Analyst 2017 Review: Mobile Devices Dominated GPU Market

Jon Peddie Research (JPR), a market research and consulting firm focused on graphics and multimedia offers its annual review of GPU developments for 2017. In spite of the slow decline of the PC market overall, PC-based GPU sales, which include workstations, have been increasing, according to the review. In the mobile market, integrated GPUs have risen at the same rate as mobile devices and the SoCs in them. The same is true for the console market where integrated graphics are in every console and they too have increased in sales over the year.

Nearly 28% of the world’s population bought a GPU device in 2017, and that’s in addition to the systems already in use. And yet, probably less than half of them even know what the term GPU stands for, or what it does. To them the technology is invisible, and that means it’s working—they don’t have to know about it.

The market for, and use of, GPUs stretches from supercomputers and medical devices to gaming machines, mobile devices, automobiles, and wearables. Just about everyone in the industrialized world has at least a half dozen products with one a GPU, and technophiles can easily count a dozen or more. The manufacturing of GPUs approaches science fiction with features that will move below 10 nm next year and have a glide-path to 3 nm, and some think even 1 nm—Moore’s law is far from dead, but is getting trickier to coax out of the genie’s bottle as we drive into subatomic realms that can only be modeled and not seen.

Over the past 12 months JPR has a seen a few new, and some clever adaptations of GPUs that show the path for future developments and subsequent applications. 2017 was an amazing year for GPU development driven by games, eSports, AI, crypto currency mining, and simulations. Autonomous vehicles started to become a reality, as did augmented reality. The over-hyped consumer-based PC VR market explosion didn’t happen, and had little to no impact on GPU developments or sales. Most of the participants in VR already had a high-end system and the HMD was just another display to them.

Mobile GPUs, exemplified by products from Qualcomm, ARM and Imagination Technologies are key to amazing devices with long battery life, screens at or approaching 4K, and in 2017 people started talking about and showing HDR.

JPR’s review says that many, if not all, the developments we will see in 2018 were started as early as 2015, and that three to four-year lead time will continue. Lead times could get longer as we learn how to deal with chips constructed with billions of transistor manufactured at feature sizes smaller than X-rays. Ironically, buying cycles are also accelerating ensuring strong competition as players try to leap-frog each other in innovation. According to JPR, we’ll see considerable innovation in 2018, with AI being the leading application that will permeate every sector of our lives.

The JPR GPU Developments in 2017 Report is free to all subscribers of JPR. Individual copies of the report can be purchased for $100.

Jon Peddie Research | www.jonpeddie.com

Kit for R-Car V3M SoC Speeds Development

Renesas Electronics has announced the R-Car V3M Starter Kit to simplify and speed up the development of New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) front camera applications, surround view system, and LiDARs. The new starter kit is based on the R-Car V3M image recognition system-on-chip (SoC), delivering a combination of low power consumption and high performance for the growing NCAP front camera market. By combining the R-Car V3M starter kit with supporting software and tools, system developers can easily develop front camera applications, contributing to reduced development efforts and faster time-to-market.

Renesas also announced an enhancement to the R-Car V3M by integrating a new, highly power-efficient hardware accelerator for high-performance convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which enables features such as road detection or object classification that are increasingly used in automotive applications. The R-Car V3M’s innovative hardware accelerator enables CNNs to execute at ultra-low power consumption levels that cannot be reached when CNNs are running on CPUs or GPUs.

The new R-Car V3M Starter Kit, the R-Car V3M SoC, and supporting software and tools including Renesas’ open-source e² studio IDE integrated development environment (IDE), are part of Renesas’ open, innovative, and trusted Renesas autonomy Platform for ADAS and automated driving that delivers total end-to-end solutions scaling from cloud to sensing and vehicle control.

