IAR Systems Updates Dev Tools for Renesas RX MCUs

IAR Systems has released version 4.10 of the development toolchain IAR Embedded Workbench for Renesas RX. The new version includes several capabilities which enable developers to further ensure code quality and make debugging more efficient for embedded applications based on Renesas RX microcontrollers.
IAR Embedded Workbench for Renesas RX includes the IAR C/C++ Compiler that offers Renesas RX ABI compliance. With version 4.10, the toolchain includes compliance with the latest C language standard ISO/IEC 9899:2011 as well as the latest C++ standard ISO/IEC 14882:2014. The compiler now also supports stack protection.

To make debugging more efficient in IAR Embedded Workbench for Renesas RX, the new version adds support for the advanced on-chip debugging E2 emulator from Renesas. And for developers using IAR Embedded Workbench for Renesas RX with the static analysis tool C-STAT, they can now benefit from 20 new checks, some of which are enabled by default to further ensure code quality.

IAR Embedded Workbench for Renesas RX is available at several different editions to suit different needs, including a functional safety edition certified by TÜV SÜD according to IEC 61508, EN 50128, ISO 26262 and IEC 62304. More information about the tools and trial versions can be found at www.iar.com/iar-embedded-workbench/tools-for-rx/.

IAR Systems | www.iar.com

MCUs Bring Enhanced Security to IoT Systems

Microchip has announced its SAM L10 and SAM L11 MCU families addressing the growing need for security in IoT applications. The new MCU families are based on the Arm Cortex-M23 core, with the SAM L11 featuring Arm TrustZone for Armv8-M, a programmable environment that provides hardware isolation between certified libraries, IP and application code. Security features on the MCUs include tamper resistance, secure boot and secure key storage. These, combined with TrustZone technology, protect applications from both remote and physical attacks.

In addition to TrustZone technology, the SAM L11 security features include an on-board cryptographic module supporting Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Galois Counter Mode (GCM) and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA). The secure boot and secure key storage with tamper detection capabilities establish a hardware root of trust. It also offers secure bootloader for secure firmware upgrades.

Microchip has partnered with Trustonic, a member of Microchip’s Security Design Partner Program, to offer a comprehensive security solution framework that simplifies implementation of security and enables customers to introduce end products faster. Microchip has also partnered with Secure Thingz and Data I/O Corporation to offer secure provisioning services for SAM L11 customers that have a proven security framework.

Both MCU families offer Microchip’s latest-generation Peripheral Touch Controller (PTC) for capacitive touch capabilities. Designers can easily add touch interfaces that provide an impressively smooth and efficient user experience in the presence of moisture and noise while maintaining low power consumption. The touch interface makes the devices ideal for a myriad of automotive, appliance, medical and consumer Human Machine Interface (HMI) applications.

The SAM L10 and SAM L11 Xplained Pro Evaluation Kits are available to kick-start development. All SAM L10/L11 MCUs are supported by the Atmel Studio 7 Integrated Development Environment (IDE), IAR Embedded Workbench, Arm Keil MDK as well as Atmel START, a free online tool to configure peripherals and software that accelerates development. START also supports TrustZone technology to configure and deploy secure applications. A power debugger and data analyzer tool are available to monitor and analyze power consumption in real time and fine tune the consumption numbers on the fly to meet application needs. Microchip’s QTouch Modular Library, 2D Touch Surface Library and QTouch Configurator are also available to simplify touch development.

Devices in the SAM L10 series are available starting at $1.09 (10,000s). Devices in the SAM L11 series are available starting at $1.22 (10,000s).

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

Compact Board-Mount Power Supplies Target IoT Systems

XP Power has launched its low-cost VCE03 and VCE10, 3 W and 10 W series of board-mounted AC-DC power supplies with extended universal input range from 85 VAC to 305 VAC, covering all nominal AC inputs from 100 VAC to 277 VAC in a single ultra-compact design. Both the VCE03 and VCE10 provide a complete AC-DC solution with integrated EMC filter and hold-up capacitor, meaning there are no extra external components required. Their small size, high efficiency and low no load input power consumption makes them well suited for IoT applications.The 3 W parts are available in an ultra-compact encapsulated or open-frame SIP package for maximum flexibility and potential cost and space savings. The compact 10 W parts are offered as encapsulated or open-frame DIP’s. Their high-active efficiency and low no-load input power of less than 0.3 W make these devices suitable for a wide range of applications supporting environmental initiatives for end equipment. The series offer a wide range of outputs covering 3.3 V, 5 V, 9 V, 12 V, 15 V, 24 V and 48 V with over-load, over-voltage and short circuit protection included.

