Solar Cells Explained (EE Tip #104)

All solar cells are made from at least two different materials, often in the form of two thin, adjacent layers. One of the materials must act as an electron donor under illumination, while the other material must act as an electron acceptor. If there is some sort of electron barrier between the two materials, the result is an electrical potential. If each of these materials is now provided with an electrode made from an electrically conductive material and the two electrodes are connected to an external load, the electrons will follow this path.

Source: Jens Nickels, Elektor, 070798-I, 6/2009

Source: Jens Nickels, Elektor, 070798-I, 6/2009

The most commonly used solar cells are made from thin wafers of polycrystalline silicon (polycrystalline cells have a typical “frosty” appearance after sawing and polishing). The silicon is very pure, but it contains an extremely small amount of boron as a dopant (an intentionally introduced impurity), and it has a thin surface layer doped with phosphorus. This creates a PN junction in the cell, exactly the same as in a diode. When the cell is exposed to light, electrons are released and holes (positive charge carriers) are generated. The holes can recombine with the electrons. The charge carriers are kept apart by the electrical field of the PN junction, which partially prevents the direct recombination of electrons and holes.

The electrical potential between the electrodes on the top and bottom of the cell is approximately 0.6 V. The maximum current (short-circuit current) is proportional to the surface area of the cell, the impinging light energy, and the efficiency. Higher voltages and currents are obtained by connecting cells in series to form strings and connecting these strings of cells in parallel to form modules.

The maximum efficiency achieved by polycrystalline cells is 17%, while monocrystalline cells can achieve up to 22%, although the overall efficiency is lower if the total module area is taken into account. On a sunny day in central Europe, the available solar energy is approximately 1000 W/m2, and around 150 W/m2 of this can be converted into electrical energy with currently available solar cells.

Source: Jens Nickels, Elektor, 070798-I, 6/2009

Source: Jens Nickels, Elektor, 070798-I, 6/2009

Cells made from selenium, gallium arsenide, or other compounds can achieve even higher efficiency, but they are more expensive and are only used in special applications, such as space travel. There are also other approaches that are aimed primarily at reducing costs instead of increasing efficiency. The objective of such approaches is to considerably reduce the amount of pure silicon that has to be used or eliminate its use entirely. One example is thin-film solar cells made from amorphous silicon, which have an efficiency of 8 to 10% and a good price/performance ratio. The silicon can be applied to a glass sheet or plastic film in the form of a thin layer. This thin-film technology is quite suitable for the production of robust, flexible modules, such as the examples described in this article.

Battery Charging

From an electrical viewpoint, an ideal solar cell consists of a pure current source in parallel with a diode (the outlined components in the accompanying schematic diagram). When the solar cell is illuminated, the typical U/I characteristic of the diode shifts downward (see the drawing, which also shows the opencircuit voltage UOC and the short-circuit current ISC). The panel supplies maximum power when the load corresponds to the points marked “MPP” (maximum power point) in the drawing. The power rating of a cell or panel specified by the manufacturer usually refers to operation at the MPP with a light intensity of 100,000 lux and a temperature of 25°C. The power decreases by approximately 0.2 to 0.5 %/°C as the temperature increases.

A battery can be charged directly from a panel without any problems if the open-circuit voltage of the panel is higher than the nominal voltage of the battery. No voltage divider is necessary, even if the battery voltage is only 3 V and the nominal voltage of the solar panel is 12 V. This is because a solar cell always acts as a current source instead of a voltage source.

If the battery is connected directly to the solar panel, a small leakage current will flow through the solar panel when it is not illuminated. The can be prevented by adding a blocking diode to the circuit (see the schematic). Many portable solar modules have a built-in blocking diode (check the manufacturer’s specifications).

This simple arrangement is adequate if the maximum current from the solar panel is less than the maximum allowable overcharging current of the battery. NiMH cells can be overcharged for up to 100 hours if the charging current (in A) is less than one-tenth of their rated capacity in Ah. This means that a panel with a rated current of 2 A can be connected directly to a 20-Ah battery without any problems. However, under these conditions the battery must be fully discharged by a load from time to time.

Practical Matters

When positioning a solar panel, you should ensure that no part of the panel is in the shade, as otherwise the voltage will decrease markedly, with a good chance that no current will flow into the connected battery.