The new starter kit is a ready-to-use kit. In addition to the required interface and tools, the kit provides essential components for ADAS and automated driving development, including 2GB RAM, 4GB eMMC (embedded multi-media controller) onboard memory, Ethernet, display outputs, and interfaces for debugging. The integrated 440-pin expansion port gives full freedom for system manufacturers to develop application-specific expansion boards for a wide range of computing applications, from a simple advanced computer vision development environment to prototyping of multi-camera systems for applications such as surround view. This board flexibility reduces the time needed for hardware development in addition to maintaining a high degree of software portability and reusability.

The R-Car V3M Starter Kit is supported by a Linux Board Support Package (BSP), which is available through elinux.org. Further commercial operating systems will be made available from next year onwards. Codeplay will enable OpenCL and SYCL on the starter kit in Q1 2018. Further tools, sample code and application notes for computer vision and image processing will be provided throughout 2018. Renesas enables several tools on the R-Car V3M Starter Kit including Renesas e² studio toolchain and tools for debugging, which ease the development burden and enable faster time-to-market.

In addition to the R-Car V3M Starter Kit, Renesas has enabled ultra-low power consumption for CNNs, which achieve image recognition and image classification, on the R-Car V3M SoC. The R-Car V3M allows the implementation of high-performance, low power consumption CNN networks in NCAP cameras that cannot be realized with traditional high power consuming CPU or GPU architectures. Renesas complements the IMP-X5, a subsystem for computer vision processing that is composed of an image processor and the programmable CV engine, with a new, innovative CNN hardware accelerator developed in house, that allows the implementation of high-performance CNNs at ultra-low low power. With this new IP, Renesas enables system developers to choose between the IMP-X5 or the new hardware accelerator to deploy CNNs. This heterogeneous approach allows system developers to choose the most efficient architecture, depending on required programming flexibility, performance and power consumption.

The Renesas R-Car V3M is available now. The R-Car V3M Starter Kit with a Linux BSP will be available in Q1 2018 initially in limited quantities. A complete offering with an extended software solution is scheduled for Q3 2018.

Renesas Electronics | www.renesas.com

BLE ICs Boast -105 dBm Sensitivity

Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage has added two new devices to its lineup of ICs that are compliant with the Bluetooth low energy standard. The new TC35680FSG (featuring built-in flash memory) and TC35681FSG are well-suited to applications requiring long-range communication, including beacon tags, IoT devices and industrial equipment. Sample shipments will begin later this month.

The new communication ICs support the full spectrum of data rates required for the high-speed features—2M PHY and Coded PHY (500 kbps and 125 kbps)—found in the Bluetooth 5.0 standard. The new devices also deliver an industry-leading receiver sensitivity level of -105 dBm (at125k bps ) and a built-in high efficiency power amplifier in the transmission block that provides up to +8 dBm transmission power.

Bluetooth technology continues to evolve to meet wireless connectivity needs, and recent enhancements to the standard have been designed to increase Bluetooth’s functionality with the IoT. By adding Bluetooth 5.0-compliant ICs to its extensive lineup, Toshiba helps companies integrate Bluetooth low energy products into IoT devices and addresses the growing demand for high-throughput, long-range communications.

Based on an ARM Cortex-M0 processor, the new ICs incorporate a 256 KB Mask ROM to support the Bluetooth baseband process, and 144 KB of RAM for processing Bluetooth baseband, stack and data. Toshiba’s TC35680FSG and TC35681FSG also feature 18-port GPIOs as interfaces, which can be set to 2 channels each for SPIs, I2C, and UART. This allows for the structuring of systems that connect to various peripheral devices. These GPIOs can be set for a wakeup function, 4-channel PWM, 5-channel AD converter interfaces, an external amplifier control interface for long-range communication and more.

The TC35680FSG includes 128 KB of flash memory for storing user programs and various data in stand-alone operations, making it well-suited to a wide range of applications and removing the need for external non-volatile memory. This also lowers the part count, which reduces both the cost and mounting area.

