Gumstix Inks Global Distribution Deal with Mouser

Mouser Electronics has entered into a distribution agreement with Gumstix.. As part of the agreement, Mouser Electronics becomes an authorized distributor of Gumstix’s comprehensive portfolio of SBCs and embedded boards for the industrial, Internet of Things (IoT), smart home, medical, military and automotive markets.

The Gumustix Overo COMs are available from Mouser Electronics in three varieties to provide engineers with design flexibility: the entry-level Overo EarthSTORM COM, graphics-focused Overo IceSTORM COM, and Overo IronSTORM-Y COM (shown) with Bluetooth 4.1 low energy technology and 802.11b/g/n wireless communications with Access Point mode.

To enable engineers to test LoRa protocol solutions based on an Overo COM, the Overo Conduit LoRa Gateway includes a Microchip LAN9221 controller for 10/100 Base-T Ethernet capabilities, plus headers to connect to a RisingHF RHF0M301 module and an Overo COM.

For engineers using a BeagleBone Black for prototyping, Gumstix offers two capes. The BBB Astro Cape is a capacitive-touchscreen-ready expansion board with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies. The BBB Rover Cape is a “robot-ready” expansion board with 9-axis inertial module, GPS capabilities, wireless connectivity, and pulse-width modulators (PWM) for servo control.

To support Raspberry Pi boards and the Raspberry Pi Compute Module, engineers can take advantage of expansion boards from Gumstix. The Pi Compute FastFlash provides a compact, cost-effective solution that quickly flashes the embedded memory of the Raspberry Pi Compute Module. The Pi Newgate breakout board enables engineers to connect to all of the module’s external signals via 0.1-inch-pitch pins to monitor digital, analog, and differential signals. The Pi Compute Dev Board is a complete multimedia expansion board for portable devices and IoT boards with camera and HDMI capabilities.

Mouser is also stocking a series of GPS and camera peripherals for Gumstix devices. The Pre-GO PPP (Precise Point Positioning), with either surface mounted antennae or SMA antenna connectors, provides a high level of global positioning accuracy. The Tiny Caspa parallel camera sensor board delivers reliable video feeds directly to the Overo family of COMs and to many expansion boards and SBCs in the Gumstix line.

Additionally, Mouser offers the Gumstix Pepper and more advanced Poblano single board computers. Running on Android or Yocto Project, the Pepper 43C and Pepper 43R boards feature an Arm Cortex-A8 processor, 512 MB of DDR3, 802.11 b/g/n connectivity with AP mode, and Bluetooth 4.1 and Bluetooth low energy. The boards are supported by the Pepper 43 Handheld Development Kits, which come equipped with a 4.3-inch LCD touchscreen, audio in/out, and a Texas Instruments WiLink 8 combo-connectivity module.

The Poblano 43C features a powerful TI Sitara AM438 processor, 3D graphics processor, multi-touch capabilities, Wi-Fi, camera connector, and embedded NAND flash storage. The board is supported by the Poblano 43C Handheld Development Kit, which contains a Poblano 43C board, 4.3-inch LCD capacitive touch display, USB cable, 5V power adapter, U.FL antenna, and SD card pre-loaded with Yocto Linux.

Gumstix | www.gumstix.com

Mouser Electronics | www.mouser.com/gumstix.

Tuesday’s Newsletter: Analog & Power

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Analog & Power newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including ADCs, DACs, DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Microcontroller Watch. (5/8) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (5/15) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(5/22) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

May has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
Sensors and Measurement
. (5/29) While sensors have always played a key role in embedded systems, the exploding IoT phenomenon has pushed sensor technology to the forefront. This newsletter looks at the latest technology trends and product developments in sensors and measurement.

 

Wi-Fi Bluetooth LTE Companion Module Targets IoT

Telit has announced the release of a new module, the WE866C3.  A companion to Telit’s LTE LE910Cx family, the new module advances the ability to deliver LTE and Wi-Fi integration for IoT applications including security panels, video bridges, medical devices, telematics and remote sensors.

Telit’s WE866C3 is a low power, high bandwidth 802.11ac and Bluetooth 4.2 module with a small footprint that provides an easy and cost-effective way for manufacturers to add wireless connectivity to new and existing products. Advanced LTE, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth coexistence dramatically reduces complexity designing cellular back haul with the LE910Cx 4G LTE module family, making the WE866C3 well suited for a wide range of IoT applications including commercial building automation, OEM telematics, fleet management and video surveillance.

The module shortens time to market with off-the-shelf cloud connectivity through deviceWISE, over-the-air firmware updating, support for WPA/WPA2 personal and enterprise security and more. Developer tools, engineering support and comprehensive global certifications make it easy for integrators and OEMs to upgrade or launch new products.

Telit | www.telit.com

Intel Coffee Lake H-Series Debut Processors Debut in Congatec and Seco Modules

By Eric Brown

Intel has rolled out new H-, M-, U- and T-series Intel Core and Xeon chips, expanding its line of 14 nm fabricated, 8th Gen Core Kaby Lake Refresh processors, code-named “Coffee Lake.” Of special interest are four new dual- and quad-core U-series chips with up to 2.7 GHz clock rates and 28 W TDPs, as well as four quad- and hexa-core H-series Core i5 and i7 processors and a pair of hexa-core M-series Xeon chips, all with 45 W TDP (total dissipated power).

Congatec Conga-TS370 (top) and Seco COMe-C08-BT6 (bottom) (click images to enlarge)

The hexa-core Core i7-8850H, quad-core Core i5-8400H, and hexa-core Xeon E-2176M are appearing in a pair of 125 mm x 95 mm COM Express Basic Type 6 announced by Congatec and Seco. Both the Conga-TS370 and Seco’s COMe-C08-BT6 are available with Linux or Windows 10, and support 0 to 60°C temperatures (see farther below).

