy block holds a linearized thermistor circuit connected to the Arduino microcontroller under the PCB. (Source: E. Nisley)

Check out Robert Lacoste’s article on page 58 for an introduction to IIR digital filters. You’ll learn about the differences between IIR filters, FIR filters, and analog filters.

WinFilter allows you to calculate and simulate all kind of IIR filters just by entering their key characteristics (left). The plots shows you the resulting frequency and time behavior. (Source: R. Lacoste)

Working with an unstable mechanical gyro? As Jeff Bachiochi explains, a MEMS system is the solution (p. 68).

Lastly, check out the interview with Helen Li on page 54. You’ll find her impressive research exciting and inspirational.

AC Tester Schematic Update

An error was found in one of the AC tester schematics that ran in Kevin Gorga’s June 2012 article, “AC Tester” (Circuit Cellar 263). As a reader indicated, T2 is disconnected in the published version of the schematic. An edited schematic follows.

Edited version of Figure 2 in K. Gorga’s June 2012 article, “AC Tester” (Source: Paul Alciatore)

The correction is now available on Circuit Cellar‘s Errata, Corrections, & Updates page.

2012 ESC Boston: Tech from Microchip, Fujitsu, & More

The 2012 Embedded Systems Conference in Boston started September 17 and ends today. Here’s a wrap-up of the most interesting news and products.


Microchip Technology announced Monday morning the addition of 15 new USB PIC microcontrollers to its line of full-speed USB 2.0 Device PIC MCUs. In a short presentation, Microchip product marketing manager Wayne Freeman introduced the three new 8-bit, crystal-free USB PIC families.

The PIC16F145x family (three devices) features the Microchip’s lowest-cost MCUs. The devices are available in 14- and 20-pin packages, support full-speed USB communication, don’t require external crystals, include PWM with complement generation, and more. They’re suitable for applications requiring USB connectivity and cap sense capabilities.

Microchip’s three PIC18F2x/4xK50 devices (available in 28- and 40/44-pins) enable “easy migration” from legacy PIC18 USB devices. In addition to 1.8- to 5-V operation, they feature a Charge Time Measurement Unit (CTMU) for cap-touch sensing, which makes them handy for data logging systems for tasks such as temperature and humidity measurement.

The nine devices in the PIC18F97J94 family are available in 64-, 80-, and 100-pin packages. Each device includes a 60 × 8 LCD controller and also integrates a real-time clock/calendar (RTCC) with battery back-up. Systems such as hand-held scanners and home automation panels are excellent candidates for these devices.

Several interesting designs were on display at the Microchip booth.

  • The M2M PICtail module was used in an SMS texting system.

This SMS text messaging system was featured at Microchip’s Machine-to-Machine (M2M) station. The M2M PICtail module (located on the bottom left) costs around $200.

  • Microchip featured its PIC MCU iPod Accessory Kit in glucose meter design. It was one of several healthcare-related systems that exhibitors displayed at the conference.

The interface can be an iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch.

Visit www.microchip.com for more information.


As most of you know, the entry period for the Renesas RL78 Green Energy Challenge ended on August 31 and the judges are now reviewing the entries. Two particular demos on display at the Renesas booth caught my attention.

  • A lemon powering an RL78 L12 MCU:

Lemon power and the RL78

  • An R8C capacitive touch system:

Cap touch technology is on the minds of countless electrical engineers.

Go to www.am.renesas.com.


I was pleased to see a reprint of Mark Pedley’s recent Circuit Cellar article, “eCompass” (August 2012), on display at Freescale’s booth. The article covers the topics of building and calibrating a tilt‐compensating electronic compass.

A Circuit Cellar reprint for attendees

Two of the more interesting projects were:

  • An Xtrinsic sensor demo:

Xtrinsic and e-compass

  • A Tower-based medical suitcase, which included a variety of boards: MED-BPM (a dev board for blood pressure monitor applications), MED-EKG (an aux board for EKG and heart rate monitoring applications), and more.

Tower System-based medical suitcase


I stopped by the STMicro booth for a look at the STM32F3DISCOVERY kit, but I quickly became interested in the Dual Interface EEPROM station. It was the smartphone that caught my attention (again). Like other exhibitors, STMicro had a smartphone-related application on hand.

  • The Dual EEPROMs enable you to access memory via either  wired or RF interfaces. Energy harvesting is the new function STMicro is promoting. According to the documentation, “It also features an energy harvesting and RF status function.”

The Dual Interface EEPROM family has an RF and I2C interface

  • According to STMicro’s website, the DATALOG-M24LR-A PCB (the green board, top left) “features an M24LR64-R Dual Interface EEPROM IC connected to an STM8L101K3 8-bit microcontroller through an I2C bus on one side, and to a 20 mm x 40 mm 13.56 MHz etched RF antenna on the other one side. The STM8L101K3 is also interfaced with an STTS75 temperature sensor and a CR2330 coin cell battery.”