The TC35681FSG, which does not include a built-in flash memory, operates in conjunction with an external non-volatile memory or host processor. A wide operating range of -40° to +125°C makes it suitable for applications exposed to high temperatures.

Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage | www.toshiba.semicon-storage.com

Bonus Newsletter: Displays and Graphics

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: January has a 5th Tuesday, so we’ve added a bonus topic to our four-week newsletter rotation. We’re bringing you a Bonus newsletter: Displays and Graphics. Display technology is where the user interacts with today’s modern embedded electronic devices This newsletter content examines the latest technology and product developments in displays along with the graphics ICs that drive those displays.

Plus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your Displays and Graphics newsletter issue tomorrow.

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Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

Analog & Power. (2/6) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch. (2/13) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (2/20) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

Embedded Boards.(2/27 Wednesday) The focus here is on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Congatec Gets Long-Term Geode Support

Congatec and AMD have teamed together to provide extended life cycle support for the AMD Geode, one of the world’s longest-serving x86 processors. The result is that AMD Geode processor boards from Congatec will have planned availability until the end of 2021.

According to Congatec, embedded system developers will benefit from massive life cycle and return on investment improvements for their AMD Geode based product lines. Supply until 2021 means 16 years long-term availability for the Geode LX, which was introduced by AMD in 2005. This is unique to the embedded x86 processor markets, where processors in general are available for 7 years.

In order to enable this extension, AMD has qualified a non-halogenated substrate with virtually no changes to processor form, fit or function so that all AMD qualification criteria will be met. Congatec modules with the new Geode processor samples are available now under identical product order numbers.

The following products are supported:

Module Form factor Processor  RAM Power consumption
conga-XLX XTX AMD Geode
LX 800
1 GB DDR3/PC2700 5 W (typical)
conga-ELX ETX AMD Geode
LX 800
1 GB PC2700 5 W (typical)
conga-ELXeco ETX AMD Geode
LX 800
256 MB DRAM 5 W (typical)

Congatech | www.congatec.com

Compact Board Sports Celeron J3455

American Portwell Technology has announced the launch of WUX-3455, a small form factor (SFF) embedded system board featuring the Intel Celeron processor J3455, formerly code-named Apollo Lake. The Intel Celeron processor J3455 integrates the low power Intel Gen9 graphics engine up to 18 execution units, enabling enhanced 3D graphics performance and greater speed for 4K encode and decode operations. The WUX-3455 is well suited as a solution supporting visual communications and real-time computing applications in medical, digital surveillance, industrial automation, office automation, retail and more.

Portwell’s WUX-3455 embedded system board, designed with a compact footprint (101.6 mm x 101.6 mm; 4˝ x 4˝), also features DDR3L SO-DIMM up to 8 GB supporting 1866/1600 MT/s; 6x USB ports; one DisplayPort (DP) and one HDMI with resolution up to 4096 x 2160; one COM port for RS-232 on rear I/O (RJ45 connector); and multiple storage interfaces with 1x SATA III port, 1x microSD 3.0 socket and support for onboard eMMC 5.0 up to 64G. Moreover, it integrates the M.2 interface, which provides wireless connectivity including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, allowing ideal communication and connectivity for IoT edge devices and designs.

The WUX-3455  operates with thermal design power (TDP) under 6W/10W for fanless applications. It also supports a wide voltage of power input from 12 V to 19 V for rugged applications. With its ingenious design and superior performance—up to quad-core processing power via Intel® Celeron processor J3455 and high capability—the Portwell WUX-3455 embedded system board is equipped with the ability to execute an extensive array of applications from digital signage in public spaces through manufacturing robots and machinery transforming industrial automation, to video analytics-based appliances enhancing intelligent digital security and surveillance, to end-to-end solutions for IoT use cases.