All models are class II, earth-free construction and have 3000 VAC isolation rating with world-wide safety approvals to IEC60950-1 for ITE equipment, IEC/UL/EN62368-1 for ITE and audio-visual equipment and IEC/EN60335-1 for household appliances. The parts comply with EN55032 Level B conducted and radiated emissions.

No external heatsinking is required, with convection cooling giving an operating temperature range for both series from -25°C to +70°C, with full power available up to +50°C. The extended input range up to 305 VAC allows use of the parts in 277 VAC nominal systems, common in lighting applications and in industrial areas generally. The parts will find applications in lighting, automation and process control, instrumentation, set-top boxes, household devices, home automation and test & measurement equipment.

The VCE03 & VCE10 can also be implemented as auxiliary supplies in larger power conversion systems where they can maintain control circuitry powered on standby, allowing main conversion stages to be fully disabled, reducing standby and no-load losses.

XP Power | www.xppower.com

Bonus Newsletter Tomorrow: PCB Design

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: July has a 5th Tuesday . That’s means there’s an extra Newsletter this month! The bonus topic is PCB Design. The process of PCB design is always facing new complexities. Rules-based autorouting, chips with higher lead counts and higher speed interconnections are just a few of the challenges forcing PCB design software to keep pace. This newsletter updates you on the latest happenings in this area.

Also, we’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your PCB Design newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter switches its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (8/7) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch. (8/14) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. 8/21) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards. (8/28) This newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Preparing for an IoT Edge Project

FREE White Paper –
Before starting your IoT edge device development process, it is wise to spend time preparing for your new project. Planning before you start will limit frustration and save you time and money in the long run. Before diving into the task, study the 15 preparation considerations in this white paper.

Get your copy – here

Four Firms Team Up to Develop IIoT Connectivity Solutions

At the Microsoft Inspire event in Las Vegas, Advantech, Behr Technologies (BTI), Hitachi Solutions America and Microsoft have announced that the companies are collaborating to deliver wireless communications solutions with unmatched scalability, reliability and security for private industrial internet of things (IIoT) networks. This joint effort is aimed providing the first mass-market, end-to-end wireless gateway solution to ensure connectivity with sensors for production-level industrial and commercial applications. The focus is on massive scalability, deep building penetration, integration and interoperability with legacy systems, along with extremely long battery life for nodes.

According to the announcement, this collaboration aims to meet growing demand in the marketplace for robust and comprehensive out-of-the-box wireless IIoT communications solutions to connect the various sensors used by industrial and commercial customers in their business intelligence efforts. At the heat of the joint effort is BTI MIOTY, a low-power, wide-area network (LPWAN) communications solution that uses the ETSI standard telegram splitting ultra-narrow band (TS-UNB) technical specification for low throughput network. It enables organizations to deploy private IoT sensor networks with unprecedented capacity, high Quality-of-Service (QoS), and low total cost of ownership.

Using industry-standard Advantech gateways, BTI MIOTY will transmit up to 1.5 million messages per day within a radius of five to 15 kilometers, with no carrier requirements. Layered atop this infrastructure, Hitachi Solutions’ IoT Service Hub is expected to enable organizations to connect and monitor devices and analyze the data in real time to dramatically improve operational efficiencies.

The first application resulting from this collaboration is a new and unique approach to workforce safety using the BTI MIOTY LPWAN wireless solution on an industry-standard gateway. Using a wearable device to monitor the heart rate of workers in industrial high-risk environments, data on the health of hundreds of workers is transmitted over unlicensed, sub-gigahertz frequencies via BTI MIOTY to a single Advantech base station.

From there, it is communicated to the Microsoft Cloud, where Hitachi Solutions’ IoT Service Hub can provide actionable insights on workers’ health and send alerts when workers are in danger. Employers, such as mining site operators, can deploy this end-to-end solution to protect their workforce with unprecedented responsiveness at a fraction of the cost of previously available technologies.