Intel’s 8th Gen M- and H-series processors (click image to enlarge)

Intel launched its first round of 8th-Gen Kaby Lake Refresh “Coffee Lake” chips back in September. This fourth generation of its 14 nm fabricated Core chips — following Broadwell, Skylake, and Kaby Lake — offers relatively modest performance and power efficiency improvements.Like most of AMD’s new Ryzen Embedded V1000 SoCs, most of the Coffee Lake processors are double threaded, so four cores give you eight threads and six cores give you 12. The exception is a line of standard, desktop-oriented T-series chips with 35 W TDPs. The T-series models are all single-threaded except the top-of-the-line, hexa-core Core i7-8700T, clocked to 2.4 GHz /4.0 GHz.

Intel’s latest batch of U-series (top) and new T-series CPUs (bottom)
(click images to enlarge)

The latest batch of U-series processors give you more speed, but higher 28 W TDPs than the original batch. The initial U-series chips, which were used in recent Linux-based laptops from System76 and ZaReason, provide slightly faster quad- instead of dual-core designs with the same price and 15 W TDP as 7th-Gen “Kaby Lake” models. The first round of Coffee Lake chips also included some high-end models tuned to gaming, as well as the first hexa-core Core i5 and first quad-core Core i3 models.

Also today, Intel unveiled a new line of 300-series I/O chipsets that are based on the upcoming Cannon Lake PCH. The lineup includes a Q370 model that supports up to 6x USB 3.1 Gen2 ports, up to 24x PCIe 3.0 lanes, and Intel Wireless-AC for faster 802.11ac.

Intel’s original line of 8th Gen CPUs (top) and new 300-series I/O chipsets (bottom) (click images to enlarge)Intel added to the Coffee Lake parade with some gaming focused G-series chips that use a Radeon Vega GPU from rival AMD. The Core i7-8809G, which can be overclocked, as well as the fixed rate Core i7-8705G, are available in Intel NUC mini-PCs.Today’s media coverage emphasized Intel’s first mobile version of its gaming-oriented Core i9 design. The hexa-core Core i9-8950HK CPU uses thermal velocity boost” technology to jump from 2.9 GHz to 4.8 GHz.

The related H- and M-series processors used by Seco and Congatec include the Core i7-8850H, the fastest of the two hexa-core Core i7 models with 2. 6GHz /4.3 GHz performance. The i7-8850H offers a 9MB Intel Smart Cache and supports “partial” overclocking. The Core i5-8400H is the fastest of the two quad-core i5 models, with 2.5 GHz /4.2 GHz performance and an 8MB cache. The hexa-core, 2.7 GH z/4.4 GHz Xeon E-2176M with 12 MB cache is the slower of the two Xeon M-series chips. (The turbo speeds can only be achieved by one core at a time.)

All the models used by Congatec and Seco offer 45W TDPs and support Intel Optane memory and Intel VPro technology. As with other Coffee Lake processors, there are software patches to protect against Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities. However, a hardware fix will await the 10nm Cannon Lake generation.

The three models used by the Conga-TS370 and COMe-C08-BT6 modules are the:

  • Intel Core i7-8850H (6x 12-thread 14nm Coffee Lake cores at 2.6 GHz /4.3 GHz); 9 MB Cache, 45W TDP (35W cTDP)
  • Intel Core i5-8400H 4x 8-thread 14 nm Coffee Lake cores at 2.5 GHz /4.2 GHz); 8 MB Cache, 45W TDP (35W cTDP)
  • Intel Xeon E-2176M, 8850H (6x 12-thread 14 nm Coffee Lake cores at 2.7 GHz /4.4 GHz); 9 MB Cache, 45 W TDP (35W cTDP)

Intel claims that the six-core H-series and M-series modules offer between 45 to 50 percent more multi-thread and 15 to 25 percent more single-thread performance compared to 7th Gen “Kaby Lake” Core processors. The built-in Intel Gen9 LP graphics can manage up to 3x independent displays at once, with a resolution up to 4096 x 2304 at 60 Hz, 24 bpp. There’s support for DirectX 12 and OpenGL 4.5, as well as an H.265 / HEVC hardware transcoder.

Conga-TS370

Like Congatec’s 6th Gen Skylake based Conga-TS170 and 7th Gen Kaby Lake powered Conga-TS175, the Conga-TS370 uses the COM Express Type 6 Basic form factor. All common Linux operating systems, as well as the 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows 10 and Windows 10 IoT are supported.

 

Conga-TS370 block diagram
(click image to enlarge)

The module offers up to 10-year availability, and targets applications including “high performance embedded and mobile systems, industrial and medical workstations, storage servers and cloud workstations, as well as media transcoding and edge computing cores,” says Congatec.Thanks to the Coffee Lake-H chips, the module supports Intel Optane memory, as well as Intel Software Guard extensions, Trusted Execution Engine, and Intel Platform Trust Technology. The Core processors use the new Intel PCH-H QM370 Series I/O chipset while the Xeon is paired with a CM246 Series controller.

You can load up to 32GB of  DDR4-2666 memory via dual sockets with optional ECC. There are 4x SATA III interfaces, as well as an Intel i219-LM GbE controller with AMT 12.0 support. Expansion features include a PEG x16 Gen3 interface and 8x PCIe Gen 3.0 lanes.

The integrated Intel UHD630 graphics supports up to three independent 4K displays via HDMI 1.4a, eDP 1.4, and DisplayPort 1.2. Dual-channel LVDS is also available as an alternative to eDP, and for the first time, you can switch between eDP to LVDS by software alone, says Congatec.

The highlighted feature enabled by Coffee Lake-H is its support for up to 4x USB 3.1 Gen 2 ports, which operate at up to 10 Gbps. The module also includes 8x USB 2.0 interfaces.

The Conga-TS370 is further equipped with LPC, I2C, SMBus, GPIO, SDIO, and dual UARTs. There’s also an HD Audio interface, TPM 2.0, and ACPI 4.0 with battery support. The Congatec Board Controller provides features including watchdog, non-volatile user storage, and backlight control.

Support services are available, along with a range of accessories and standardized or customized carrier boards and systems. A Conga-Teva2 carrier is in the works but is not yet documented.