Most modules have integrated bypass diodes connected in reverse parallel with the solar cells. These diodes prevent reverse polarization of any cells that are not exposed to sunlight, so the current from the other cells flows through the diodes, which can cause overheating and damage to the cells. To reduce costs, it is common practice to fit only one diode to a group of cells instead of providing a separate diode for each cell.

—Jens Nickels, Elektor, 070798-I, 6/2009

Multi-Tasking Robot Platform

Fisnar F9960N

Fisnar F9960N

The F9960N multitasking robot is designed to dispense applications including miniature SMT circuit boards, large PCBs, and finished assemblies. The robot’s dispensing and coating system can be integrated within a conveyor-dependent inline manufacturing environment or installed as a stand-alone module.

The enclosed environment provides access for fume extraction systems, which creates a safeguard from potentially hazardous substances. Access to the working area is through a security door, which is locked while in operation but accessible during programming.

The robot includes a 178-mm touchscreen display that enables you to program a dispense path with unique characteristics (e.g., continuous path and point-to-point routing).

Contact Fisnar for pricing.

Fisnar, Inc.

Voltage Regulator Protection (EE Tip #103)

In many cases, the load connected to a voltage regulator is not returned to ground. It goes to an even lower voltage or perhaps even the negative power supply voltage. (Here we make the assumption of using positive voltages, when using voltage regulators with negative output voltages the reverse is true.)

Op-amps and level-shifters come to mind. In such cases, a diode (1N4001 or equivalent) connected across the output of the regulator IC usually provides sufficient protection (see Figure 1).

Source:Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

Source:Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

Polarity inversions which could occur, for example, during power on or during a short circuit could prove fatal for the regulator IC, but such a diode prevents the output of the IC going lower than ground (well, minus 0.7 V, to be accurate).

A short-circuit proof voltage regulator (such as the 78xx series) will survive such a situation without any problems. It is also possible for the input voltage of a voltage regulator to drop quicker than the output voltage—for example, when there is a protection circuit that shorts the input power supply voltage as a result of an overvoltage at the output.

If the output voltage of the regulator is more than 7 V higher than the input voltage, the emitter-base junction of the internal power transistor can break down and cause the transistor to fail.

You can use a shunt diode to prevent this condition (see Figure 2). This ensures that any higher voltage at the output of the regulator is shorted to the input.

—Ton Giesberts, Elektor, 080943-I, 4/2009

William McNamara Wins the CC Code Challenge (Week 16)

We have a winner of last week’s CC Weekly Code Challenge, sponsored by IAR Systems! We posted a code snippet with an error and challenged the engineering community to find the mistake!

Congratulations to William McNamara of The Colony, Texas, USA for winning the CC Weekly Code Challenge for Week 16! William will receive a CC T-Shirt and one year digital subscription/renewal.

William’s correct answer was randomly selected from the pool of responses that correctly identified an error in the code. William answered:

Line 5: the “do” needs to be on a separate line or have a semicolon in front of it.


You can see the complete list of weekly winners and code challenges here.

What is the CC Weekly Code Challenge?
Each week, Circuit Cellar’s technical editors purposely insert an error in a snippet of code. It could be a semantic error, a syntax error, a design error, a spelling error, or another bug the editors slip in. You are challenged to find the error.Once the submission deadline passes, Circuit Cellar will randomly select one winner from the group of respondents who submit the correct answer.

Inspired? Want to try this week’s challenge? Get started!

Submission Deadline: The deadline for each week’s challenge is Sunday, 12 PM EST. Refer to the Rules, Terms & Conditions for information about eligibility and prizes.

Simple Guitar Transmitter (EE Tip #102)

You need a guitar amplifier to play an electric guitar. The guitar must be connected with a cable to the amplifier, which you might consider an inconvenience. Most guitar amplifiers operate off the AC power line. An electric guitar fitted with a small transmitter offers several advantages. You can make the guitar audible via an FM tuner/amplifier, for example. Both the connecting cable and amplifier are then unnecessary. With a portable FM broadcast radio or, if desired, a boombox, you can play in the street or in subway.

Source: Elektor 3/2009

Source: Elektor 3/2009

stations (like Billy Bragg). In that case, everything is battery-powered and independent of a fixed power point. (You might need a permit, though.)