Advantech:| www.advantech.com

Behr Technologies (BTI) | behrtechnologies.com

Hitachi Solutions America | us.hitachi-solutions.com

Microsoft | www.microsoft.com

 

Signature Analyzer Uses NXP MCU

Scope-Free Tester

Doing a signature analysis of a signal used to require an oscilloscope to display your results. In this article, Brian details how to build a free-standing tester using mostly just the internal peripherals of an NXP Arm microcontroller. He describes how the tester operates and how he implemented it.

By Brian Millier

When I was a teenager starting out in electronics, I longed to have as much test equipment as possible. At that stage in life, I couldn’t afford much beyond a multimeter. I remember seeing plans for a component tester in an electronics magazine. There weren’t many hobby electronics magazines back in the ‘60s, so it was probably Popular Electronics. This tester would provide a “signature” of most passive/active components by placing a small AC voltage across the component and measuring the resulting current. My memory of the circuit is hazy after all these years, but it was trivial: a 6.3 V filament transformer, a current sensing resistor and a few other passive components. However, the catch was that it required an oscilloscope to display the resulting voltage vs. current plot—in other words, the component’s signature. By the time I bought an oscilloscope about 10 years later, I had completely forgotten about this testing concept.

Today, test instruments are available that include a dedicated graphics display, instead of relying on an oscilloscope for display purposes. Having worked with Arm microcontrollers over the last few years,
I realized that I could implement such a free-standing tester using, in large part, just the internal MCU peripherals.

In this article I’ll describe how the tester operates, and how I implemented it using a Teensy 3.5 development module (containing an NXP MK64FX512VMD12 MCU) and featuring a FT800-based intelligent 4.3″ TFT touch-screen display.

Basic Theory of Operation

To obtain a signature of a given component, you need to place a variable voltage across it and measure the resulting current through it, at each voltage level. In many cases, the component’s normal operating mode will include both positive and negative voltages across it, so the tester must provide an AC voltage source. For most testing purposes you would use a sine wave voltage source because most AC calculations are done using sine waves. The value of this AC voltage source must be adjustable. I decided on six ranges between 0.5 V peak-peak and 20 V peak-peak. For measuring the voltage across the component, I used an instrumentation amplifier with three hardware gain ranges—plus three additional ranges based upon scaling in software.

To monitor current, it’s easiest to measure the voltage across a small value resistor placed in the ground return path, and then convert that to current using Ohm’s Law. Here too you need a range of current measurements. I chose to provide three hardware ranges—plus four additional ranges based on software scaling—between 1 mA and 100 mA.

You can’t just place an AC voltage of any given value across a component, and hope that the component will be able to handle that current without damage. You must place a resistor in series with the component to limit the current flow. That resistor may need to vary in value over several decades, depending on the component being tested. In my tester, I provide a switchable resistor bank with values covering a 1,000:1 range in decade steps.

Figure 1 is a block diagram of the basic tester circuitry. The user interface, touch-screen display and SD card data storage are not shown here. The MK64FX512VMD12 MCU’s 12-bit DAC A provides a sine wave signal that varies between 0 and 1.2 V over the full AC cycle. The programmable attenuator is an SPI pot device with 12-bit resolution. C1 is a decoupling capacitor, which shifts the (attenuated) unipolar DAC A output signal into a bipolar AC signal. This AC signal is amplified by a factor of 21 by an LM675 power amplifier IC. DAC B, along with some passive components, provide a software-adjustable offset voltage adjustment. The LM675 amplifier is needed to provide enough drive current to handle the higher current ranges—up to 100 mA.

FIGURE 1
This is a block diagram of the AC signal generation and Voltage/Current monitoring circuit.

Both the voltage and current are monitored using Texas Instruments (TI)instrumentation amplifier ICs. These contain input protection circuitry good to ±40 V. The various gains needed for both amplifiers are set by 1% resistors, which are switched by miniature reed relays. The instrumentation amplifier output voltages, representing voltage and current through the component under test, are fed to the two 16-bit ADCs present in the NXP MK64FX512VMD12 Arm MCU. The sine wave signal generated by the MCU can be set for frequencies of 20, 50 ,60, 100, 200 or 400 Hz.