COMe-C08-BT6

Seco’s COMe-C08-BT6 module, which follows it similarly Type 6, 6th Gen Skylake based COMe-B09-BT6, is designed for applications including gaming, signage, infotainment, HMI, biomedical devices, Industry 4.0, automation, and telco. There’s support for 64-bit Linux and Windows 10.

 

COMe-C08-BT6
(click image to enlarge)

Not surprisingly, the feature set is very similar to that of the Conga-TS370. You get up to 3 2GB of DDR4-2666 with ECC, 4x SATA 3.0 channels, and an Intel i219-LM GbE controller.The COMe-C08-BT6 has the same triple display and 4K support as the Congatec model. In this case you get DP, HDMI, and DVI DDI interfaces, as well as a choice of eDP, LVDS, or LVDS + VGA interfaces. HD Audio is also available.

Like the Conga-TS370, there are 4x USB 3.1 Gen 2 interfaces, 8x USB 2.0 links, a PEG x16 Gen3 interface, and 8x PCIe Gen 3.0 lanes. Other features include 2x UARTs, as well as SPI, I2C, SMBus, LPC, and GPIO. You also get a watchdog, optional TPM 2.0, thermal and fan management signals, and 12 V or optional 5 V DC input.

CCOMe-965 carrier (top) and block diagram (bottom)
(click images to enlarge)The COMe-C08-BT6 is available with Seco’s CCOMe-965 Mini-ITX carrier board, which also supports other Seco Type 6 modules such as the COMe-B09-BT6 and Ryzen V1000 based COMe-B75-CT6. There’s also a Cross Platform Development Kit that includes the CCOMe-965, along with HDMI and DisplayPort cables, and is said to support ARM-based Type 6 COMs in addition to x86.

CCOMe-C30 carrier (top) and block diagram (bottom)
(click images to enlarge)One final development option is an upcoming, 3.5-inch form factor CCOMe-C30 board that features a DP++ port, 2x mini-DP++ ports, and LVDS and eDP connections. The 146 mm x 102 mm board has dual M.2 sockets, dual GbE ports, and SATA and microSD slots. You also get 2x USB 3.0 and 2x USB 2.0 ports, plus 4x serial headers, among other features.Further information

No pricing or availability information was provided for the Congatec Conga-TS370 or Seco COMe-C08-BT6 Type 6 modules. More on Congatec’s Conga-TS370 module may be found in the Conga-TS370 announcement and product pages.

More on Seco’s COMe-C08-BT6 may be found on the COMe-C08-BT6 product page.

Intel’s latest Intel Coffee Lake processors should start shipping in volume by the end of the month. More information may be found on Intel’s 8th Gen Intel Core announcement page.

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on April 3.

Congatec | www.congtatec.com

Seco | www.seco.com

Drones Tap a Variety of Video Solutions

Eyes in the Skies

In one way or another, much of today’s commercial drone development revolves around video. Technology options range from single-chip solutions to complex networked arrays.

By Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

Commercial drones represent one of the most dynamic, fast-growing segments of embedded systems design today. And while all aspects of commercial drone technology are advancing, video is front and center. Because video is the main mission of the majority of commercial drones, video technology has become a center of gravity in today’s drone design decisions. But video covers a wide set of topics including single-chip video processing, 4k HD video capture, image stabilization, complex board-level video processing, drone-mounted cameras, hybrid IR/video camera and mesh-networks for integrated multiple drone camera streams.

Technology suppliers serving all of those areas are under pressure to deliver products to integrate into video processing, camera and communications electronics inside today’s commercial drones. Drone designers have to pack in an ambitious amount of functionality onto their platforms while keeping size, weight and power (SWaP) as low as possible. Feeding these needs, vendors at the chip, board and system-level continue to evolve their existing drone video technologies while also creating new innovative solutions.

Video Processing SOC

Exemplifying the cutting edge in single-chip video processing for drones, Ambarella in March introduced its CV2 camera SoC (Photo 1). It combines advanced computer vision, image processing, 4Kp60 video encoding and stereovision in a single chip. Targeting drone and related applications, the company says it delivers up to 20 times the deep neural network performance of Ambarella’s first generation CV1 chip. Fabricated in advanced 10nm process technology, CV2 offers extremely low power consumption.

Photo 1
The CV2 camera SoC combines advanced computer vision, image processing, 4Kp60 video encoding and stereovision in a single chip.

The CV2’s CVflow architecture provides computer vision processing up to 4K or 8-Megapixel resolution, to enable object recognition and perception over long distances and with high accuracy. Its stereovision processing provides the ability to detect generic objects without training. Advanced image processing with HDR (High Dynamic Range) processing delivers outstanding imaging even in low light and from high contrast scenes. Its highly efficient 4Kp60 AVC and HEVC video encoding supports the addition of video recording to drone platforms.

At the heart of the CV2 is a Quad-core 1.2 GHz ARM Cortex A53 with NEON DSP extensions and FPU. CV2 includes a full suite of advanced security features to prevent hacking, including secure boot, TrustZone and I/O virtualization. A complete set of tools is provided to help embedded systems developers easily port their own neural networks onto the CV2 SoC. This includes compiler, debugger and support for industry standard training tools including Caffe and TensorFlow, with extensive guidelines for CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) performance optimizations.

Board-Level Solutions

Moving up to the board-level, Sightline Applications specializes in onboard video processing for advanced camera systems. Its processor boards are designed to be integrated at the camera level to provide low-latency video processing on a variety of platforms including commercial drones. Sightline offers two low SWaP board products. Both products are supported by SLA’s Video Processing Software: a suite of video functions that are key in a wide variety of ISR applications. The processing software has two pricing tiers, SLE and SLA. SLE provides processing only and SLA processes the video and provides telemetry feedback. . …

Read the full article in the May 334 issue of Circuit Cellar

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Instrumentation Design Challenges and Solutions

Electronic instrumentation and measurement designs are pushing the boundaries of performance, power, and integrated features to meet or exceed the design challenges of various industries. Mouser takes a look at the characteristics modern instruments require to meet customer expectations and important properties of instrumentation amplifiers.