Designing a transmitter to do this is not necessary. A variety of low-cost transmitters are available. The range of these devices is often not more than around 30′, but that’s likely plenty for most applications. Consider a König FMtrans20 transmitter. After fitting the batteries and turning it on, you can detect a carrier signal on the radio. Four channels are available, so it should always be possible to find an unused part of the FM band. A short cable with a 3.5-mm stereo audio jack protrudes from the enclosure. This is the audio input. The required signal level for sufficient modulation is about 500 mVPP.

If a guitar is connected directly, the radio’s volume level will have to be high to get sufficient sound. In fact, it will have to be so high that the noise from the modulator will be quite annoying. Thus, a preamplifier for the guitar signal is essential.

To build this preamplifier into the transmitter, you first have to open the enclosure. The two audio channels are combined. This is therefore a single channel (mono) transmitter. Because the audio preamplifier can be turned on and off at the same time as the transmitter, you also can use the transmitter’s on-board power supply for power. In our case, that was about 2.2 V. This voltage is available at the positive terminal of an electrolytic capacitor. Note that 2.2 V is not enough to power an op-amp. But with a single transistor the gain is already big enough and the guitar signal is sufficiently modulated. The final implementation of the modification involves soldering the preamplifier circuit along an edge of the PCB so that everything still fits inside the enclosure. The stereo cable is replaced with a 11.8″ microphone cable, fitted with a guitar plug (mono jack). The screen braid of the cable acts as an antenna as well as a ground connection for the guitar signal. The coil couples the low-frequency signal to ground, while it isolates the high-frequency antenna signal. While playing, the cable with the transmitter just dangles below the guitar, without being a nuisance. If you prefer, you can also secure the transmitter to the guitar with a bit of double-sided tape.

—Gert Baars, “Simple Guitar Transmitter,” Elektor,  080533-1, 3/2009.

C-Programmable Robot Kit



Global Specialties recently introduced the ASURO Robot, a small autonomous multi-sensored robot developed for educational purposes by the DLR, the German Aerospace Center.

The  ASURO is completely programmable in C. Except for the printed circuit boards (PCB), only standard parts are utilized and freeware tools can be used for programming. The ASURO comes unassembled and includes a soldering guide, making it suitable as an introduction into processor-controlled hobby electronics for school, university, and technical education projects.

The ASURO Robot’s features include an ATmega8L microcontroller; an 8-bit AVR-RISC processor; a software and training manual CD; AVR-GCC freeware for use with Windows or Linux; a USB IR transceiver with flash software; remote control and PC-programming possibilities via USB transceiver; wireless control possibilities with optional Bluetooth and 433 MHz RF; six collision-detector sensors; an optical line-tracker unit; two independently controlled 3V-DC motors; an odometer sensor on both wheels; and pre-programmed firmware for easy hardware testing.

The list price is $99.

Global Specialties

Issue 278: EQ Answers

Problem 1—Tom, an FPGA designer, is helping out on a system that handles standard-definition digital video at 27 MHz and stores it into an SDRAM that runs at 200 MHz. He discovered the following logic in the FPGA (see Figure 1).

Let’s see if we can work out what it does. To start with, what is the output of the XOR gate in?

Answer 1—When the 27-MHz clock goes from low to high, the first flip-flop changes state. Let’s say that its output goes from low to high as well. Then, when the clock goes from high to low, the second flip-flop’s output will become the same as the first.

On the clock’s next rising edge, the first flip-flop will change again, this time from high to low. And on the next falling edge, the second one will follow suit.

Putting it another way, following each rising edge of the clock, the two flip-flops are different. Following each falling edge, they’re the same. Since we’re feeding them into an XOR gate, the gate’s output will be high following the clock’s rising edge and low following the falling edge. In other words, the XOR gate’s is a replica of the clock signal itself!

Problem 2—Why is this necessary?

Answer 2—In many FPGA architectures, clock signals are automatically assigned to special clock routing resources, which are different from—and kept separate from—the routing resources used for “ordinary” signals. The tools actually discourage (or even prevent) you from using a clock as an input to a gate or to any input of a flip-flop other than the clock input.

Therefore, when you need to pass a clock into another timing domain as a signal, it becomes necessary to generate an ordinary signal that is a replica of the clock. This is one way to accomplish that.

Problem 3—What is the AND gate’s output?