Signature Analysis

The basic premise of signature analysis is that you obtain a signature of a component that is of questionable condition, and then compare it with a known-good component of the same value. Alternately, you can do the same comparison on a specific circuit node on two identical circuit boards/assemblies.. …

Read the full article in the August 337 issue of Circuit Cellar

Don’t miss out on upcoming issues of Circuit Cellar. Subscribe today!

Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

Fuel-Gauge ICs Maximize Battery Runtimes for Devices

Maxim Integrated offers the MAX17260 and MAX17261 ModelGauge m5 EZ fuel gauges IC that are well suited for a broad range of Li-ion battery powered applications.  These battery characterization-free solutions provide high levels of accuracy while also offering small size and ease of design.

The MAX17260 and MAX17261, which feature the ModelGauge m5 EZ algorithm, provide a high level of accuracy in fuel gauging compared to competing solutions. This allows designers to maximize their devices’ runtime by preventing premature or sudden device shutdowns, while maintaining a smaller battery size. The fuel gauges, which are housed in an ultra-small 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm package, feature a very low quiescent current of 5.1 µA to minimize draining the battery during long periods of standby time. The products allow designs to be quickly done without battery characterization or calibration.
As devices have become more sophisticated with their feature offerings and increasing power density, designers are now challenged with achieving an enhanced user experience without compromising battery runtimes. There is also a huge market need for highly accurate fuel gauges, as less accuracy may introduce uncertainty that must be compensated with higher battery capacity and larger physical dimensions.

Accurate battery state of charge (SOC) prevents sudden crash and premature device shutdown; Provides easy to understand battery information for end users such as time to empty, time to full under current, as well as hypothetical load conditions; Dynamic power technology enables high system performance without crashing the battery and results in smaller battery size.

The very low quiescent current of 5.1µA of these chips prevent excessive energy loss during long periods of standby time. This battery characterization-free solution offers no battery size limit; MAX17260 offers a high-side Rsense option to simplify ground-plane design; MAX17261 offers a flexible switched resistor divider option to support any number of series cells (multi-cell batteries). The devices support small electronics with 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm wafer-level packaging (WLP) as well as 3 mm x 3 mm TDFN.

The MAX17260 is available for $0.93 (1000-up); MAX17261 is available for $1.22 (1000-up). MAX17260GEVKIT and MAX17261GEVKIT evaluation kits are available for $60.

Maxim Integrated | www.maximintegrated.com

COM Express Type 6 Card Sports 8th Gen Core or Xeon Chips

ADLINK has introduced its latest COM Express Type 6 modules. According to the company, Express-CF modules are equipped with the 8th generation Intel Core processor family and Intel Xeon processor E-2100M family, and are the first Type 6 modules to support both Xeon and Core i7 Hexa-core (6-core) CPUs. These Hexa-core processors support up to 12 threads and a turbo boost of up to 4.4 GHz. Compared to earlier mobile quad-core Xeon and Core i7 CPUs, the additional two cores of the new Hexa-core CPUs results in more than 25% performance boost at no significant cost increase.ADLINK’s Express-CF provides standard support for up to 48GB non-ECC DDR4 in three SO-DIMMs (two on the top side, one on the bottom), while complying with PICMG COM.0 mechanical specifications. Modules equipped with the Xeon Hexa-core processor support both ECC and non-ECC SODIMMs.

With integrated Intel UHD Graphics 630, the Express-CF supports up to three independent 4K displays via DisplayPort, HDMI, DVI and LVDS. ADLINK also offers either eDP or analog VGA as build options by customer request. Additionally, the Express-CF supports Intel Optane memory and NVMe SSDs through high speed PCIe x4 Gen3 interfaces.

ADLINK Technology | www.adlinktech.com

Sensor Interface IC Enables Advanced Bio-Chemical Sensing

Analog Devices has announced today a new sensor interface IC that enables the next generation of intelligent electrochemical sensors. According to the company, it is the only solution available to incorporate potentiostat and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) functionality on a single chip. The ADuCM355 precision analog microcontroller with bio-sensor and chemical sensor interface is well suited for applications such as industrial gas sensing, instrumentation, vital signs monitoring and disease management.

The ADuCM355 is an ultra-low power precision analog microcontroller based on the ARM Cortex M3 processor especially designed to control and measure chemical and biosensors. It is the only solution available that supports dual potentiostat and >3 sensor electrodes.