Tiny, Rugged IoT Gateways Offer 10-Year Linux Support

By Eric Brown

Moxa has announced the UC-2100 Series of industrial IoT gateways along with its new UC 3100 and UC 5100 Series, but it offered details only on the UC-2100. All three series will offer ruggedization features, compact footprints, and on some models, 4G LTE support. They all run Moxa Industrial Linux and optional ThingsPro Gateway data acquisition software on Arm-based SoCs.

 

Moxa UC-2111 or UC-2112 (left) and UC-2101 (click image to enlarge)

Based on Debian 9 and a Linux 4.4 kernel, the new Moxa Industrial Linux (MIL) is a “high-performance, industrial-grade Linux distribution” that features a container-based virtual-machine-like middleware abstraction layer between the OS and applications,” says Moxa. Multiple isolated systems can run on a single control host “so that system integrators and engineers can easily change the behavior of an application without worrying about software compatibility,” says the company.

MIL provides 10-year long-term Linux support, and is aimed principally at industries that require long-term software, such as power, water, oil & gas, transportation and building automation industries. In December, Moxa joined the Linux Foundation’s Civil Infrastructure Platform (CIP) project, which is developing a 10-year SLTS Linux kernel for infrastructure industries. MIL appears to be in alignment with CIP standards.

Diagrams of ThingsPro Gateway (top) and the larger ThingsPro eco-system (bottom) (click images to enlarge)

Moxa’s ThingsPro Gateway software enables “fast integration of edge data into cloud services for large-scale IIoT deployments,” says Moxa. The software supports Modbus data acquisition, LTE connectivity, MQTT communication, and cloud client interfaces such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure. C and Python APIs are also available.

 

Moxa’s UC-3100 (source: Hanser Konstruktion), and at right, the similarly Linux-driven, ThingsPro ready UC-8112 (click images to enlarge)

Although we saw no product pages on the UC-3100 and UC-5100, Hanser Konstruktion posted a short news item on the UC-3100 with a photo (above) and a few details. This larger, rugged system supports WiFi and LTE with two antenna pairs, and offers a USB port in addition to dual LAN and dual serial ports.

The new systems follow several other UC-branded IoT gateways that run Linux on Arm. The only other one to support ThingsPro is the UC-8112, a member of the UC-8100 family. This UC-8100 is similarly ruggedized, and runs Linux on a Cortex-A8 SoC.

UC-2100

The UC-2100 Series gateways runs MIL on an unnamed Cortex-A8 SoC clocked at 600MHz except for the UC-2112, which jumps to 1GHz. There are five different models, all with 9-48 VDC 3-pin terminal blocks and a maximum consumption of 4 Watts when not running cellular modules.

The five UC-2100 models have the following dimensions, weights, and maximum input currents:

  • UC-2101 — 50 x 80 x 28mm; 190 g; 200 mA
  • UC-2102 — 50 x 80 x 28mm; 190 g; 330 mA
  • UC-2104 — 57 x 80 x 30.8mm; 220 g; 800 mA
  • UC-2111 — 77 x 111 x 25.5mm; 290 g; 350 mA
  • UC-2112 — 77 x 111 x 25.5mm; 290 g; 450 mA

All five UC-2100 variants default to a -10 to 60°C operating range except for the UC-2104, which moves up to -10 to 70°C. In addition, they are all available in optional -40 to 75°C versions.

Other ruggedization features are the same, including anti-vibration protection per IEC 60068-2-64 and anti-shock per IEC 60068-2-2. A variety of safety, EMC, EMI, EMS, and hazardous environment standards are also listed.

The first three models ship with 256MB DDR3, while the UC-2111 and UC-2112 offer 512MB. These two are also the only ones to offer micro-SD slots. All five systems ship with 8GB eMMC loaded with the MIL distribution.

The UC-2100 systems vary in the number and type of their auto-sensing, 1.5 kV isolated Ethernet ports. The UC-2101 and UC-2104 each have a single 10/100Mbps port, while the UC-2102 and UC-2111 have two. The UC-2112 has one 10/100 and one 10/100/1000 port. The UC-2104 is the only model with a mini-PCIe socket for 4G or WiFi.

The UC-2111 and UC-2112 offer 2x RS-232/422/48 ports while the UC-2101 has one. It would appear that the UC-2102 and UC-2104 lack serial ports altogether except for the RS-232 console port available on all five systems.

The UC-2100 provides push buttons and dip switches, an RTC, a watchdog, and LEDs, the number of which depend on the model. A wall kit is standard, and DIN-rail mounting is optional. TPM 2.0 is also optional. A 5-year hardware warranty is standard.

Further information

The UC-2100 Series gateways appear to be available for order, with pricing undisclosed. More information may be found on Moxa’s UC-2100 product page. More information about the UC-2100, as well as the related, upcoming UC-3100 and UC-5100 Series, will be on tap at Hannover Messe 2018, April 23-27, at the Arm Booth at Hall 6, Booth A46.

Moxa | www.moxa.com

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on April 16.

Dual-Mode Bluetooth Module for the Industrial IoT

U‑blox has announced the new NINA‑B2 dual‑mode Bluetooth 4.2 stand‑alone module, enabling industrial IoT applications thanks to its built‑in secure boot and wide temperature ranges. It comes pre‑flashed with U‑blox connectivity software which supports many common use cases such as Beacon, GATT client, GATT server and serial port. NINA‑B2 is configured easily using AT commands over UART, without requiring deep knowledge of the Bluetooth protocol. Because it’s already tested and certified globally, it also reduces development costs and speeds time to market.

NINA‑B2’s built‑in secure boot guarantees that the software is authenticated by U‑blox and has therefore not been tampered with. This provides a secure operating environment for the Bluetooth module. NINA‑B2 is very compact, at 10 mm x 10.6 mm x 2.2mm (without antenna) and 10 mm x 14 mm x 3.8 mm (with antenna).