Answer 3—The three flip-flops in the 200-MHz domain have a delayed versions of the (replica) 27-MHz clock signal. The first two function as a conventional synchronizer to minimize the effects of metastability. The third one, along with the AND gate, functions as an edge detector, generating a one-clock pulse in the 200-MHz clock domain following each rising edge of the 27-MHz clock. This pulse might be used, for example, to initiate a write request in the SDRAM for each video data word.

Problem 4—Tom decided to verify the circuit’s operation in his logic simulator, but immediately ran into a problem. What was the problem and what could be added to the circuit to make simulation possible?

Answer 4—There is a subtle problem here for a simulator: All of the flip-flops start out in the “unknown” state. Feeding that back (inverted) to the first flip-flop leaves it in an unknown state. The entire simulation will never get out of the unknown state, even though we can reason that it doesn’t matter which actual state the first flip-flop starts out in. The XOR gate’s output will be known after one full clock cycle. To fix this, it is necessary to explicitly reset the first flip-flop at the beginning of the simulation, then the rest of the circuit will simulate normally.

Low-Power Mini-ITX Motherboard

Habey HB131 mini-ITX motherboard.

Habey HB131 mini-ITX motherboard.

The HB131 mini-ITX motherboard is based on the low-power Intel Atom Cedar Trail platform. The small, 170-mm × 170-mm motherboard is high-performance, reliable, secure, and easy to manage. The platform is well-suited for point-of-sale, self-service terminals, queue machines, and digital signage.

The dual-core Atom D2550 processor is offered with Intel’s NM10 chipset. It features lower power consumption and more enhanced graphics than previous Atom processors.

The motherboard is equipped with dual gigabit LAN ports and rich I/O. Additional features include Wake-on-LAN, a 1-to-~255-level watchdog timer, and shared system memory as video memory.

Contact HABEY for pricing.


CC279: What’s Ahead in the October Issue

Although we’re still in September, it’s not too early to be looking forward to the October issue already available online.

The theme of the issue is signal processing, and contributor Devlin Gualtieri offers an interesting take on that topic.

Gualtieiri, who writes a science and technology blog, looks at how to improve Improvig Microprocessor Audio microprocessor audio.

“We’re immersed in a world of beeps and boops,” Gualtieri says. “Every digital knick-knack we own, from cell phones to microwave ovens, seeks to attract our attention.”

“Many simple microprocessor circuits need to generate one, or several, audio alert signals,” he adds. “The designer usually uses an easily programmed square wave voltage as an output pin that feeds a simple piezoelectric speaker element. It works, but it sounds awful. How can microprocessor audio be improved in some simple ways?”

Gualtieri’s article explains how analog circuitry and sine waves are often a better option than digital circuitry and square waves for audio alert signals.

Another article that touches on signal processing is columnist Colin Flynn’s look at advanced methods of debugging an FPGA design. It’s the debut of his new column Programmable Logic in Practice.

“This first article introduces the use of integrated logic analyzers, which provide an internal view of your running hardware,” O’Flynn says. “My next article will continue this topic and show you how hardware co-simulation enables you to seamlessly split the verification between real hardware interfacing to external devices and simulated hardware on your computer.”

You can find videos and other material that complement Colin’s articles on his website.

Another October issue highlight is a real prize-winner. The issue features the first installment of a two-part series on the SunSeeker Solar Array Tracker, which won third SunSeekerplace in the 2012 DesignSpark chipKit challenge overseen by Circuit Cellar.

The SunSeeker, designed by Canadian Graig Pearen, uses a Microchip Technology chipKIT Max32 and tracks, monitors, and adjusts PV arrays based on weather and sky conditions. It measures PV and air temperature, compiles statistics, and communicates with a local server that enables the SunSeeker to facilitate software algorithm development. Diagnostic software monitors the design’s motors to show both movement and position.

Pearen, semi-retired from the telecommunications industry and a part-time solar technician, is still refining his original design.

“Over the next two to three years of development and field testing, I plan for it to evolve into a full-featured ‘bells-and-whistles’ solar array tracker,” Pearen says. “I added a few enhancements as the software evolved, but I will develop most of the additional features later.”

Walter Krawec, a PhD student studying Computer Science at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, wraps up his two-part series on “Experiments in Developmental Robotics.”