Additional features:

  • Voltage, current and impedance measurement
  • Dual ultra-low power, low noise potentiostats: 8.5u A, 1.6 uV RMS
  • Flexible 16-bit, 400 ksps measurement channel
  • Advanced sensor diagnostics
  • Integrated analog hardware accelerators
  • 26 MHz core, 128 kB Flash, 64 kB SRAM

View the ADuCM355 product page, download data sheet, order samples and evaluation board.: www.analog.com/ADuCM355. Available now, the ADuCM355 is priced at $5.90 (1,000s).

Analog Devices | www.analog.com

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your
Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

July has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
PCB Design (7/31) PCB design tools and methods continue to evolve as they race to keep pace with faster, highly integrated electronics. Automated, rules-based chip placement is getting more sophisticated and tools are addressing the broader picture of the PCB design process. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in PCB design tools.

Analog & Power. (8/7) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch (8/14) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (8/21) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

August (issue #337) Circuit Cellar Article Materials

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p. 6: Build an Audio Response Light Display: Modern LEDs in Action,
By Devlin Gualtieri

Printed circuit board positive for the audio response light display.

Diagram of the board’s component layout (the board shown in Figure 6)..

The author’s unit used superbright LED automotive dome lights available at Amazon

One source of Krylon Matte Finish spray is Michaels:

Dr. Gualtieri writes a science and technology blog at http://www.tikalon.com/blog/blog.php.

Dr. Gualtieri is also the author of three science fiction novels and books about science and mathematics.  See http://www.tikalonpress.com, or his Amazon author’s page (https://www.amazon.com/Dev-Gualtieri/e/B00NUA4YYU/) for details.

p. 12: Murphy’s Laws in the DSP World (Part 2): The Next Three Laws,
By Michael Smith, Mai Tanaka and Ehsan Shahrabi Farahani

(See link at top of this page for the article code archive.)

Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
GNU Octave | www.gnu.org/software/octave

FIGURE 4 (From Part 1- June)
(a) A short burst of a sinusoidal signal centered in a 1 second sampling period unexpectedly shows (b) a frequency spectrum involving convolution with a high frequency variant (red) of a sinc() function rather than the expected low frequency version (blue).

 

p. 28: Signature Analyzer Uses NXP MCU: Scope-Free Tester, By Brian Millier

(See link at top of this page for the article code archive. The Arduino library folder and source code are available there.)

To compile the code needed for this project, install the Arduino IDE from:
https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software

… and then go to PJRC’s web-site and download the Teensyduino plug-in at:
https://www.pjrc.com/teensy/td_download.html.

PART SOURCES:

Teensy 3.5 Development module: PJRC

Touch-screen Display Module:
MikroElektronika   Connect Eve module  (Digikey 1471-1104-ND)

or    FTDI VM800B43 module  (DigiKey 768-1194-ND)

INA121, INA128 Instrumentation amplifiers: Texas Instruments

MCP41010 SPI digital pot: Microchip

12 volt switching power supplies:
Mean Well EPS-15-12 (DigiKey 1866-1667-ND)

PCF8574AN I2C Expander: Texas Instruments

FTDI Chip | www.ftdichip.com
Mean Well | www.meanwell.com
MikroElektronika | www.mikroe.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com
PJRC Store | www.pjrc.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p. 36: Managing FPGA Design, Complexity: Easing IP Integration,
By Bob Sgandurra

Pentek | www.pentek.com

p. 41: FPGA Solutions Evolve to Meet AI Needs: Brainy System ICs, By Jeff Child

Achronix | www.achronix.com
Flex Logix Technologies | www.flex-logix.com
Intel PSG (formerly Altera) | www.altera.com
Note: On July 30 Altera.com will be integrated into Intel.com
Lattice Semiconductor | www.latticesemi.com
Quicklogic | www.quicklogic.com
Xilinx | www.xilinx.com

p. 46: MCUs and Processors Vie for Embedded Mindshare: Performance Push, By Jeff Child

AMD | www.amd.com
Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Intel | www.intel.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com
Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com
ST Microelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p. 50: Tiny Embedded Boards: Compact Computing, By Jeff Child

(to be done)

p. 54: EMBEDDED IN THIN SLICES: Internet of Things Security (Part 4):
The Power of Checklists, By Bob Japenga