I’m glad I spend a few moments at the Fujitsu booth. We rarely see Circuit Cellar authors using Fujitsu parts, so I wanted to see if there was something you’d find intriguing. Perhaps the following images will pique your interest in Fujitsu technologies.

The FM3 family, which features the ARM Cortext-M3 core, is worth checking out. FM3 connectivity demonstration

Connectivity demo

Check out Fujitsu’s System Memory site and document ion to see if its memory products and solutions suit your needs. Access speed comparison: FRAM vs. SRAM vs. EEPROM

Access speed comparison

The ESC conference site has details about the other exhibitors that had booths in the exhibition hall.







Q&A: Miguel Sanchez (Professor, Designer)

Miguel Sánchez (PhD, Computer Science) is Valencia, Spain-based computer scientist, embedded tech enthusiast, and professor who regularly challenges himself to design innovative microcontroller-based systems. Since 2005, Circuit Cellar has published six of his articles about projects such as a digital video recorder (Circuit Cellar 174) and a creative DIY image-processing system (Circuit Cellar 263).

This is a sample depth image projected in a 3-D space. It appeared in Sanchez’s article, “Image Processing System Development.” (Source: M. Sanchez, Circuit Cellar 263)

In the September issue of Circuit Cellar, Sánchez tells us about his background, his work at the Universitat Politècnica de València, his current interests, and his innovative designs. An abridged version of the interview follows.

NAN PRICE: How long have you been designing microcontroller-based systems?

MIGUEL SANCHEZ: I started using computers in 1978. I built my first microcontroller project in 1984 during my first year at Universitat Politècnica de València. I haven’t stopped designing embedded systems since then.

NAN: Tell us about the first microcontroller you worked with. Where were you at the time?

MIGUEL: Our university’s lab had Intel SDK-85 boards you could program in Hex using the built-in keyboard. I guess it wasn’t built well. You sometimes lost all your work while typing your code. I learned that schematics were available and a terminal monitor was built in too. So, I built my first microcontroller-based board around an Intel 8085 using the same software that was on the original ROM. But, I changed the serial port delay value so I could use 9,600 bps instead of the original 110 bps on the terminal port. This way, I could do the same labs as my mates, but I could do my work in 8080 Assembler, which was available in Control Program/Monitor (CP/M) computers. At the time, I had an Atari 1040 ST that could run CP/M on top of a Z-80 emulator. Assembly code could be uploaded to my board’s RAM memory and later executed using SDK-85 serial monitor code.

I used the 8085’s Wait signal to build an additional EEPROM socket in this same board that, with the aid of a 555 timer, was my first EEPROM programmer. I used the Wait signal to delay write operations. In fact, I used this programmer to change the original baud rate to the new one, as I originally did not know that was something I’d want to change later.

My teacher, who is now one of my colleagues, was quite amused with my development and he gave me an A+. I learned a lot about microcontrollers, serial communications, Assembly language, monitor programs, and EEPROM programming algorithms. And, I learned it was not fun to design PCBs with system buses on only one copper layer. …

NAN: You designed a system to simulate strokes on a keypad to trigger modes on an alarm system (“Reverse-Engineered ECP Bus,” Circuit Cellar 201, 2007). Why did you design it and how have you used it?

MIGUEL: A local company wanted to give new life to old Ademco alarm units. These boards could only be programmed by a serial port socket once a certain service code was typed at the keyboard. I was asked whether an add-on board could be created to make these old boards Internet-enabled so they could be remotely managed and reconfigured over the ’Net.

The first thing I needed to do was to figure out how to simulate the required keystrokes. But I couldn’t find any information about the way that bus worked, so I figured that out myself. Later, I thought both the information itself and the way I figured it out might be useful to others, so I approached Circuit Cellar editors with a proposal to write an article.

That project ended up as a Rabbit-core powered board that connected the alarm board and the remote access to its serial port. Combined with a virtual serial port on the PC, it fooled the original management software into thinking the PC was directly connected to the alarm board, although it was all happening over the Internet. But the project never made it to the market for reasons unknown.

NAN: In “Three-Axis Stepper Controller” (Circuit Cellar 234, 2010), you describe how you built an Arduino-based, platform-independent driver board. Tell us about the design.

MIGUEL: When I discovered the Arduino platform, I was surprised by a few things. First, this development system was not designed by a chip vendor. Second, it was not intended for engineers but for artists! Third, I was shocked because it was multiplatform (which was possible because it was based on Java and GCC) and because none of the other development systems I was aware of were so easy to use. The price was low too, which was a plus for hobbyists and students.