American Portwell Technology | www.portwell.com

Quantum Leaps

Input Voltage

–Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

JeffHeadShot

Throughout my career, I’ve always been impressed by Intel’s involvement in a wide spectrum of computing and electronics technologies. These range from the mundane and practical on one hand, to forward-looking and disruptive advances on the other. A lot of these weren’t technologies for which Intel ever intended to take direct advantage of over the long term. I think a lot about how Intel facilitated the creation of and early advances in USB. Intel even sold USB chips in the first couple years of USB’s emergence, but stepped aside from that with the knowledge that their main focus was selling processors.

USB made computers and a myriad of consumer electronic devices better and easier to use, and that, Intel knew, advanced the whole industry in which their microprocessors thrived. Today, look around your home, your office and even your car and count the number of USB connectors there are. It’s pretty obvious that USB’s impact has been truly universal.

Aside from mainstream, practical solutions like USB, Intel also continues to participate in the most forward-looking compute technologies. Exemplifying that, in January at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) show in Las Vegas, Intel announced two major milestones in its efforts to develop future computing technologies. In his keynote address, Intel CEO Brian Krzanich announced the successful design, fabrication and delivery of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum test chip. The keynote also focused on the promise of neuromorphic computing.

In his speech, Krzanich explained that, just two months after delivery of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip, Intel that day unveiled “Tangle Lake,” a 49-qubit superconducting quantum test chip. The chip is named after a chain of lakes in Alaska, a nod to the extreme cold temperatures and the entangled state that quantum bits (or “qubits”) require to function.

According to Intel, achieving a 49-qubit test chip is an important milestone because it will allow researchers to assess and improve error correction techniques and simulate computational problems.

Krzanich predicts that quantum computing will solve problems that today might take our best supercomputers months or years to resolve, such as drug development, financial modeling and climate forecasting. While quantum computing has the potential to solve problems conventional computers can’t handle, the field is still nascent.

Mike Mayberry, VP and managing director of Intel Labs weighed in on the progress of the efforts. “We expect it will be 5 to 7 years before the industry gets to tackling engineering-scale problems, and it will likely require 1 million or more qubits to achieve commercial relevance,” said Mayberry.

Krzanich said the need to scale to greater numbers of working qubits is why Intel, in addition to investing in superconducting qubits, is also researching another type called spin qubits in silicon. Spin qubits could have a scaling advantage because they are much smaller than superconducting qubits. Spin qubits resemble a single electron transistor, which is similar in many ways to conventional transistors and potentially able to be manufactured with comparable processes. In fact, Intel has already invented a spin qubit fabrication flow on its 300-mm process technology.

At CES, Krzanich also showcased Intel’s research into neuromorphic computing—a new computing paradigm inspired by how the brain works that could unlock exponential gains in performance and power efficiency for the future of artificial intelligence. Intel Labs has developed a neuromorphic research chip, code-named “Loihi,” which includes circuits that mimic the brain’s basic operation.

While the concepts seem futuristic and abstract, Intel is thinking of the technology in terms of real-world uses. Intel says Neuromorphic chips could ultimately be used anywhere real-world data needs to be processed in evolving real-time environments. For example, these chips could enable smarter security cameras and smart-city infrastructure designed for real-time communication with autonomous vehicles. In the first half of this year, Intel plans to share the Loihi test chip with leading university and research institutions while applying it to more complex data sets and problems.

For me to compare quantum and neuromorphic computing to USB is as about as apples and oranges as you can get. But, who knows? When the day comes when quantum or neuromorphic chips are in our everyday devices, maybe my comparison won’t seem far-fetched at all.

This appears in the February (331) issue of Circuit Cellar magazine

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Processor for Voice-Controlled Devices

To address the convergence of immersive sensory experiences fueled by voice, video and audio demands, NXP Semiconductors has launched the i.MX 8M family of applications processors. The processors combine robust media capabilities on one chip. Voice commands are expected to dominate 50% of all searches in the next two years, increasingly thinner TVs are driving the popularity of sound bars for home automation, and consumers are embracing the IoT for creating more convenient richer sensory-driven experiences.