Most of the Bluetooth modules at this scale are single‑mode Bluetooth low energy or Bluetooth BR/EDR devices. NINA‑B2’s size makes it an easy fit in any IoT device. It is also pin‑compatible with the U‑blox NINA family, allowing it to be easily swapped in or out with other NINA modules, with their different radio technologies such as Bluetooth low energy and Wi‑Fi.

Apart from industrial automation such as machine control devices, industrial terminals and products for remote control, possible applications also include wireless‑connected and configurable equipment, point of sale, telematics and health devices. NINA‑B2 is expected to go into production in summer 2018.

U-Blox | www.u-blox.com

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (5/1) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch. (5/8) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (5/15) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Microsoft Unveils Secure MCU Platform with a Linux-Based OS

By Eric Brown

Microsoft has announced an “Azure Sphere” blueprint for for hybrid Cortex-A/Cortex-M SoCs that run a Linux-based Azure Sphere OS and include end-to-end Microsoft security technologies and a cloud service. Products based on a MediaTek MT3620 Azure Sphere chip are due by year’s end.

Just when Google has begun to experiment with leaving Linux behind with its Fuchsia OS —new Fuchsia details emerged late last week— long-time Linux foe Microsoft unveiled an IoT platform that embraces Linux. At RSA 2018, Microsoft Research announced a project called Azure Sphere that it bills as a new class of Azure Sphere microcontrollers that run “a custom Linux kernel” combined with Microsoft security technologies. Initial products are due by the end of the year aimed at industries including whitegoods, agriculture, energy and infrastructure.

Based on the flagship, Azure Sphere based MediaTek MT3620 SoC, which will ship in volume later this year, this is not a new class of MCUs, but rather a fairly standard Cortex-A7 based SoC with a pair of Cortex-M4 MCUs backed up by end to end security. It’s unclear if future Azure Sphere compliant SoCs will feature different combinations of Cortex-A and Cortex-M, but this is clearly an on Arm IP based design. Arm “worked closely with us to incorporate their Cortex-A application processors into Azure Sphere MCUs,” says Microsoft. 

Azure Sphere OS architecture (click images to enlarge)

Major chipmakers have signed up to build Azure Sphere system-on-chips including Nordic, NXP, Qualcomm, ST Micro, Silicon Labs, Toshiba, and more (see image below). The software giant has sweetened the pot by “licensing our silicon security technologies to them royalty-free.”

Azure Sphere SoCs “combine both real-time and application processors with built-in Microsoft security technology and connectivity,” says Microsoft. “Each chip includes custom silicon security technology from Microsoft, inspired by 15 years of experience and learnings from Xbox.”

The design “combines the versatility and power of a Cortex-A processor with the low overhead and real-time guarantees of a Cortex-M class processor,” says Microsoft. The MCU includes a Microsoft Pluton Security Subsystem that “creates a hardware root of trust, stores private keys, and executes complex cryptographic operations.”

The IoT oriented Azure Sphere OS provides additional Microsoft security and a security monitor in addition to the Linux kernel. The platform will ship with Visual Studio development tools, and a dev kit will ship in mid-2018.

Azure Sphere security features (click image to enlarge)

The third component is an Azure Sphere Security Service, a turnkey, cloud-based platform. The service brokers trust for device-to-device and device-to-cloud communication through certificate-based authentication. The service also detects “emerging security threats across the entire Azure Sphere ecosystem through online failure reporting, and renewing security through software updates,” says Microsoft.

Azure Sphere eco-system conceptual diagram (top) and list of silicon partners (bottom)

In many ways, Azure Sphere is similar to Samsung’s Artik line of IoT modules, which incorporate super-secure SoCs that are supported by end-to-end security controlled by the Artik Cloud. One difference is that the Artik modules are either Cortex-A applications processors or Cortex-M or -R MCUs, which are designed to be deployed in heterogeneous product designs, rather than a hybrid SoC like the MediaTek MT3620.Hybrid, Linux-driven Cortex-A/Cortex-M SoCs have become common in recent years, led by NXP’s Cortex-A7 based i.MX7 and -A53-based i.MX8, as well as many others including the -A7 based Renesas RZ/N1D and Marvell IAP220.

MediaTek MT3620

The MediaTek MT3620 “was designed in close cooperation with Microsoft for its Azure Sphere Secure IoT Platform,” says MediaTek in its announcement. Its 500MHz Cortex-A7 core is accompanied by large L1 and L2 caches and integrated SRAM. Dual Cortex-M4F chips support peripherals including 5x UART/I2C/SPI, 2x I2S, 8x ADC, up to 12 PWM counters, and up to 72x GPIO.

The Cortex-M4F cores are primarily devoted to real-time I/O processing, “but can also be used for general purpose computation and control,” says MediaTek. They “may run any end-user-provided operating system or run a ‘bare metal app’ with no operating system.”

In addition, the MT3620 features an isolated security subsystem with its own Arm Cortex-M4F core that handles secure boot and secure system operation. A separate Andes N9 32-bit RISC core supports 1×1 dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi.

The security features and WiFi networking are “isolated from, and run independently of, end user applications,” says MediaTek. “Only hardware features supported by the Azure Sphere Secure IoT Platform are available to MT3620 end-users. As such, security features and Wi-Fi are only accessible via defined APIs and are robust to programming errors in end-user applications regardless of whether these applications run on the Cortex-A7 or the user-accessible Cortex-M4F cores.” MediaTek adds that a development environment is avaialble based on the gcc compiler, and includes a Visual Studio extension, “allowing this application to be developed in C.”

Microsoft learns to love LinuxIn recent years, we’ve seen Microsoft has increasingly softened its long-time anti-Linux stance by adding Linux support to its Azure service and targeting Windows 10 IoT at the Raspberry Pi, among other experiments. Microsoft is an active contributor to Linux, and has even open-sourced some technologies.