The aim of that project was to show all that to the readers. The idea was also not only to show how to build a stepper controller and to explain the difference between the drive modes and the bipolar and unipolar designs, but to demonstrate how easy it was to work with Arduino.

In his 2010 article, “Three-Axis Stepper Controller,” Sanchez provided this controller circuit schematic to interface Arduino I/O headers with stepper motors. (Source: M. Sanchez, Circuit Cellar 234)

NAN: Your most recent Circuit Cellar article, “Image Processing System Development: Use an MCU to Unleash the Power of Depth Cameras” (263, 2012), describes how you used Microsoft’s Kinect motion-sensing device for an interactive art project. Tell us about the project and how you came to be involved.

MIGUEL: My university offers a master’s degree in fine arts. I met a professor from the drawing department who had seen a video of my vertical plotter on YouTube and was interested in contacting me, as we worked on the same campus. We became friends and he asked me to help him out with an idea for an installation.

The first approach used an RGB camera, but then Kinect was launched. From what I read on the ’Net, I was convinced it would be a better mousetrap. So, I bought one unit and started learning how to use it, thanks to the hack that had been made available.

The project required gathering visitors’ silhouettes and later drawing them on a big wall. The drawing was performed with a properly scaled-up version of my vertical plotter, which, by the way, was controlled by an Arduino board.

I have found working with artists is a lot of fun too, as they usually have a totally different vision than engineers.

The full article appears in the September issue.

Renesas RL78-Based Design Project Opportunities

Did you miss the 1:00 PM EST deadline for the Renesas RL78 Green Energy Challenge? Do you have an unfinished project? No worries! You can still make something of your RL78-related project and the work you’ve put into it! Circuit Cellar and Elektor have several exciting non-contest-related opportunities you’ll find interesting and advantageous!

The Circuit Cellar/Elektor staff wants to know about your work. Even if your project is unfinished, let the staff know what you’re working on and the project’s status. Upload your project or email us your information.

If the staff is interested in your work, an editor will consider approaching you about one or all of the following non-contest-related opportunities:

  • Distinctive Excellence: If the editorial team thinks your project has merit, you might be eligible for “Distinctive Excellence” designation. After past design challenges, Distinctive Excellence recipients added the honor to their resumes, wrote articles about their projects, and gained notoriety in the design community.
  • Print Magazine Opportunities: The editorial team might think your project is worthy of being published in Circuit Cellar or Elektor magazine. Design Challenges and the print magazine are completely separate. If you are offered an opportunity to write an article and it is published, you will paid a standard author honorarium.
  • CircuitCellar.com Opportunities: The Circuit Cellar editorial team will review your submission and consider posting it on CircuitCellar.com to show the world the effort and progress you’ve made. You can post your project info on the site in the spirit of sharing and the furtherance of engineering innovation! Who knows? Readers might provide you with valuable feedback about your unfinished project. Or perhaps you’ll inspire another person to build something of their own! Perhaps your project will catch the eye company looking to learn more about you work!
  • Interview Possibilities: The editorial team might find your approach to design interesting and consider interviewing you for an upcoming issue.
  • Future Design Collaboration: The Elektor Lab builds and tests innovative electronics projects. If your project—whether finished or in progress—interests an Elektor Lab engineer or editor, someone might contact you to discuss development, testing, or even production opportunities.

As you can see, you have some excellent reasons to contact the Circuit Cellar/Elektor staff.

To submit a finished project, an abstract, or simply info about our work, you can still use the Challenge Entry Form. Or, you can simply ZIP your files and email them to the Circuit Cellar Editorial Department. (Write “RL78 Project” and your project’s name or registration number in the email’s subject line.)

DIY 10.1˝ Touchscreen Home Control System

Domotics (home automation) control systems are among the most innovative and rewarding design projects creative electrical engineers can undertake. Let’s take a look at an innovative Beagle Board-based control system that enables a user to control lights with a 10.1˝ capacitive touchscreen.

Domotics control system

The design features the following modules:

• An I/O board for testing purposes
• An LED strip board for controlling an RGB LED strip
• A relay board for switching 230-VAC devices
• An energy meter for measuring on/off (and also for logging)

ELektor editor and engineer Clemens Valens recently interviewed Koen van Dongen about the design. Van Dongen describes the system’s electronics and then demonstrates how to use the touchscreen to control a light and LED strip.

As Valens explains suggests, it would be a worthwhile endeavor to incorporate a Wi-Fi connection to enable cellphone and tablet control. If you build such system, be sure to share it with our staff. Good luck!

CircuitCellar.com is an Elektor International Media website.