The NXP i.MX 8M processors address designers’ requirements for one platform that combines A/V and machine learning to create connected products that can be controlled via voice command. The chips provide the process technology and edge computing needs to manage and reduce the command and question response time of smart connected devices. The i.MX 8MF is suited for a wide range of residential IoT and device control applications including everything.from smart TVs, television subscription services, sound bars and other smart speakers, to streaming media players and DVR/PVR. The processor family is also ideal for managing lighting, thermostats, door locks, home security, smart sprinklers, other systems and devices for a more intuitive and responsive home environment.

NXP’s i.MX 8M family’s features that include:

  • Video and audio capabilities with full 4K Ultra HD resolution, High Dynamic Range (HDR) and the highest levels of pro-audio fidelity
  • Performance and versatility with up to four 1.5 GHz ARM Cortex-A53 cores, flexible memory options, and high-speed interfaces for flexible connectivity
  • Advanced Human Machine Interface (HMI) featuring dual displays, vision procession unit (VPU), and an enriched user experience
  • Scalability and pin-and-power compatibility

NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com/iMX8M

Chipsets Provide Low Power LoRa Solutions

Semtech has announced its next generation LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency (RF) technology (LoRa Technology) chipsets enabling innovative LPWAN use cases for consumers with its advanced technology. Addressing the need for cost-effective and reliable sensor-to-cloud connectivity in any type of RF environment, the new features and capabilities will significantly improve the performance and capability of IoT sensor applications that demand ultra-low power, small form factor and long range wireless connectivity with a shortened product development cycle.

The next generation LoRa radios extends Semtech’s industry leading link budget by 20% with a 50% reduction in receiver current (4.5 mA) and a high power +22 dBm option. This extends battery life of LoRa-based sensors up to 30%, which reduces the frequency of battery replacement. The extended connectivity range, with the ability to reach deep indoor and outdoor sensor locations, will create new markets as different types of verticals integrate LoRa Technology in their IoT applications including healthcare and pharmaceuticals, media and advertising, logistics/shipping and asset tracking.

The new platform has a command interface that simplifies radio configuration and shortens the development cycle, needing only 10 lines of code to transmit or receive a packet, which will allow users to focus on applications. The small footprint, 45% less than the current generation, is highly configurable to meet different application requirements utilizing the global LoRaWAN open standard. The chipsets also supports FSK modulation to allow compatibility with legacy protocols that are migrating to the LoRaWAN open protocol for all the performance benefits LoRa Technology provides.

Three new devices, SX1262 (+22dBm), SX1261 (+15dBm) and SX1268 (+22dBm, China frequency bands) are currently sampling to lead customers and partners and will be available in full production in late Q1 2018. Development kits for various regions and associated software will also be available at that time.

LoRa Technology New Features:

  • 50% less power in receive mode
  • 20% more extended range
  • +22 dBm transmit power
  • A 45% reduction in size: 4mm by 4mm
  • Global continuous frequency coverage: 150-960MHz
  • Simplified user interface with implementation of commands
  • New spreading factor of SF5 to support dense networks
  • Protocol compatible with existing deployed LoRaWAN networks

 

Semtech | www.semtech.com/iot

IoT Platform Gets Thread Certification

Express Logic has announced that its Industrial Grade X-Ware IoT Platform is an official Thread Certified Product, and the only such solution from an independent RTOS provider. Created by the Thread Group, Thread is a reliable, low-power, secure, and scalable mesh networking solution that provides a foundation on which any application layer can run.

The X-Ware IoT Platform, powered by Express Logic’s high-performance ThreadX RTOS and NetX Duo dual IPv4/IPv6 TCP/IP stack, provides industrial-grade implementations of IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN), Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS).