References:
[1]  Photo from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Color_Photographed_B-17E_in_Flight.jpg
[2]  https://www.flyaoamedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/checklist03.jpg
Used by permission of the owner
[3]  https://www.amazon.com/Unbroken-World-Survival-Resilience-Redemption/dp/1400064163/ref=tmm_hrd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr
[4]  https://www.amazon.com/Checklist-Manifesto-How-Things-Right-ebook/dp/B0030V0PEW/ref=mt_kindle?_encoding=UTF8&me
[5]  https://www.iso.org/standard/51585.html
[6]  The Embedded Muse No 346 March 19, 2018  http://www.ganssle.com/tem/tem346.html
[7]  https://www.iso.org/standard/50341.html
[8]  https://www.iso.org/standard/46412.html
[9]  https://www.iso.org/standard/73906.html
[10]  https://www.commoncriteriaportal.org
[11]  https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/59769
[12]  https://www.iso.org/standard/65529.html
[13]  https://www.iso.org/standard/64686.html
[14]  https://www.iso.org/standard/59978.html
[15]  This wiki includes a list of all of the 27K standards: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO/IEC_27000-series
[16] ISO 14971 Medical Devices – Application of risk management to medical devices
[17]  The Common Criteria Part 1: https://www.commoncriteriaportal.org/files/ccfiles/CCPART1V3.1R3.pdf
provides a good, albeit very general definition of assets

p. 58: THE DARKER SIDE: Pitfalls of Filtering Pulsed Signals: Waveform Woes,
By Robert Lacoste

Frequency spectrum of a tone burst General Radio company, 1965

Sinc function  http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SincFunction.html

Scilab | www.scilab.org

p. 64: THE CONSUMMATE ENGINEER: Thermoelectric Cooling (Part 2):
The Test Results, By George Novacek

References:
[1]  Peltier module TEC12706 Specification http://peltiermodules.com/peltier.datasheet/TEC1-12706.pdf
[2]  Peltier Application Note http://www.cui.com/catalog/resource/peltier-app-note.pdf
[2]  Adafruit Peltier Module Assembly https://www.adafruit.com/product/1335
[4]  Meerstetter – TEC Peltier Element Design Guide https://www.meerstetter.ch/compendium/tec-peltier-element-design-guide
[5]  Improvement in the COP of Thermoelectric Cooler http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/may2016/Improvement-In-The-Cop-Of-Thermoelectric-Cooler.pdf

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Peltier Modules | www.peltiermodules.com

p. 68: FROM THE BENCH: Electronic Speed Control (Part 2):
Building the Circuitry,
By Jeff Bachiochi

Infineon Technologies
IPP034N03L G –        OptiMOS3 FET

Microchip Technology
PIC18F2431    –        Flash Microcontroller with High Performance PWM and A/D
and
MIC4604        –        MICREL Half Bridge MOSFET Driver

Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

p. 79: The Future of Cellular in the IoT: What 5G Means for the IoT’s Road Ahead, By Gil Ben-Dov

Total Phase blog posts:
:“How Embedded Is Your World?”
“The Future of AI and the Embedded System”

Total Phase | www.totalphase.com

Cavium Octeon-Based SBCs Provide Networking Solution

Gateworks has announced the release of the Newport GW6400 SBC, featuring the Cavium Octeon TX Dual/Quad Core ARM processor running up to 1.5 GHz. The GW6400 is the latest Newport family member with an extensive list of features, including five Gigabit Ethernet ports and two SFP fiber ports. The GW6400 comes in two standard stocking models, the Dual Core GW6400 and the fully loaded Quad Core GW6404 (shown)..

The GW6400 and GW6404 are members of the Gateworks 6th generation Newport family of single board computers targeted for a wide range of indoor and outdoor networking applications. The SBCs feature the Cavium OcteonTX ARMv8 SoC processor, up to five Gigabit Ethernet ports, and four Mini-PCIe expansion sockets for supporting 802.11abgn/ac wireless radios, LTE/4G/3G CDMA/GSM cellular modems, mSATA drives and other PCI Express peripherals. A wide-range DC input power supply provides up to 15 W to the Mini-PCIe sockets for supporting the latest high-power radios and up to 10 W to the USB 2.0/3.0 jacks for powering external devices. Power is applied through a barrel jack or an Ethernet jack with either 802.3at or Passive Power over Ethernet. The GW6400 does not have SFP Ports loaded.