In Part 1, he introduced readers to the basics of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in robots and outlined an architecture for a robot’s evolving neural network, short-term memory system, and simple reflexes and instincts. In Part 2, Krawec discusses the reflex and instinct system that rewards an ENN.

“I’ll also explain the ‘decision path’ system, which rewards/penalizes chains of actions,” he says. “Finally, I’ll describe the experiments we’ve run demonstrating this architecture in a simulated environment.”

Videos of some of Krawec’s robot simulations can be found on his website.

Speaking of robotics, in this issue columnist Jeff Bachiochi introduces readers to the free robot control programming language RobotBASIC and explains how to use it with an integrated simulator for robot communication.

Other columnists also take on a number of very practical subjects. Robert Lacoste explains how inexpensive bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) can be helpful in many designs and outlines how to use one to build an amplifier.

George Novacek, who has found that the cost of battery packs account for half the DIY Battery Chargerpurchase price of his equipment, explains how to build a back-up power source with a lead-acid battery and a charger.

“Building a good battery charger is easy these days because there are many ICs specifically designed for battery chargers,” he says.

Columnist Bob Japenga begins a new series looking at file systems available on Linux for embedded systems.

“Although you could build a Linux system without a file system, most Linux systems will have some sort of file system,” Japenga says. “And there are various types. There are files systems that do not retain their data (volatile) across power outages (i.e., RAM drives). There are nonvolatile read-only file systems that cannot be changed (e.g., CRAMFS). And there are nonvolatile read/write file systems.”

Linux provides all three types of file systems, Japenga says, and his series will address all of them.

Finally, the magazine offers some special features, including an interview with Alenka Zajić, who teaches signal processing and electromagnetics at Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Also, two North Carolina State University researchers write about advances in 3-D liquid metal printing and possible applications such as electrical wires that can “heal” themselves after being severed.

For more, check out the Circuit Cellar’s October issue.



CC279: A Fresh Focus on Programmable Logic

We’re not finished adding new features to our magazine. Last month, we rolled out our redesign and told you a bit about Ayse K. Coskun, who is writing a new bimonthly Green Computing column. This month, we introduce you to columnist Colin O’Flynn.

Colin’s bimonthly column, Programmable Logic in Practice, debuts in this issue. His first article focuses on integrated logic analyzer tools and methods of debugging your FPGA designs (p. 46).

Future articles will continue to feature “advanced information about FPGAs,” Colin says. “I will cover topics including debugging tools, high-level synthesis, high-speed serial interfaces, hard-core processors, interfacing to memory, and so forth.

“To keep this column practical, I’m going to focus on real hardware and tools you will be using. When it comes to programmable logic, there is always a choice of vendors—and I don’t work for any of them.”

Colin is definitely “multimedia.” To help readers better understand each article’s topic, he has set up a companion website, He wants to avoid too many step-by-step instructions in print. Instead, such steps will be posted on the website, along with example project files and videos, where applicable.

Many Circuit Cellar readers are already familiar with Colin. Since 2002, we have published five articles from this Canadian electrical engineer, who is also a product developer and a lecturer at Dalhousie University in Halifax, NS. Colin earned his master’s degree in applied science from Dalhousie and has also pursued graduate studies in cryptographic systems.
The topics he is pondering for future articles include circuit board layout for high-speed FPGAs, different methods of configuring an FPGA, designing memory into FPGA circuits, and use of vendor-provided and open-source soft-core microcontrollers.

Any designer or engineer interested in programmable logic technologies should check out Colin’s column in this and future issues.


The Transistor: Something for Every DIY-er

The Transistor is a UT-based hackerspace. Its members have a love for all things open source and DIY. They enjoy working with embedded electronics and have created their own version of Arduino.


Location 1187 S 1480 W Orem, UT 84058
Members 55

Salt Lake City

Location 440 S 700 E
Unit #102, Salt Lake City, UT 84102
Members 18

The Transistor Hackerspace

Founder Deven Fore tells us about The Transistor:

ROBBERT: Tell us about your meeting space!

DEVEN: We currently have two locations. One in Salt Lake City, UT and one in Orem, UT.

Our Salt Lake City location is about 1,000 sq ft in a nice office building. We have one main area and two smaller rooms.

Our Orem location is about 5,700 sq ft in a large warehouse that also has offices. We have sectioned off a wood shop, a metal shop, a clean CNC, an assembly area, a members desks area, a lounge, a server room, an electronics room, and a few other dedicated areas.