It wasn’t always so. For years, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer took turns deriding Linux and open source while warning about the threat they posed to the tech industry. In 2007, Microsoft fought back against the growth of embedded Linux at the expense of Windows CE and Windows Mobile by suing companies that used embedded Linux, claiming that some of the open source components were based on proprietary Microsoft technologies. By 2009, a Microsoft exec openly acknowledged the threat of embedded Linux and open source software.

That same year, Microsoft was accused of using its marketing muscle to convince PC partners to stop providing Linux as an optional install on netbooks. In 2011, Windows 8 came out with a new UEFI system intended to stop users from replacing Windows with Linux on major PC platforms.


Azure Sphere promo video

Further information

Azure Sphere is available as a developer preview to selected partners. The MediaTek MT3620 will be the first Azure Sphere MCU, and products based on it should arrive by the end of the year. More information may be found in Microsoft’s Azure Sphere announcement and product page.

Microsoft | www.microsoft.com

This article originally appeared on LinuxGizmos.com on April 16.

And check out this follow up story also from LinuxGizmos.com :
Why Microsoft chose Linux for Azure Sphere

 

Device Silences TV Commercials

Arduino-Controlled Solution

Ever wish you could block out those annoying TV ads? Tommy describes in detail how he built a device for easily muting the audio of commercials. His project relies on three modules: a UHF radio receiver, an IR module and an Arduino Trinket board.

By Tommy Tyler

Does your blood start to boil as soon as one of those people on TV tries to sell you precious metals, a reverse mortgage, a miraculous kitchen gadget or an incredible weight reduction plan? Do you want to climb the wall the next time someone says “But wait! Order now and get a second one free . . .“? Believe it or not, there was a time long ago when TV commercials were actually entertaining. That was before commercial breaks evolved from 30 second or one-minute interruptions into strings of a half-dozen or more advertisements linked end-to-end for three to five minutes—sometimes with the exact same commercial shown twice in the same group! What is perhaps most annoying is the relentless repetition.

Historically, all the feeble attempts at TV commercial elimination have been applied to recordings on VCRs or DVRs. Anyone who watches programming that’s best enjoyed when viewed in real-time—news, weather and sports—has probably wished at one time or another for a device that can enable them to avoid commercials. They long for a device that could be inserted between their TV and the program source—whether it be cable, satellite or an OTA antenna—to instantly recognize a commercial and blank the screen, change channels or somehow make it go away. The technology for doing that does exist, but you’ll probably never find it applied to consumer products. Since funding of the entire television broadcast industry is derived from paid advertisements, any company that interferes with that would face enormous opposition and legal problems.

After many years of searching the Internet I’ve concluded it is wishful thinking to expect anyone to market a product that automatically eliminates commercials in real-time. I decided to work instead on the next-best approach I could think of: A device that makes it quick and easy to minimize the nuisance of commercials with the least amount of manual effort possible. This article describes a “Kommercial Killer (KK)” that is controlled by a small radio transmitter you carry with you so it’s easily and instantly accessible. No scrambling to find that clumsy infrared remote control and aim it at the TV when a commercial starts. Just press the personal button that’s always with you, even while remaining warm and cozy curled up under a blanket.

Kommercial Killer

The KK operates from anywhere in the home, even from another room completely out of sight of the TV and can be triggered at the slightest sound of an advertisement, political message, solicitation or perhaps even a telephone call. It works with any brand and model TV without modifications or complicated wiring connections by using the TV’s infrared remote control system. If you get a new TV, its remote control can easily teach KK a different MUTE command. Don’t worry about leaving the room with the TV muted. KK automatically restores audio after a certain amount of time. The default time is three minutes, the length of a typical commercial break, but you can easily configure this to any amount of time you prefer. And when you want to restore audio immediately—for example if you have muted non-commercial program material by mistake or if a commercial runs shorter than expected—just press your transmitter button again.

Figure 1
Schematic of the Kommercial Killer

KK is built mainly from three commercially available modules that do all the heavy lifting (Figure 1). The first module is a miniature UHF radio receiver. The second is an infrared module that can learn and mimic the TV mute signal. The third module is an Arduino Trinket board that provides commercial break timing and overall control. This article explains how to load a small program into that module without needing any special equipment or training, and even if you have absolutely no previous experience with Arduino devices.

The three modules are small and inexpensive ($7 to $10 each) and with just eight additional components KK can be built on an open perf board, strip board or enclosed in a 6-inch3 box. It is powered from the same USB Micro cable you use to load or modify the Arduino program, or from any other available USB port or 5 V charger.

UHF Receiver Module

The best UHF radio transmitters and receivers are all manufactured in China, and there are no major distributors in the U.S. So, order this item early and be prepared to wait about 20 days for delivery. After sampling many different remote controls to evaluate performance, quality, cost and shipment, I selected a product manufactured by the Shenzhen YK Remote Control Electronics Company, whose products are sold and shipped through AliExpress. Shenzhen remote controls use two types of receivers. . …

Read the full article in the May 334 issue of Circuit Cellar

After you’ve read the full article, don’t forget to go the the Article Materials Page for useful links and information.
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Note: We’ve made the October 2017 issue of Circuit Cellar available as a free sample issue. In it, you’ll find a rich variety of the kinds of articles and information that exemplify a typical issue of the current magazine.

On-Chip Flash MCU Uses 28 nm Process Technology

Renesas Electronics has announced the sample shipment of the industry’s first on-chip flash memory microcontroller using a 28 nm process technology. To contribute to the realization of next-generation green cars and autonomous vehicles with higher efficiency and higher reliability, the RH850/E2x Series MCU incorporates up to six 400 MHz CPU cores. According to Renesas, that makes it the first on-chip flash memory automotive MCU to achieve processing performance of 9600 MIPS. The new MCU series also features a built-in flash memory of up to 16 MB as well as enhanced security functions and functional safety.