Gateworks | www.gateworks.com

Verifying Code Readout Protection Claims

Think Like an Attacker

How do you verify the security of microcontrollers? MCU manufacturers often make big claims, but sometimes it is in your best interest to verify them yourself. In this article, Colin discusses a few threats against code readout and looks at verifying some of those claimed levels.

By Colin O’Flynn

You’ve got your latest and greatest IoT toaster designed, and you’re looking to move forward with production. But one thing concerns you: How do you know this stellar code isn’t going to be cloned as soon as you release it to the market?

You turn to the firmware protection features of your chosen microcontroller, but how good is it? This article can’t hope to answer that question in general, rather it will instead give you a short example of how to help answer that question for any specific microcontroller.

In particular, it will teach you to “think like an attacker” when reading through datasheets. Look for small loopholes that could have big consequences, and you will have a much better time navigating the landscape of potential attacks.

Know What’s Out There

One of the most important things is to keep an eye out for new and interesting attacks against these devices. In my January 2018 article (Circuit Cellar 330) I described how there is a published attack against some of the NXP LPC devices, which makes it very easy to unlock them. You can see the presentation entitled “Breaking Code Read Protection on the NXP LPC-family Microcontrollers” by Chris Gerlinsky which describes this attack. Another recent one is an attack against STMicroelectronics’ STM32F0 devices entitled “Shedding Too Much Light on a Microcontroller’s Firmware Protection” by Johannes Obermaier and Stefan Tatschner. That one is a little more limited, but still has some interesting information regarding potential security attacks.

I’m hoping to distill some of these attacks down into common problems, which will help you close a few loopholes before someone rips off your IoT toaster design. At least now if it fails in the marketplace you have no one to blame but yourself.
To give you something concrete to read (and for me to reference), I’ve chosen to use the ST STM32F303 series because it’s a device I’ve been using myself lately. I’m not going to be revealing any unknown vulnerabilities—so if you’re reading this from your office at  STMicroelectronics, no need to sweat. It also has some pretty common configuration options, so makes for a nice reference you can apply to a range of other devices.

ST Read Protection (RDP)

The first step when you are looking at a new device should be to very carefully inspect the security or debug lock protection portion of the datasheet. They will typically go into a fair amount of detail around how the protection mechanism works.
The STM32F3 Reference Manual (RM0316) has this split into two sections. Section 5, entitled “Option byte description” provides information about how the flags are stored in flash. Section 4.3 entitled “Memory Protection” details how this is actually used to protect the code in your device.

Table 1
This excerpt from the datasheet shows how the flash memory read protection levels are defined for the STM32F3 device.

The two important pieces of information for us are replicated in Table 1 and
Table 2. They are the flash memory protection levels, and the associated access allowed at each level. The RDP byte is a special “option byte”, which is the value of a specific location in flash memory. Note the scheme they have chosen uses two bytes, where one is always programmed to be the complement of the other byte. This is presumably used for error checking, and if a byte is not matched with a complement, an error flag is set.

Table 2
Code protection levels 1 and 2 have differing protection abilities. This excerpt from the datasheet shows where flash memory can be read/written/executed from.

Right away you should notice that this scheme does not fall victim to the same problem as the LPC attack I talked about before. In particular the LPC attack exploited the fact a fault or glitch could corrupt the flag value, which caused the CPU to disable the protection.

With the STM32F303, these invalid levels will all map to Protection Level 1. This protection level does not allow external flash access, which “should” be a good sign. The highest protection level also claims to be impossible to remove, but if we could corrupt the value of the option bytes in memory we could downgrade from Protection Level 2 to Protection Level 1. In fact, this “downgrade” is exactly what was presented by Obermaier & Tatschner. The downgrade used a chip decapsulation and light to flip the bits, which is relatively invasive. Other fault attacks (such as voltage or EM) might work but would require investigation before assuming that. Such temporary fault attacks would require the value is read and latched.

But as a good designer, you should assume such faults could be made possible. In this case it would be possible to “downgrade” the device from Protection Level 2 to Protection Level 1. So, what happens if an attacker performed this downgrade? That takes us into the second part of this article. …

Read the full article in the July 336 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.