ROBBERT: What tools do you have in your space? (Soldering stations? Oscilloscopes? 3-D printers?)

DEVEN: Too many things to list. All the general things you would expect, such as:

  • Soldering irons
  • Oscilloscopes
  • Analyzers
  • PCB work stations
  • Laser cutter
  • Vinyl cutter
  • Heat press
  • Chop saws
  • Mini lathe
  • Servers
  • Air tools
  • Cut-off saws
  • Mig welder
  • V90 FireBall router
  • A couple small miscellaneous CNC routers
  • 3-D printers
  • Networking gear

ROBBERT: Are there any tools your group really wants or needs?

DEVEN: We would love to have a large mill (CNC or manual) some day. Also, just all-around upgrades to current equipment.

ROBBERT: Does your group work with embedded tech (Arduino, Raspberry Pi, embedded security, MCU-based designs, etc.)?

DEVEN: All the time.

ROBBERT: Can you tell us about some of your group’s recent tech projects?

DEVEN: Currently we are working on miniature MAME cabinets. They are two player and will hold up to a 22″ LCD. We will release the CNC plans to the public as soon as we are done.

We’re working on a lot of miscellaneous projects: software, hardware, security, and so forth.

We’re also currently working on building some displays for The Living Planet Aquarium, in Sandy UT.

ROBBERT: What’s the craziest project your group or group members have completed?

DEVEN: Nothing too crazy. We built a drink cooler a year or so ago for the Red Bull Challenge. We designed and build a few full-size four-player MAME cabinets (planned for release to the public on our website, and featured in J. Baichtal’s Hack This: 24 Incredible Hackerspace Projects from the DIY Movement (Que Publishing, 2011).

4-player MAME cabinet

4-player MAME cabinet

ROBBERT: Do you have any events or initiatives you’d like to tell us about? Where can we learn more about it?

DEVEN: Lots of things are going on right now. Nothing specific, aside from working with the aquarium. We have a lot of public events/user groups that meet at our space. Our calender is on our website if you are interested in specifics.

ROBBERT: What would you like to say to fellow hackers out there?

DEVEN: Have fun, be productive, be safe.

Want to learn more about The Transistor? Check out their Facebook or MeetUp page!

Check out their calender to see what The Transistor is up to.

Show us your hackerspace! Tell us about your group! Where does your group design, hack, create, program, debug, and innovate? Do you work in a 20′ × 20′ space in an old warehouse? Do you share a small space in a university lab? Do you meet a local coffee shop or bar? What sort of electronics projects do you work on? Submit your hackerspace and we might feature you on our website!

Processing, Wiring, and Arduino (EE Tip 101)

Processing is a language and an open-source programming environment for programming images, animations, and interactions. The project, an initiative from Ben Fry and Casey Reas, is based on ideas developed by the Aesthetics and Computation Group of the MIT Media Lab. Processing was created in order to teach the fundamentals of programming in a visual context and to serve as a sketchbook or professional software production tool. Processing runs under GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. Several books have already been written on Processing.

Source: Clemens Valens, “Microcontrollers for Dummes,” 080931-I, Elektor, 2/2009.

Source: Clemens Valens, “Microcontrollers for Dummes,” 080931-I, Elektor, 2/2009.

Just like Arduino, Wiring is a programming environment with microcontroller board for exploring electronic arts, teaching programming, and quick prototyping. Wiring, programmed in Processing, is an initiative by Hernando Barragán and was designed at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea (IDII) in Italy.

Arduino is a fast, open-source electronic prototyping platform. Arduino is aimed at DIYers, electronics enthusiasts, and anyone interested in creating objects or interactive environments. Created by Massimo Banzi, Gianluca Martino, David Cuartielles, and David Mellis, Arduino uses a programming language based on Processing. Arduino may be regarded as a simplification of Wiring.

For more information, refer to Clemens Valens’s article, “Microcontrollers for Dummies,” 080931-I, Elektor, 2/2009.

Jesper Poulsen Wins the CC Code Challenge (Week 15)

We have a winner of last week’s CC Weekly Code Challenge, sponsored by IAR Systems! We posted a code snippet with an error and challenged the engineering community to find the mistake!