Under Renesas Autonomy, an open, innovative and trusted platform for assisted and automated driving, Renesas provides end-to-end solutions that advance the evolution of vehicles towards next-generation green cars, connected cars and autonomous-driving vehicles. There are two main pillars of the Renesas Autonomy Platform. One is this new 28 nm automotive control MCU. And the other is the R-Car Family of SoCs designed for cloud connectivity and sensing.
Car OEMs and Tier 1 manufacturers, such as Denso, have already started to adopt the new 28 nm MCU. Reasons cited include the MCU’s superior processing performance capable of developing next-generation fuel-efficient engines, as well as its scalability. Scalability is important because of the expected electronic control unit (ECU) integration to come from changes in automotive electrics/electronics (E/E) architecture.

Following the development of the 28 nm embedded flash memory in February 2015, Renesas announced its collaboration with TSMC on 28nm MCUs in September 2016. The company today hit a major milestone by reaching sample shipment of the world’s first 28nm embedded flash memory MCU on the market. Renesas has already succeeded in verifying large-scale operation of fin-structure MONOS flash memory targeting 16/14nm and beyond generations of MCUs. As the leading supplier of automotive semiconductor solutions, Renesas is committed to advancing the industry through continued technological innovation to achieve a safe and secure automotive society.

To assure scalability in the RH850/E2x Series, in addition to the 28 nm flash memory MCU, Renesas has also launched a 40 nm process MCU. Samples of this MCU are available now. Samples of both 28 nm and 40 nm MCUs from RH850/E2x are  available.

Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com

Automotive Echo Cancellation Available for NXP Processors

NXP Semiconductors has announced a new echo cancellation noise reduction solution (ECNR) that significantly reduces the problem of noisy voice communications and provides carmakers with a consumer pleasing, hands-free calling experience. The cost-effective solution combines innovative ECNR software that can be easily ported onto NXP i.MX processors and NXP’s leading car radio tuners and DSPs. The new NXP ECNR solution is also ITU-T P1110 and CarPlay pre-certified.
Echo and noise can make communication on the road difficult. Echo occurs when the speakers within a car transmit a voice signal from an incoming call, which subsequently ricochets through the vehicle and returns to the microphone. This causes the caller to hear their own voice, which is distracting and can result in broken communications. Additionally, road noise from fans, exhaust, tires, windows and passengers can infiltrate calls and render them unintelligible, ultimately disrupting the driving experience and causing frustration.

The new NXP ECNR solution deals with both problems by removing echoes and filtering out unwanted noise from the cockpit to enhance the sound quality of conversations. Since the ECNR solution can be ported to NXP chipsets and is ITU-T P1110 and CarPlay pre-certified, it can reduce carmakers’ R&D expenses and speed up the design cycle.

NXPs SAF775x integrates up to 2 AM/FM tuners, radio processing, an automotive audio hub and an open HiFi2 core for advanced audio algorithms. SAF775x has rich analog and digital interfaces, flexible audio mixer and filter structure, and core audio processing algorithms. The SAF775x family radio-audio one chip is a market-proven solution and has been successfully designed in major automotive OEM platforms.

i.MX applications processors offer a feature and performance-scalable multicore platform that includes single, dual and quad-core families based on the Arm® v7-A and Arm v8 architecture based solutions with powerful processing for neural networks, advanced graphics, machine vision, video, audio, voice and safety-critical requirements.

The ECNR algorithm is running on the HiFi2 core of SAF775x, ready be activated by a key code.

NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com

STM32 Software Brings Alexa Tech to Simple Connected Objects

The X-CUBE-AVS software package from STMicroelectronics enables Amazon’s Alexa Voice Service (AVS) to run on STM32 microcontrollers, allowing simple connected objects such as smart appliances, home-automation devices, and office products to support advanced conversational user interfaces with Cloud-based intelligence like automatic speech recognition and natural-language understanding.

As an expansion package for the STM32Cube software platform, X-CUBE-AVS contains ready-to-use libraries and open routines that accelerate porting the AVS SDK (Software Development Kit) to the microcontroller. With application samples also included, it abstracts developers from the complex software layers needed to host AVS on an embedded device. Being the first such package to cater specifically for microcontrollers, whereas AVS development usually targets more power-hungry and expensive microprocessors, X-CUBE-AVS makes Alexa technology accessible to a wider spectrum of developers and projects.
The software handles low-layer communication and connection to AVS servers, provides application-specific services, and encapsulates the AVS protocol to ease application implementation. Connection management includes a persistent-token mechanism for directly restoring connection losses without repeated user authentication. A software test harness is provided for endurance testing, which can simulate events such as network disconnection to facilitate robustness testing and validation of the user application.

X-CUBE-AVS comes with a demonstration example for the STM32F769 Discovery Kit (order code: 32F769IDISCOVERY), which shows how to connect a simple smart-speaker to AVS, leveraging the board-configuration interface included in the software. X-CUBE-AVS can be used with other STM32F7 microcontrollers, or any STM32 device with adequate CPU performance and memory to run the AVS SDK.

X-CUBE-AVS is available now to download, free of charge, from http://www.st.com/x-cube-avs

STMicroelectronics | www.st.com

May (issue #334) Circuit Cellar Article Materials

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p. 6: Temperature Logger Uses Raspberry Pi: Sensor and Software Challenges, By Nick Boers

Bus buffer datasheet: www.nxp.com/docs/en/data-sheet/P82B715.pdf
Temperature sensor datasheet: ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/21909d.pdf
Analog-digital converter datasheet: ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/21298c.pdf
DC-DC converter datasheet: www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/AP1509.pdf
LCD display datasheet: www.newhavendisplay.com/specs/NHD-0420D3Z-NSW-BBW-V3.pdf

Newhaven Display | www.newhavendisplay.com
Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Diodes Incorporated | www.diodes.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

p 12: Obsolescence-Proof Your UI (Part 2): Web Server Strategy, By Steve Hendrix

Definition of “Wedged”:  A “wedge” is an older technique, less commonly used today, whereby a programmer would add functionality to an existing program (often a device driver) by inserting a call to his custom function in the middle of that existing program. In this way, he could leverage the work already done in the device driver, but add a new function. As an example, I inserted a wedge in the keyboard driver of my very first PC, an Ohio Scientific Superboard II, to remap the keyboard to the Dvorak arrangement. In much the same way, this “wedge” deflects your attention from the mainline text to add a bit of functionality!