According to Express Logic, Thread certification provides more than just protocol compliance. Rather than measuring against single reference implementations, Thread testing validates each device’s specification conformance against a blended network comprised of four reference stacks to ensure device interoperability and reduce risk and time to market. Compliance to the Thread certification protocols and standards is administered and regulated by UL a global, independent, safety and certification company with more than a century of expertise in implementing certification solutions and standards.

The X-Ware IoT Platform contains no open source, is high performance, and boasts an extremely small footprint. The X-Ware IoT Platform automatically scales to use only what is needed by the application, making it well suited for the smallest low-power IoT devices. In addition to the performance and size advantages of the X-Ware IoT Platform, ThreadX and NetX Duo have attained the highest level of safety certifications. They include IEC 61508 SIL 4, IEC 62304 Class C, ISO 26262 ASIL D, EN 50128 SW-SIL 4, UL 60730-1 Annex H, CSA E60730-1 Annex H, IEC 60730-1 Annex H, 60335-1 Annex R and IEC 60335-1 Annex R, 1998.

Thread certification will also allow developers to confidently leverage the entire X-Ware IoT Platform solution, including the safety-certified FileX, GUIX, and USBX solutions and technologies, knowing it will seamlessly connect to other Thread-certified devices.

Express Logic | www.rtos.com

Thread Group | www.threadgroup.org

Next Newsletter: Embedded Boards

Coming to your inbox tomorrow: Circuit Cellar’s Embedded Boards newsletter. Tomorrow’s newsletter content focuses on both standard and non-standard embedded computer boards that ease prototyping efforts and let you smoothly scale up to production volumes.

Bonus: We’ve added Drawings for Free Stuff to our weekly newsletters. Make sure you’ve subscribed to the newsletter so you can participate.

Already a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber? Great!
You’ll get your Embedded Boards newsletter issue tomorrow.

Not a Circuit Cellar Newsletter subscriber?
Don’t be left out! Sign up now:

Our weekly Circuit Cellar Newsletter will switch its theme each week, so look for these in upcoming weeks:

January has a 5th Tuesday, so we’re bringing you a bonus newsletter:
Displays and Graphics. (1/30) Display technology is where the user interacts with today’s modern embedded electronic devices This newsletter content examines the latest technology and product developments in displays along with the graphics ICs that drive those displays.

Analog & Power. (2/6) This newsletter content zeros in on the latest developments in analog and power technologies including DC-DC converters, AD-DC converters, power supplies, op amps, batteries and more.

Microcontroller Watch. (2/13) This newsletter keeps you up-to-date on latest microcontroller news. In this section, we examine the microcontrollers along with their associated tools and support products.

IoT Technology Focus. (2/20) Covers what’s happening with Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology–-from devices to gateway networks to cloud architectures. This newsletter tackles news and trends about the products and technologies needed to build IoT implementations and devices.

February (issue #331) Circuit Cellar Article Materials

Click here for the Circuit Cellar article code archive

p. 6: Video Gaming Console Uses PIC32: Object Oriented Design,
By Dongze Yue and Yixiao Zhang

References:
[1] BBC, GameBoy mini-games take top prize.
[2] Jasio, Lucio D., Programming 32-bit Microcontrollers in C: Exploring the PIC32.  Burlington, MA:  Elsevier Inc.
[3] Land, Bruce R., NTSC video generation on PIC32.
[4] Bresenham’s line algorithm.
[5] Bezier curve

Here’s a demo video of our project:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRAvcRDEY0g&feature=youtu.be

And here’s our project website. PICGAME

Adafruit | www.adafruit.com
Mathworks | www.mathworks.com
Microchip | www.microchip.com

p 14: Building a VR Arm Tracker: Sensor Fusion in Action, By Emma Wang, Daryl Sew and Zachary Zimmerman

References:
[1] “Digital Tri-axis Gyroscope/ Tri-axis Accelerometer Specifications”, Kionix, 2017.
[2] D. Caulley, N. Nehoran, S. Zhao, “Self Balancing Robot”, Fall 2016.
[3] D. Sew, E. Wang, Z. Zimmerman, “Pose: An Arm Tracking System”, Fall 2017

E.W. Weisstein, “Quaternion.” MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource.
P. Jan, “Reading an IMU without Kalman: The Complementary Filter”. pieter-jan.com.
Apr 26, 2013.
M. Looney, “A Simple Calibration for MEMS Gyroscopes”, Analog Devices. July 2010.