Congratulations to Jesper Poulsen of København, Denmark for winning the CC Weekly Code Challenge for Week 15! Jesper will receive a CCGold Issues Archive.

Jesper’s correct answer was randomly selected from the pool of responses that correctly identified an error in the code. Jesper answered:

Line 23: Should be 0..@list-2 to avoid array overrun when taking $list[$i+1]


You can see the complete list of weekly winners and code challenges here.

What is the CC Weekly Code Challenge?
Each week, Circuit Cellar’s technical editors purposely insert an error in a snippet of code. It could be a semantic error, a syntax error, a design error, a spelling error, or another bug the editors slip in. You are challenged to find the error.Once the submission deadline passes, Circuit Cellar will randomly select one winner from the group of respondents who submit the correct answer.

Inspired? Want to try this week’s challenge? Get started!

Submission Deadline: The deadline for each week’s challenge is Sunday, 12 PM ESTRefer to the Rules, Terms & Conditions for information about eligibility and prizes.

Dual-Channel 3G-SDI Video/Audio Capture Card


ADLINK PCIe-2602 Video/Audio Capture Card

The PCIe-2602 is an SDI video/audio capture card that supports all SD/HD/3G-SDI signals and operates at six times the resolution of regular VGA connections. The card also provides video quality with lossless full color YUV 4:4:4 images for sharp, clean images.

The PCIe-2602 is well suited for medical imaging and intelligent video surveillance and analytics. With up to 12-bit pixel depth, the card  provides extreme image clarity and smoother transitions from color-to-color enhance image detail to support critical medical imaging applications, including picture archiving and communication system (PACS) endoscopy and broadcasting.

The card’s features include low latency uncompressed video streaming, CPU offloading, and support for high-quality live viewing for video analytics of real-time image acquisition, as required in casino and defense environments. PCIe-2602 signals can be transmitted over 100 m when combined with a 75-Ω coaxial cable.

The PCIe-2602 is equipped with RS-485 and digital I/O. It accommodates external devices (e.g., PTZ cameras and sensors) and supports Windows 7/XP OSes. The card comes with ADLINK’s ViewCreator Pro utility to enable setup, configuration, testing, and system debugging without any software programming. All ADLINK drivers are compatible with Microsoft DirectShow.

Contact ADLINK for pricing.

ADLINK Technology, Inc.

Linear Regulator with Current and Temperature Monitor Outputs

Linear Technology Corp

Linear Technology Corp

The LT3081 is a rugged 1.5-A wide input voltage range linear regulator with key usability, monitoring, and protection features. The device has an extended safe operating area (SOA) compared to existing regulators, making it well suited for high input-to-output voltage and high output current applications where older regulators limit the output.

The LT3081 uses a current source reference for single-resistor output voltage settings and output adjustability down to ”0.” A single resistor can be used to set the output current limit. This regulator architecture, combined with low-millivolt regulation, enables multiple ICs to be easily paralleled for heat spreading and higher output current. The current from the device’s current monitor can be summed with the set current for line-drop compensation, where the LT3081’s output increases with current to compensate for line drops.

The LT3081 achieves line and load regulation below 2 mV independent of output voltage and features a 1.2-to-40-V input voltage range. The device is well suited for applications requiring multiple rails. The output voltage is programmable with a single resistor from 0 to 38.5 V with a 1.2-V dropout. The on-chip trimmed 50-µA current reference is ±1% accurate. The regulation, transient response, and output noise (30 µVRMS) are independent of output voltage due to the device’s voltage follower architecture.

Two resistors are used to configure the LT3081 as a two-terminal current source. Input or output capacitors for stability are optional in either linear regulator or current-source operation mode. The LT3081 provides several monitoring and protection functions. A single resistor is used to program the current limit, which is accurate to ±10%. Monitor outputs provide a current output proportional to temperature (1 µA/°C) and output current (200 µA/A), enabling easy ground-based measurement. The current monitor can compensate for cable drops. The LT3081’s internal protection circuitry includes reverse-input protection, reverse-current protection, internal current limiting, and thermal shutdown.

A variety of grades/temperature ranges are offered including: the E and  I grades (–40°C to 125°C), the H grade (–40°C to 150°C), and the high-reliability MP grade (–55°C to 50°C). Pricing for the E-grade starts at $2.60 each in 1,000-piece quantities.

Linear Technology Corp.