References:
Jeff Bachiochi, “Serving Up HTML”, Circuit Cellar, June 2016 / July 2016
Microchip, “TCPIP Stack Help.chm”, provided with the downloadable TCP/IP stack
Steve Hendrix, “Personal Solar Power Setup”, Circuit Cellar, July 2014 / August 2014

HTML Elements: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTML/Element
HPGL tools: http://www.ke5fx.com/gpib/readme.htm
Announcement monitor: www.logview4net.com

Angry IP Scanner | www.angryip.org
Digi-Key | www.digikey.com
Microchip | www.microchip.com

p. 18: Device Silences TV Commercials: Arduino-Controlled Solution,
By Tommy Tyler

AliExpress: YurKuong Shenzhen YK Remote Control Store

Parts List:
Item                      Description                                      Quantity       DigiKey Part #   
R10, R30              Resistor, 1/4W, 10K 5%                            2        CF14JT10K0CT-ND
R20                       Resistor, 1/4W, 1K 5%                              1        CF14JT1K00CT-ND
LED10                  BLUE LED, 4.8MM                                     1        VAOL-5LSBY2-ND
LED20                  RED LED, 5MM                                          1        67-1105-ND
U10                       IC, SPST CMOS sw/TS12A4514               1         296-21908-5-ND
XU10                     IC Socket, 8-pin                                          1        AE9986-ND
S10, S20               Switch, Tactile, SPST-NO                          2        450-1647-ND
UHF Module          Shenzhen YK Remote Control                   1         (See text)
IR Module              Chunghop Learning Remote Control         1         (See text)
Timer Module        Trinket Mini MCU Board, 3.3V                     1         1528-1020-ND
Enclosure              Bud Utilibox CU-1941                                 1         377-2068-ND

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Chunghop | www.chunghop.com/en/
Digi-Key | www.digikey.com
Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com
Oshpark | www.oshpark.com


p. 26: Exploring the Benefits of eFPGAs: FPGAs Used as IP Blocks, By Geoff Tate

Flex Logix Technologies | www.flex-logix.com

p.32: Drones Embrace a Variety of Video Solutions: Eyes in the Skies, By Jeff Child

Ambarella | www.ambarella.com
FLIR Systems | www.flir.com
Lucint Systems | www.lucintsystems.com
Overwatch Imaging | www.overwatchimaging.com
Rajant | www.rajant.com
Sightline Applications | www.sightlineapplications.com
Silvus Technologies | www.silvustechnologies.com
Visual Intelligence | www.visualintelligenceinc.com

p.40: Quick Prototyping Solutions: PCB Makers Up Their Game, By Jeff Child

Accutrace | www.pcb4u.com
Advanced Circuits | www.4pcb.com
AP Circuits | www.apcircuits.com
Beta Layout | uk.beta-layout.com
Custom Circuit Boards | www.customcircuitboards.com
EzPCB | www.ezpcb.com
Epec | www.epectec.com
Imagineering | www.pcbnet.com
MacroFab | www.macrofab.com
OurPCB | www.ourpcb.com
PCBCART | www.pcbcart.com
PCB Unlimited | www.pcbunlimited.com
Screaming Circuits | www.screamingcircuits.com
Sierra Circuits | www.protoexpress.com
SlingShot Assembly | www.slingshotassembly.com

p. 50: The Populist Side-Channel Attack: An Overview of Spectre, By Colin O’Flynn

Paul Kocher, Daniel Genkin, Daniel Gruss, Werner Haas, Mike Hamburg, Moritz Lipp, Stefan Mangard, Thomas Prescher, Michael Schwarz, Yuval Yarom. “Spectre Attacks: Exploiting Speculative Execution”. See https://spectreattack.com/ for paper & demos.

Daniel J. Berstein. “Cache-timing attacks on AES”.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

p. 54: Stepper Motor Back EMF: Supply Voltage vs. Current Control, By Ed Nisley

Background columns:
March 2018 Circuit Circuit issue 332: Stepper Motor Waveforms

Background blog posts:
MPCNC assembly: https://softsolder.com/2017/11/06/mostly-printed-cnc-mechanical-build

Components:
Mostly Printed CNC: https://www.v1engineering.com
Protoneer Arduino CNC Shield v3: https://blog.protoneer.co.nz/arduino-cnc-shield-v3-00-assembly-guide
GRBL G-code firmware: https://github.com/gnea/grbl

Resources:
Protoneer.co.nz | www.blog.protoneer.co.nz
Tektronix | www.tek.com
V1 Engineering | www.v1engineering.com

p. 61: Accelerometers Revisited: MEMS and More, By George Novacek

March 2018 Circuit Circuit issue 332: Measuring Acceleration

Choosing Most Suitable MEMS Accelerometer 1
Choosing Most Suitable MEMS Accelerometer 2
Introduction to MEMS vibration Monitoring

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
SparkFunElectronics | www.sparkfun.com

p. 66: Wireless Charging: Electric Field of Dreams, By Jeff Bachiochi

WPC- Wireless Power Consortium: www.wirelesspowerconsortium.com
Qi specifications V1.2.2 :   www.wirelesspowerconsortium.com/developers/specification.html
A4WP -Alliance For Wireless Power www.airfuel.org
PMA – Power Matters Alliance www.airfuel.org

Adafruit Qi Wireless Charging Transmitter – www.adafruit.com/product/2162
Adafruit Qi Wireless Receiver Module –        www.adafruit.com/product/1901
Texas Instruments: bq51013B – Highly Integrated Wireless Receiver Qi (WPC v1.1) Compliant Power Supply
ST Microelectronics: STC4054  800mA Standalone linear Li-Ion Battery Charger with thermal regulation
Recom Power: REE-0505S     –           1W DC/DC-Converter
RKZ-0505S     –           2W DC/DC-Converter
RKZ3-0505S  –           3W DC/DC-Converter

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
RECOM | www.recom-power.com
STMicrolectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com