Kionix | www.kionix.com
Microchip | www.microchip.com
NumPy | www.numpy.org
Panda3D | www.panda3d.org

p. 20 : Designing a Home Cleaning Robot (Part 3): Mechanical Design,
By Nishant Mittal

Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p. 26: Programmable Ad Hoc Mesh Network: Meshed-Up PICs,
By Raghava Kumar, Brian Clark and Alex Wong

References:
[1] Perkins; Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing; IEFT; 2003

Mahbub, Syed Tahmid; Tahmid’s blog; http://tahmidmc.blogspot.com/; 12/16/2016
Jon; PIC Tutorials; ; 7/11/2013

NORDIC Semiconductor; nRF24L01+ Preliminary Product Specification v1.0; ;   3/2008

Bruce Land; ECE 4760 Course Website; ; 1/2017

P. Vijayakumar, P. Ganeshkumar, and M. Anandaraj; Review on Routing Algorithms in  Wireless Mesh Networks; International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications; Volume 3, Issue 5; May 2012

Microchip | www.microchip.com
Nordic Semiconductor | www.nordicsemi.com

Bill of Materials:

Item

Quantity

Cost

Total Cost

Perfboard

4

$1

$4

PIC32 Microcontroller

4

$5

$20

NRF24L01+ Radio

4

$1

$4

3.3v Voltage Regulator

3

$1

$3

Battery Holder

3

$1

$3

AA Batteries

9

$0.25

$2.25

Socket Headers

160

$0.05

$8

CP2102 UART to USB Bridge

1

$7

$7

Through-hole LEDs

5

$0.04

$0.2

TFT LCD Display

3

$15

$45

p. 34: Electronics Propel Driverless Vehicle Designs Forward: From Assist to Autonomous, By Jeff Child

Analog Devices | www.analog.com
Cypress Semiconductor | www.cypress.com
Infineon Technologies | www.infineon.com
Microchip | www.microchip.com
NXP Semiconductors | www.nxp.com
Renesas Electronics America | www.renasas.com
ST Microelectronics | www.st.com
Texas Instruments | www.ti.com

p. 40: Non-Standard SBCs put Function Over Form: Compact, Low-Power Solutions, By Jeff Child

AAEON | www.aaeon.com
Advantech | www.advantech.com
Axiomtek | www.axiomtek.com
COMMELL | www.commell.com
Diamond Systems | www.diamondsystems.com
Digilent | www.digilent.com
Gateworks | www.gateworks.com
Gumstix | www.gumstix.com
MYIR Tech Limited | www.myirtech.com
Technologic Systems | www.embeddedarm.com

50:  Internet of Things Security (Part 1): Command Injection, By Bob Japenga

The Art of Software Testing by Glenford J. Myers; J. Wiley and Sons; 1979
Here are three test cases I missed:
Do you have a test case in which all sides are zero (0, 0, 0)? [Particularly germane with the recent WPA2
Do you have at least one test case specifying the wrong number of values (two rather than three integers, for example)?
Do you have a test case in which one side has a negative value? Do you have a test case in which one side has a negative value?

Industrial Control System Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT)
This is a good resource for finding out about threats but also recommended practices for safe design.

Common Weakness Enumeration Database – See this a great resource from Mitre

54:  Modulation Fundamentals, By George Novacek

David M. Beams Modulation
George Novacek, WWVB Clock Revisited, Circuit Cellar #288
Modulation & Demodulation using PLL

58: Shannon and Noise: Putting the Theorem to Work, By Robert Lacoste

“A Mathematical Theory of Communication”, Claude R. Shannon, 1948, Bell System Technical Journal volume 27

“An Introduction to Information Theory – Symbols, Signals and Noise”
John R. Pierce, California Institute of Technology
Dover Publications Inc, Second edition, ISBN 978-0-486-24061-9

Noisy-channel coding theorem

Shannon–Hartley theorem

Channel Capacity & Shannon’s theorem – demystified

p. 66 : Money Sorting Machines (Part 3), By Jeff Bachiochi

Reference:
[1] National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA): Multi Drop Bus version 4-2

www.uscurrency.gov/security/100-security-features-2013-present

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com

Inductor for Automotive PoC Circuits

Murata Manufacturing has introduced the LQW32FT series for automotive power over coax (PoC) circuits. This inductor provides high impedance in a wide band, with inductance of 47µH in the 1210-inch size (3.2 mm x 2.5mm). Mass production was already started in November 2017.

1207_img0001PoC is increasingly used with SerDes equipment in automotive applications in order to reduce weight, with a single coax cable transferring power and image data for an on-board camera. In former PoC implementations, large and small impedance several inductors were needed to handle the broadband signal at the circuit processor and to maintain high impedance in a wide band to separate the signal and power.

The LQW32FT series allows a single inductor to replace the multiple components that were formerly necessary. This supports efforts to save space and reduce the overall size of a system, and to lower total DC resistance. This component also provides a 125℃ maximum for the usage environment temperature, making it suitable for automotive circuits. The LQW32FT series is expected to be further expanded to support the high-speed signal transmissions needed by the market.

Murata Manufacturing | www.murata.com

Rad-Hard MCU Family Meets Space Needs

A new microcontroller that combines specified radiation performance with low-cost development associated with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) devices is now available from Microchip Technology. Developing radiation-hardened systems for space applications has a history of long lead times and high costs to achieve the highest level of reliability for multi-year missions in a harsh environment. Today, space and other critical aerospace applications require faster development and reduced costs.

The ATmegaS64M1 is the second 8-bit megaAVR MCU from Microchip that uses a development approach called COTS-to-radiation-tolerant. This approach takes a proven automotive-qualified device, the ATmega64M1 in this case, and creates pinout compatible versions in both high-reliability plastic and space-grade ceramic packages. The devices are designed to meet radiation tolerances with the following targeted performances:

  • Fully immune from Single-Event Latchup (SEL) up to 62 MeV.cm²/mg
  • No Single-Event Functional Interrupts (SEFI) which secure memory integrity
  • Accumulated Total Ionizing Dose (TID) between 20 to 50 Krad(Si)
  • Single Event Upset (SEU) characterization for all functional blocks

The new device joins the ATmegaS128, a radiation-tolerant MCU that has already been designed into several critical space missions including a Mars exploration plus a megaconstellation of several hundred Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites.

The ATmega64M1 COTS device, along with its full development toolchain including development kits and code configurator, can be used to begin development of hardware, firmware and software. When the final system is ready for the prototype phase or production, the COTS device can be replaced with a pin-out compatible, radiation-tolerant version in a 32-lead ceramic package (QFP32) with the same functionality as the original device. This leads to significant cost savings while also reducing development time and risk.

The ATmegaS64M1 meets the high operating temperature range of -55°C to +125°C. It is the first COTS-to-radiation-tolerant MCU to combine a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and motor control capabilities. These features make it ideal for a variety of subsystems like remote terminal controllers and data handling functions for satellites, constellations, launchers or critical avionic applications.

To ease the design process and accelerate time to market, Microchip offers the STK 600 complete development board for the ATmegaS64M1, giving designers a quick start to develop code with advanced features for prototyping and testing new designs. The device is supported by Atmel Studio Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for developing, debugging and software libraries.

Microchip Technology | www.microchip.com